Mountaineering: A sport involving mountain climbing techniques.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Tibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Athletic Performance: Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.BoliviaNepalPulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Aerospace Medicine: That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Decompression: Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)PeruRespiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Ranunculus: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains protoanemonin, anemonin, and ranunculin.Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Erythrocyte Volume: Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.Hypocapnia: Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Radar: A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.ColoradoRunning: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Decompression Sickness: A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.Lagomorpha: An order of small mammals comprising two families, Ochotonidae (pikas) and Leporidae (RABBITS and HARES). Head and body length ranges from about 125 mm to 750 mm. Hares and rabbits have a short tail, and the pikas lack a tail. Rabbits are born furless and with both eyes and ears closed. HARES are born fully haired with eyes and ears open. All are vegetarians. (From Nowak, Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p539-41)Polycythemia: An increase in the total red cell mass of the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Medicare Part A: The compulsory portion of Medicare that is known as the Hospital Insurance Program. All persons 65 years and older who are entitled to benefits under the Old Age, Survivors, Disability and Health Insurance Program or railroad retirement, persons under the age of 65 who have been eligible for disability for more than two years, and insured workers (and their dependents) requiring renal dialysis or kidney transplantation are automatically enrolled in Medicare Part A.Skating: Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.Lepidium: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE growing in Peru mountains. It is the source of maca root.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.AustriaCell Engineering: Methods and techniques used to modify or select cells and develop conditions for growing cells for biosynthetic production of molecules (METABOLIC ENGINEERING), for generation of tissue structures and organs in vitro (TISSUE ENGINEERING), or for other BIOENGINEERING research objectives.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.South AmericaHypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Meteorology: The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Travel Medicine: Multidisciplinary field focusing on prevention of infectious diseases and patient safety during international TRAVEL. Key element of patient's pre-travel visit to the physician is a health risk assessment.Sports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.Abies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Saxifragaceae: The saxifrage plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and sometimes deeply lobed or form rosettes. The flowers have both male and female parts and 4 or 5 sepals and petals; they are usually in branched clusters. The fruit is a capsule with many seeds.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.GeesePulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Anaerobic Threshold: The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.Fascioliasis: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.Saturn: The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.Sleep Apnea, Central: A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.Frostbite: Damage to tissues as the result of low environmental temperatures.Senecio: A species of toxic plants of the Compositae. The poisonous compounds are alkaloids which cause cattle diseases, neoplasms, and liver damage and are used to produce cancers in experimental animals.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Cyperaceae: The sedge plant family of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons)EcuadorSolar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Mouth FloorSwitzerlandPoa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Poa p Ia allergen and allergen C KBGP.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Temazepam: A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.Trifolium: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Splenic Infarction: Insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply to the spleen due to emboli, thrombi, vascular torsion, or pressure that produces a macroscopic area of necrosis. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Fontan Procedure: A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.YemenChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Peromyscus: A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Rest: Freedom from activity.Fetal Hypoxia: Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.KyrgyzstanEnvironment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Carbolines: A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.SicilyFresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Spatial Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.TajikistanHypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.American Native Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular: Enlargement of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is often attributed to PULMONARY HYPERTENSION and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Sheep, Domestic: A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.Glycopyrrolate: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.Hemoglobinometry: Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.Cardiovascular Physiological Processes: Biological actions and events that support the functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Yin-Yang: In Chinese philosophy and religion, two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine (yin) and one positive, bright, and masculine (yang), from whose interaction all things are produced and all things are dissolved. As a concept the two polar elements referred originally to the shady and sunny sides of a valley or a hill but it developed into the relationship of any contrasting pair: those specified above (female-male, etc.) as well as cold-hot, wet-dry, weak-strong, etc. It is not a distinct system of thought by itself but permeates Chinese life and thought. A balance of yin and yang is essential to health. A deficiency of either principle can manifest as disease. (Encyclopedia Americana)Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Dyssomnias: A broad category of sleep disorders characterized by either hypersomnolence or insomnia. The three major subcategories include intrinsic (i.e., arising from within the body) (SLEEP DISORDERS, INTRINSIC), extrinsic (secondary to environmental conditions or various pathologic conditions), and disturbances of circadian rhythm. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Caryophyllaceae: A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. The species are diverse in appearance and habitat; most have swollen leaf and stem joints.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Bambusa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Young shoots are eaten in Asian foods while the stiff mature stems are used for construction of many things. The common name of bamboo is also used for other genera of Poaceae including Phyllostachys, SASA, and Dendrocalamus.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases: Dioxygenase enzymes that specifically hydroxylate a PROLINE residue on the HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. They are OXYGEN-dependent enzymes that play an important role in mediating cellular adaptive responses to HYPOXIA.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Reticulocyte Count: The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Doping in Sports: Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.Blood Circulation Time: Determination of the shortest time interval between the injection of a substance in the vein and its arrival at some distant site in sufficient concentration to produce a recognizable end result. It represents approximately the inverse of the average velocity of blood flow between two points.Remote Sensing Technology: Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Fagaceae: A plant family of the order Fagales subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida.Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Cardiac Complexes, Premature: A group of cardiac arrhythmias in which the cardiac contractions are not initiated at the SINOATRIAL NODE. They include both atrial and ventricular premature beats, and are also known as extra or ectopic heartbeats. Their frequency is increased in heart diseases.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Tricuspid Atresia: Absence of the orifice between the RIGHT ATRIUM and RIGHT VENTRICLE, with the presence of an atrial defect through which all the systemic venous return reaches the left heart. As a result, there is left ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR) because the right ventricle is absent or not functional.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Plethysmography, Impedance: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves: Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.VenezuelaPhonocardiography: Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.Aviation: Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.SulfonesInfant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Elephantiasis: Hypertrophy and thickening of tissues from causes other than filarial infection, the latter being described as ELEPHANTIASIS, FILARIAL.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Carboxyhemoglobin

*  IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Study on Oxygen Supply Standard for Physical Health of Construction Personnel of High-Altitude Tunnels
As a result, this paper has theoretically studied the impacts of high-altitude environment on human bodies, analyzed the ... In addition, it has finally determined the oxygen supply standard for construction personnel in high-altitude areas based on ... However, there are no provisions for oxygen supply standard for tunnel construction personnel in high-altitude areas in current ... Especially for the personnel engaged in complicated physical labor such as tunnel construction, high altitude can cause a ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/13/1/64
*  Hypoxia Impairs Endothelial Function in HAPEs - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Rationale: High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is characterized by excessive pulmonary vasoconstriction and is associated with ... Methods: During normoxia (FI(O(2)) = 0.21) and 4 hours of normobaric hypoxia (FI(O(2)) = 0.12, corresponding to an altitude of ... Hypoxia Impairs Systemic Endothelial Function in Individuals Prone to High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema.. ... of the study is to investigate the function of the systemic vascular endothelium in individuals susceptible to high-altitude ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00176007
*  Ecographica: March 2009
The most easily recognized change in morphology is their body size - which fluctuates with everything from altitude to diet. ... separate a natural decrease in diversification rates from the current trend of amphibian species extinctions at high altitudes ...
  http://ecographica.blogspot.com.tr/2009/03/
*  Genetic Adaptation Keeps Ethiopians Heart-Healthy Despite High Altitudes - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
Home Blood, Heart and Circulation Heart disease Genetic Adaptation Keeps Ethiopians Heart-Healthy Despite High Altitudes ... Left: The EDNRB gene may play a role in Ethiopians' adaptation to life at high altitudes. Right: EDNRB coordinates a network of ... One factor that may enable Ethiopians to tolerate high altitudes and hypoxia is the endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) gene. ... "This is the first demonstration that a gene involved in high altitude adaptation is critical in protecting cardiac function in ...
  https://www.healthcanal.com/blood-heart-circulation/heart-disease/65838-genetic-adaptation-keeps-ethiopians-heart-healthy-despite-high-altitudes.html
*  Low-Altitude Operation of Unmanned Rotorcraft - The Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon University
Low-Altitude Operation of Unmanned Rotorcraft. Sebastian Scherer PhD Thesis, CMU-RI-TR-11-03, Robotics Institute, Carnegie ... title = {Low-Altitude Operation of Unmanned Rotorcraft},. author = {Sebastian Scherer},. keyword = {UAV, UAS, MAV, Obstacle ... We consider the problem of enabling autonomous operation at low-altitude with contributions to four problems. First we address ... We presented several effective approaches for perception and action for low-altitude flight and demonstrated their ...
  https://www.ri.cmu.edu/publications/low-altitude-operation-of-unmanned-rotorcraft/
*  Comparative physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress in two poplar species originating from different altitudes ...
Comparative physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress in two poplar species originating from different altitudes ... The said species originate from high and low altitudes, respectively, of the eastern Himalaya. Results revealed that the ... Comparative physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress in two poplar species originating from different altitudes ... Comparative physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress in two poplar species originating from different altitudes ...
  http://www.spectroscopynow.com/details/ezine/sepspec24138ezine/Comparative-physiological-and-proteomic-responses-to-drought-stress-in-two-popla.html
*  Combustion Process of Diesel Engines at Regions with Different Altitude - SAE International
With the increase of altitude (above sea level), atmospheric pressure decreases, which leads to a reduction of the air amount ... The combustion processes of diesel engines at different altitude regions have been studied by means of a micro-computer ... Combustion Process of Diesel Engines at Regions with Different Altitude - SAE International' style="width:100%;"> ... between the combustion processes which naturally aspirated and supercharged diesel engines operate at different altitude ...
  http://papers.sae.org/950857/
*  alicia baturoni cortez: Topics by Science.gov
The mercury content in the atmosphere collected at an altitude of 200 feet by an aircraft was 20 times background over a ... at an altitude of 4010 m, and 60 km to the SE of the center of Mexico City. This region is isolated from local emissions from ... at an altitude of 4010 m, and 60 km to the SE of the center of Mexico City. This region is isolated from local emissions from ... on the Altzomoni ridge at an altitude of 4010 m ASL. During the night and early morning, the site is in the free troposphere; ...
  https://www.science.gov/topicpages/a/alicia+baturoni+cortez.html
*  Mt Toubkal Climb, Walking & Trekking Holidays in Morocco | Exodus
As we climb higher, the paths do become steeper but the gain in altitude awards dramatic views towards Marrakech and the ... Altitude Warning: This trip goes to high altitudes where there is a risk of being affected by Acute Mountain Sickness. Please ... At medium altitudes the days will be hot and the nights warm. Only at 3000m+, when it will be cold, will you require warm ... For this trip you needed to be reasonable fit and able to cope with moderate high altitude walking. The weather was kind to us ...
  https://www.exodus.co.uk/morocco-holidays/walking/mt-toubkal-climb/tmm-84670
*  The Influence of Simulated High Altitude on the Endocrine Glands with ... - Dorothy Rodwell Johansson - Google Books
14 days 21 days accessory sex glands acclimatization administration adrenal cortex adrenal glands adult rat altitude sickness ... The Influence of Simulated High Altitude on the Endocrine Glands with Particular Reference to Those Concerned with Reproduction ... The Influence of Simulated High Altitude on the Endocrine Glands with Particular Reference to Those Concerned with Reproduction ... altitude tolerance animals exposed anoxia ascended atrophy autopsy autopsy at 41 average barometric pressure Biol blood body ...
  https://books.google.com/books?id=OzRNAAAAMAAJ&q=cells&dq=related:LCCN84647406&lr=&source=gbs_word_cloud_r&hl=en
*  Military plans on low-altitude missile defense system - Taipei Times
The military has developed plans for a low-altitude missile defense system in the face of China's intensified missile ... The military has developed plans for a low-altitude missile defense system in the face of China's intensified missile ... adding that a comprehensive low-altitude missile defense system has been drawn up and will be completed gradually. ...
  http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2003/02/27/0000196085
*  Overcoming altitude - Ausenco recognised for challenging Andes project - Mining Technology
Overcoming altitude problems. The altitude of the project provided particular problems. For example, staff had to be gradually ... Speaking of altitude-related challenges, Anand says, 'I have heard from staff there that they get tired a lot faster than they ... has faced many development challenges due to the location's harsh environment and high altitude. The project embodies many of ... acclimatised to the excessive height to avoid altitude sickness. Workers would first climb to the town of Aguas Calientes, ...
  http://www.mining-technology.com/features/featureovercoming-altitude-project-manager-ausenco-recognised-for-challenging-andes-project-4433484
*  NESCent: The National Evolutionary Synthesis Center
High-altitude natives differ biologically from low-altitude populations at low altitude and during acute exposure to high ... Human evolution and adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia. PI(s): Cynthia M Beall (Case Western Reserve University). Peter ... The high-altitude populations also differ among themselves in numerous biological features thought to be adaptive, suggesting ... The meeting aims to review the extant evidence for genetic adaptation to high altitude and to catalyze the formation of the ...
  https://www.nescent.org/science/awards_summary.php-id=151.html
*  Altitude and its effects on selected risk factors of coronary heart disease (completed) -...
Altitude and its effects on selected risk factors of coronary heart disease (completed) The project is being conducted in rural ... Study participants are men and women between the ages of 30 to 70 who are of Tibetan descent living at high altitudes (1200, ... To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Tibetan high altitude populations.. To identify risk factors for coronary ... and urban areas of Tibet which are at 3660 meters above sea level and in high altitude regions of Nepal. ...
  http://www.med.uio.no/helsam/english/research/projects/altitude/index.html
*  Altitude
Home , Altitude. Altitude. I wonder. how it would be here with you,. where the wind. that has shaken off its dust in low ... "Altitude" was published in Ridge's book Sun-up and other poems (B. W. Huebsch, 1920). ...
  https://www.poets.org/print/node/420116
*  Altitude Intimates Events | Eventbrite
Check out Altitude Intimates's events, learn more, or contact this organizer. ... Altitude Intimates is using Eventbrite to organize 2 upcoming events. ...
  https://www.eventbrite.com/o/altitude-intimates-12196357032
*  High-altitude cerebral edema - Wikipedia
High-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a medical condition in which the brain swells with fluid because of the physiological ... Generally, high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) or AMS precede HACE.[2] In patients with AMS, the onset of HACE is usually ... Schoene, Robert (2008). "Illnesses at High Altitude". Chest. 134 (2): 402-16. doi:10.1378/chest.07-0561. PMID 18682459.. ... Bärtsch, Peter; Swenson, Erik (2013). "Acute High-Altitude Illnesses". The New England Journal of Medicine. 368 (24): 2294-302 ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_altitude_cerebral_edema
*  Chart: Gaining Altitude - Bloomberg
Connecting decision makers to a dynamic network of information, people and ideas, Bloomberg quickly and accurately delivers business and financial information, news and insight around the world. ...
  https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2005-02-20/chart-gaining-altitude
*  Altitude May Influence Language Sounds
The lower air pressure at high altitudes may be a factor in why ejective consonants are more popular in languages spoken higher ... Everett suggests that the sounds are more popular at altitude because lower air pressure may make it easier to produce the ... He took a sample of 567 languages spoken around the world, and compared the locations and altitudes of those that either ...
  https://www.yahoo.com/news/altitude-may-influence-language-sounds-221008570.html?.tsrc=sun?_device=full&ref=gs
*  Air Canada Altitude
... is a top tier program designed to enhance the travel experiences of our most frequent flyers with ... Air Canada Altitude is how we show our gratitude to our most loyal frequent flying customers. ...
  https://www.aircanada.com/ch/en/aco/home/altitude.html
*  Organisms at high altitude - Wikipedia
High altitude adaptation implicated in bird speciation Altitude Illness Understanding adaptation to high altitude in the Andean ... Adaptation to high altitude has fascinated ornithologists for decades, but only a small proportion of high-altitude species ... The adaptation of humans to high altitude is an example of natural selection in action. High-altitude adaptations provide ... National Geographic: Three High-Altitude Peoples, Three Adaptations to Thin Air High-Altitude-Hypoxia: Many solutions to one ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organisms_at_high_altitude
*  Altitude | Big White
From hoodies to t-shirts, thermals and ball caps, you're sure to find your Big White piece here in Altitude. If you're already ...
  http://bigwhite.com/explore-big-white/mountain-services/shopping/altitude
*  Air Canada Altitude Updates
Stay informed with our Air Canada Altitude programs in regards to changes, enhancements, current program policies and ... Air Canada Altitude is how we show our gratitude to our most loyal frequent flying customers. ...
  https://www.aircanada.com/jp/en/aco/home/altitude/program-overview/program-updates-2018.html
*  High Altitude : Digital Photography Review
Digital Photography Review: All the latest digital camera reviews and digital imaging news. Lively discussion forums. Vast samples galleries and the largest database of digital camera specifications.
  https://www.dpreview.com/challenges/Entry.aspx?ID=650085&View=Results&Rows=4

List of people who died climbing Mount Everest: Mount Everest, at 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) is the world's highest mountain and a particularly desirable peak for mountaineers. More than 250 people have died trying to climb it.Acclimatization: Acclimatization (UK also acclimatisation; US also acclimation) is the process in which an individual organism adjusts to a gradual change in its environment (such as a change in temperature, humidity, photoperiod, or pH), allowing it to maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions. Acclimation occurs in a short period of time (days to weeks), and within the organism's lifetime (compare to adaptation).In Secret Tibet: In Secret Tibet (In disguise amongst lamas, robbers, and wise men) is a travel book by author Theodore Illion, first published in English in 1937.Hypoxic hypoxia: Hypoxic hypoxia is a result of insufficient oxygen available to the lungs. A blocked airway, a drowning or a reduction in partial pressure (high altitude above 10,000 feet) are examples of how lungs can be deprived of oxygen.Atmospheric-pressure laser ionization: Atmospheric pressure laser ionization is an atmospheric pressure ionization method for mass spectrometry (MS). Laser light in the UV range is used to ionize molecules in a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) process.Dan BuckinghamIllegal drug trade in Bolivia: The illegal drug trade in Bolivia is complicated by a longstanding indigenous tradition of using coca leaf for chewing and for coca tea. In an example of the balloon effect, dramatic falls in coca cultivation in the late 1990s saw some cultivation move to Colombia.Manipal Teaching HospitalFlash pulmonary edema: In medicine, flash pulmonary edema (oedema in British English) (FPE), is rapid onset pulmonary edema. It is most often precipitated by acute myocardial infarction or mitral regurgitation, but can be caused by aortic regurgitation, heart failure, or almost any cause of elevated left ventricular filling pressures.Arteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Maladaptation: A maladaptation () is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful. All organisms, from bacteria to humans, display maladaptive and adaptive traits.Aircraft cabin: An aircraft cabin is the section of an aircraft in which passengers travel. At cruising altitudes of modern commercial aircraft the surrounding atmosphere is too thin for passengers and crew to breathe without an oxygen mask, so cabins are pressurized at a higher pressure than ambient pressure at altitude.List of Royal Air Force aircraft independent flights: This is a list of Royal Air Force independent Flights. An independent Flight is a military administrative structure which is used to command flying units where the number of aircraft is not large enough to warrant a fully fledged squadron.Decompression (diving): The decompression of a diver is the reduction in ambient pressure experienced during ascent from depth. It is also the process of elimination of dissolved inert gases from the diver's body, which occurs during the ascent, during pauses in the ascent known as decompression stops, and after surfacing until the gas concentrations reach equilibrium.Respirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.Illegal drug trade in Peru: The illegal drug trade in Peru includes the growing of coca and the shipment of cocaine to the United States. In an example of the balloon effect, dramatic falls in coca cultivation in the late 1990s saw cultivation move to Colombia.DimefoxLampreado: thumb | 250px | right | LampreadoHemoglobin, alpha 2: Hemoglobin, alpha 2 also known as HBA2 is a gene that in humans codes for the alpha globin chain of hemoglobin.Ranunculus abortivus: Ranunculus abortivus is a species of flowering plant in the buttercup family, Ranunculaceae. Its common names include littleleaf buttercup, small-flower crowfoot,Ranunculus abortivus.Irina Khazova: Russia}}Hypocapnia: Hypocapnia or hypocapnea also known as hypocarbia, sometimes incorrectly called acapnia, is a state of reduced carbon dioxide in the blood. Hypocapnia usually results from deep or rapid breathing, known as hyperventilation.BalloonGas analysis: Gas analysis could refer to any of the following:Diuretic: A diuretic is any substance that promotes the production of urine. This includes forced diuresis.Mountaineer Wind Energy Center: Mountaineer Wind Energy Center is a wind farm on Backbone Mountain in Preston and Tucker counties in the U.S.Anthem (The 2002 FIFA World Cup Official Anthem): Anthem (The 2002 FIFA World Cup Official Anthem) by Vangelis and produced and mixed by Takkyu Ishino is the theme song for 2002 FIFA World Cup held in South Korea and Japan. The single was commercially successful in Japan, being certified platinum for 100,000 copies shipped to stores.Hematocrit: The hematocrit (Ht or HCT, British English spelling haematocrit), also known as packed cell volume (PCV) or erythrocyte volume fraction (EVF), is the volume percentage (%) of red blood cells in blood. It is normally 45% for men and 40% for women.Mount Fuji Radar System: The Mount Fuji Radar System is a historic weather radar system located on the summit of Mount Fuji, Japan. It was completed in 1964, and is now recorded on the list of IEEE Milestones in electrical engineering.Uranium mining in Colorado: Uranium mining in Colorado, United States, goes back to 1872, when pitchblende ore was taken from gold mines near Central City, Colorado. The Colorado uranium industry has seen booms and busts, but continues to this day.Shitaye Gemechu: Shitaye Gemechu (born 17 June 1980) is an Ethiopian long-distance runner, who specializes in marathon races. Shitaye was the women's winner of the Rock 'n' Roll Arizona Marathon for the years 2004 - 2006.In-water recompression: In-water recompression (IWR) or underwater oxygen treatment is the emergency treatment of decompression sickness (DCS) of sending the diver back underwater to allow the gas bubbles in the tissues, which are causing the symptoms, to resolve. It is a risky procedure that should only ever be used when the time to travel to the nearest recompression chamber is too long to save the victim's life.PolycythemiaPhysical strength: Strength (physics)}}Harmening High Flyer: The Harmening High Flyer is an American powered parachute that was designed and produced by Harmening's High Flyers of Genoa, Illinois.Cliche, Andre: Ultralight Aircraft Shopper's Guide 8th Edition, page D-7.Pulmonary gas pressures: The factors that determine the values for alveolar pO2 and pCO2 are:Nellcor: Nellcor is a brand of pulse oximetry systems sold by the Medtronic Corporation, following its acquisition of Covidien.List of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsHadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightHealth geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.High-intensity interval training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is an enhanced form of interval training, an exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods. HIIT is a form of cardiovascular exercise.Amy PetersonLepidium meyenii: Lepidium meyenii (maca) is an herbaceous biennial plant of the crucifer family native to the high Andes of Peru. It was found at the Meseta of BomBom close to Junin Lake in the Andes.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Cadence (cycling): In cycling, cadence (or pedaling rate) is the number of revolutions of the crank per minute; roughly speaking, this is the rate at which a cyclist is pedalling/turning the pedals. Cadence is related to wheel speed, but is a distinct measurement.Interbeat interval: Interbeat interval is a scientific term used in the study of the mammalian heart.Carte Jaune: The Carte Jaune or Yellow Card is an international certificate of vaccination (ICV). It is issued by the World Health Organisation.Healthcare in Austria: The nation of Austria has a two-tier health care system in which virtually all individuals receive publicly funded care, but they also have the option to purchase supplementary private health insurance. Some individuals choose to completely pay for their care privately.Utiaritichthys: Utiaritichthys is a genus of serrasalmid found in the Amazon and Orinoco basins in tropical South America.Pulmonary Hypertension Association: The Pulmonary Hypertension Association (PHA) is a 501(c) organization non-profit support, education, advocacy and awareness association for pulmonary hypertension (PH). It provides information to the public about the illness and acts as a support group for those with the disease, providing medical provider location services and emotional support for those suffering from the illness.Quasiperiodicity: Quasiperiodicity is the property of a system that displays irregular periodicity. Periodic behavior is defined as recurring at regular intervals, such as "every 24 hours".Eli Schwartz: Eliezer (Eli) Schwartz (Hebrew: אליעזר שוורץ) MD, DTMH is an Israeli physician, known for his speciality in tropical diseases and travel medicine. He is a founding member of the International Society of Travel Medicine (ISTM) and served as chair of its Professional Education Committee.Larry LemakList of Copper Country minesRetinal haemorrhageAddis Ababa Fistula HospitalEcosystemBergenia ciliata: Bergenia ciliata ( Sanskrit : Pashanbheda )Controversial Drug Plants By R. Vasudevan NairGoose egg addling: Goose egg “addling” is a wildlife management method of population control for Canada geese and other bird species. The process of addling involves temporarily removing fertilized eggs from the nest, testing for embryo development, terminating embryo development, and placing the egg back in the nest.Pulmonary artery banding: Pulmonary Artery Banding (PAB) was introduced by Muller and Danimann in 1951 as a surgical technique to reduce excessive pulmonary blood flow in infants suffering from congenital heart defects.Muller WH, Dammann JF.Respiratory compensation: Respiratory compensation is a mechanism by which plasma pH can be altered by varying the respiratory rate. It is faster than renal compensation, but has less ability to restore normal values.FasciolosisSaturn A-1: Saturn A-1, studied in 1959, was projected to be the first version of Saturn I and was to be used if necessary before the S-IV liquid hydrogen second stage became available. The first stage, proposed for the Juno V rocket, but finally used for the first Saturn rocket, would propel the Saturn A-1 into space, with the first stage of a Titan I missile continuing the flight and finally, a Centaur C high-energy double-engine third stage could perform a small burn to send a payload into its final orbit, or it can perform a big burn to take a payload out of Earth orbit to other planets.Central sleep apnea: Central sleep apnea (CSA) or central sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS) is a sleep-related disorder in which the effort to breathe is diminished or absent, typically for 10 to 30 seconds, either intermittently or in cycles and is usually associated with a reduction in blood oxygen saturation. It is a collective term referring to two breathing disorders: Cheyne-Stokes respiration and periodic breathing.Kurt DiembergerSenecio madagascariensisRobotic spacecraft: 250px|right|thumb|An artist's interpretation of the [[MESSENGER spacecraft at Mercury]]Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingThe Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".Cladium: Cladium (Fen-sedge, Sawgrass or Twig-sedge) is a genus of large sedges, with a nearly worldwide distribution in tropical and temperate regions. These are plants characterized by long, narrow (grass-like) leaves having sharp, often serrated (sawtooth-like) margins, and flowering stems 1–3 m tall bearing a much-branched inflorescence.Smoking in Ecuador: Smoking in Ecuador is more common among men and younger people. More than half of Ecuadorian smokers desire to quit.Sunspots (economics): In economics, the term sunspots (or sometimes "a sunspot") usually refers to an extrinsic random variable, that is, a random variable that does not affect economic fundamentals (such as endowments, preferences, or technology). Sunspots can also refer to the related concept of extrinsic uncertainty, that is, economic uncertainty that does not come from variation in economic fundamentals.Geolocation software: In computing, geolocation software is used to deduce the geolocation (geographic location) of another party. For example, on the Internet, one geolocation approach is to identify the subject party's IP address, then determine what country (including down to the city and post/ZIP code level), organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and finally, determine that party's location.Stratosphere: The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. It is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down.Acid–base reaction: An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base. Several theoretical frameworks provide alternative conceptions of the reaction mechanisms and their application in solving related problems.Assunta LegnanteDark FieldsLausanne Marathon: The Lausanne Marathon or Marathon of Lausanne is an annual marathon race held in the Swiss city of Lausanne since 1993. This road running takes place in autumn (October) and the 20 km of Lausanne takes place in spring (April).Poa bulbosa: Poa bulbosa is a species of grass known by the common names bulbous bluegrass or bulbous meadow-grass. It is native to Eurasia and North Africa, but it is present practically worldwide as an introduced species.Non-rapid eye movement sleepThreshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Snow pea: The snow pea (Pisum sativum var. saccharatum) is a legume, more specifically a variety of pea eaten whole in its pod while still unripe.Cerebral hypoxiaCheyne–Stokes respirationAortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.

(1/1342) Barometric pressures on Mt. Everest: new data and physiological significance.

Barometric pressures (PB) near the summit of Mt. Everest (altitude 8, 848 m) are of great physiological interest because the partial pressure of oxygen is very near the limit for human survival. Until recently, the only direct measurement on the summit was 253 Torr, which was obtained in October 1981, but, despite being only one data point, this value has been used by several investigators. Recently, two new studies were carried out. In May 1997, another direct measurement on the summit was within approximately 1 Torr of 253 Torr, and meteorologic data recorded at the same time from weather balloons also agreed closely. In the summer of 1998, over 2,000 measurements were transmitted from a barometer placed on the South Col (altitude 7,986 m). The mean PB values during May, June, July, and August were 284, 285, 286, and 287 Torr, respectively, and there was close agreement with the PB-altitude (h) relationship determined from the 1981 data. The PB values are well predicted from the equation PB = exp (6.63268 - 0.1112 h - 0.00149 h2), where h is in kilometers. The conclusion is that on days when the mountain is usually climbed, during May and October, the summit pressure is 251-253 Torr.  (+info)

(2/1342) Low-temperature sensitivity and enhanced Bohr effect in red deer (Cervus elaphus) haemoglobin: a molecular adaptive strategy to life at high altitude and low temperature.

A study of the functional properties of haemoglobin from red deer (Cervus elaphus) whose habitat varies over a wide range of latitude, was performed. The oxygen-binding properties of the most common haemoglobin phenotype from the species living in Sardinia were examined with particular attention to the effect of pH, chloride, 2, 3-bisphosphoglycerate and temperature. Results indicate that red deer haemoglobin, like all haemoglobins from ruminants so far examined, is characterized by a low intrinsic oxygen affinity, with chloride being its main physiological modulator in vivo. The functional results and the low temperature sensitivity of the oxygen affinity are discussed in the light of the amino acid sequence of closely related ruminant haemoglobins.  (+info)

(3/1342) Augmented sympathetic activation during short-term hypoxia and high-altitude exposure in subjects susceptible to high-altitude pulmonary edema.

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension is a hallmark of high-altitude pulmonary edema and may contribute to its pathogenesis. Cardiovascular adjustments to hypoxia are mediated, at least in part, by the sympathetic nervous system, and sympathetic activation promotes pulmonary vasoconstriction and alveolar fluid flooding in experimental animals. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured sympathetic nerve activity (using intraneural microelectrodes) in 8 mountaineers susceptible to high-altitude pulmonary edema and 7 mountaineers resistant to this condition during short-term hypoxic breathing at low altitude and at rest at a high-altitude laboratory (4559 m). We also measured systolic pulmonary artery pressure to examine the relationship between sympathetic activation and pulmonary vasoconstriction. In subjects prone to pulmonary edema, short-term hypoxic breathing at low altitude evoked comparable hypoxemia but a 2- to 3-times-larger increase in the rate of the sympathetic nerve discharge than in subjects resistant to edema (P<0.001). At high altitude, in subjects prone to edema, the increase in the mean+/-SE sympathetic firing rate was >2 times larger than in those resistant to edema (36+/-7 versus 15+/-4 bursts per minute, P<0.001) and preceded the development of lung edema. We observed a direct relationship between sympathetic nerve activity and pulmonary artery pressure measured at low and high altitude in the 2 groups (r=0.83, P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: With the use of direct measurements of postganglionic sympathetic nerve discharge, these data provide the first evidence for an exaggerated sympathetic activation in subjects prone to high-altitude pulmonary edema both during short-term hypoxic breathing at low altitude and during actual high-altitude exposure. Sympathetic overactivation may contribute to high-altitude pulmonary edema.  (+info)

(4/1342) Living at high altitude and risk of sudden infant death syndrome.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between altitude of residence and risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). METHODS: A retrospective, case control study in the Tyrol, Austria enrolled 99 infants with SIDS occurring between 1984 and 1994, and 136 randomly selected control cases. Data on pregnancy, delivery, child care practice, and socio-demographic characteristics including altitude of residence were collected with a standardised questionnaire. RESULTS: The risk of SIDS increased gradually with increasing altitude of residence. This relation remained independently significant when the analysis was adjusted for gestational age, birth weight, prenatal care, mother's age at delivery, educational level of parents, and cigarette smoking during pregnancy. The prone sleeping position emerged as an obligatory cofactor in this association. In the whole of Austria, a similar trend of association emerged between the average altitudes in the 99 political counties and the rates of SIDS. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified altitude of residence as a significant risk predictor of SIDS, primarily in combination with the prone sleeping position. Respiratory disturbances, reduced oxygen saturation, and lower temperatures at high altitude might explain this association.  (+info)

(5/1342) Cough frequency and cough receptor sensitivity to citric acid challenge during a simulated ascent to extreme altitude.

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of cough and the citric acid cough threshold during hypobaric hypoxia under controlled environmental conditions. Subjects were studied during Operation Everest 3. Eight subjects ascended to a simulated altitude of 8,848 m over 31 days in a hypobaric chamber. Frequency of nocturnal cough was measured using voice-activated tape recorders, and cough threshold by inhalation of increasing concentrations of citric acid aerosol. Spirometry was performed before and after each test. Subjects recorded symptoms of acute mountain sickness and arterial oxygen saturation daily. Air temperature and humidity were controlled during the operation. Cough frequency increased with increasing altitude, from a median of 0 coughs (range 0-4) at sea level to 15 coughs (range 3-32) at a simulated altitude of 8,000 m. Cough threshold was unchanged on arrival at 5,000 m compared to sea level (geometric mean difference (GMD) 1.0, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.5-2.1, p=0.5), but fell on arrival at 8,000 m compared to sea level (GMD 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-10.3, p=0.043). There was no relationship between cough threshold and symptoms of acute mountain sickness, oxygen saturation or forced expiratory volume in one second. Temperature and humidity in the chamber were controlled between 18-24 degrees C and 30-60%, respectively. These results confirm an increase in cough frequency and cough receptor sensitivity associated with hypobaric hypoxia, and refute the hypothesis that high altitude cough is due to the inhalation of cold, dry air. The small sample size makes further conclusions difficult, and the cause of altitude-related cough remains unclear.  (+info)

(6/1342) Exercise VE and physical performance at altitude are not affected by menstrual cycle phase.

We hypothesized that progesterone-mediated ventilatory stimulation during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle would increase exercise minute ventilation (VE; l/min) at sea level (SL) and with acute altitude (AA) exposure but would only increase arterial O2 saturation (SaO2, %) with AA exposure. We further hypothesized that an increased exercise SaO2 with AA exposure would enhance O2 transport and improve both peak O2 uptake (VO2 peak; ml x kg-1 x min-1) and submaximal exercise time to exhaustion (Exh; min) in the midluteal phase. Eight female lowlanders [33 +/- 3 (mean +/- SD) yr, 58 +/- 6 kg] completed a VO2 peak and Exh test at 70% of their altitude-specific VO2 peak at SL and with AA exposure to 4,300 m in a hypobaric chamber (446 mmHg) in their early follicular and midluteal phases. Progesterone levels increased (P < 0.05) approximately 20-fold from the early follicular to midluteal phase at SL and AA. Peak VE (101 +/- 17) and submaximal VE (55 +/- 9) were not affected by cycle phase or altitude. Submaximal SaO2 did not differ between cycle phases at SL, but it was 3% higher during the midluteal phase with AA exposure. Neither VO2 peak nor Exh time was affected by cycle phase at SL or AA. We conclude that, despite significantly increased progesterone levels in the midluteal phase, exercise VE is not increased at SL or AA. Moreover, neither maximal nor submaximal exercise performance is affected by menstrual cycle phase at SL or AA.  (+info)

(7/1342) Loss of heterozygosity in pseudoexfoliation syndrome.

PURPOSE: Pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome is characterized by the accumulation of a material of unknown origin in the anterior structures of the eye. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a genetic locus indicates the presence of a gene located in the same region that could be implicated in the development or the progression of a disease. In this study, the occurrence of LOH in tissues involved in PEX and the possible correlation of LOH incidence with clinical parameters were evaluated. METHODS: Twelve iris specimens, 12 anterior capsule specimens, and respective blood samples were obtained from 17 patients with PEX (13 men), who were undergoing glaucoma and cataract surgery. Sixteen anterior capsule specimens and four iris specimens were obtained from 16 patients without PEX. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify 10 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers located on chromosomes 1, 7, 9, and 13. RESULTS: Overall, 83.3% (20/24) of PEX specimens and 94.11% (16/17) of patients with PEX had LOH. The highest incidence of LOH was observed in marker D13S175 (41.6%) followed by D7S478 and D7S479 (37.5%). Only three non-PEX specimens displayed LOH. The number of loci lost was directly related to the altitude of the patients' present residence, but the number lost did not differ significantly between the iris and capsule samples. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of LOH in tissues involved in PEX implies a genetic role in PEX pathogenesis at a cellu lar level. The correlation of LOH incidence with the altitude of the patient's residence, could indicate an increased susceptibility to UV radiation of the chromosomal regions examined.  (+info)

(8/1342) Exaggerated endothelin release in high-altitude pulmonary edema.

BACKGROUND: Exaggerated pulmonary hypertension is thought to play an important part in the pathogenesis of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Endothelin-1 is a potent pulmonary vasoconstrictor peptide that also augments microvascular permeability. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured endothelin-1 plasma levels and pulmonary artery pressure in 16 mountaineers prone to HAPE and in 16 mountaineers resistant to this condition at low (580 m) and high (4559 m) altitudes. At high altitude, in mountaineers prone to HAPE, mean (+/-SE) endothelin-1 plasma levels were approximately 33% higher than in HAPE-resistant mountaineers (22.2+/-1.1 versus 16.8+/-1.1 pg/mL, P<0.01). There was a direct relationship between the changes from low to high altitude in endothelin-1 plasma levels and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (r=0.82, P<0.01) and between endothelin-1 plasma levels and pulmonary artery pressure measured at high altitude (r=0.35, P=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that in HAPE-susceptible mountaineers, an augmented release of the potent pulmonary vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin-1 and/or its reduced pulmonary clearance could represent one of the mechanisms contributing to exaggerated pulmonary hypertension at high altitude.  (+info)



  • metres
  • In 2008, a colony of bumble bees was discovered on Mount Everest at more than 5,600 metres (18,400 ft) above sea level, the highest known altitude for an insect. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the flight deck, the definitive instrument for measuring altitude is the pressure altimeter, which is an aneroid barometer with a front face indicating distance (feet or metres) instead of atmospheric pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • As altitude increases, the available amount of oxygen to sustain mental and physical alertness decreases with the overall air pressure, though the relative percentage of oxygen in air, at about 21%, remains practically unchanged up to 21,000 metres (70,000 ft). (wikipedia.org)
  • Altitude training is the practice by some endurance athletes of training for several weeks at high altitude, preferably over 2,400 metres (8,000 ft) above sea level, though more commonly at intermediate altitudes due to the shortage of suitable high-altitude locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • underwater diving at altitudes above 300 m Altitude diving is underwater diving using scuba or surface supplied diving equipment where the surface is 300 metres (980 ft) or more above sea level (for example, a mountain lake). (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.S. Navy tables recommend that no alteration be made for dives at altitudes lower than 91 metres (299 ft) and dives between 91 and 300 metres correction is required for dives over 44 metres (144 ft) of sea water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although no official records are recognized, until 2007 the highest recorded altitude at which a scuba dive had been conducted was 5,900 metres (19,400 ft), by a team led by Charles Brush and Johan Reinhard in 1982 in Lago Licancabur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The highest scuba dive in the continental United States was done on 7 September 2013 by John Bali at Colorado's Pacific Tarn Lake, altitude 4,090 metres (13,420 ft). (wikipedia.org)
  • aircraft
  • see QNH) Absolute altitude is the height of the aircraft above the terrain over which it is flying. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pivotal altitude is the height for a given ground speed at which the line of sight from the cockpit directly parallel to the lateral axis of the aircraft will remain stationary on an object on the ground. (wikipedia.org)
  • barometric
  • There are several types of aviation altitude: Indicated altitude is the reading on the altimeter when it is set to the local barometric pressure at mean sea level. (wikipedia.org)
  • At intermediate altitudes, the air still contains approximately 20.9% oxygen, but the barometric pressure and thus the partial pressure of oxygen is reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altitude training can be simulated through use of an altitude simulation tent, altitude simulation room, or mask-based hypoxicator system where the barometric pressure is kept the same, but the oxygen content is reduced which also reduces the partial pressure of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • Decreased oxygen availability and decreased temperature make life at such altitudes challenging, though many species have been successfully adapted via considerable physiological changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic concept of living or training at altitude is to cause the body to adapt to the lower oxygen content by producing more oxygen-carrying red blood cells and hemoglobin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather than simulating altitude with actual low air pressure (which would require substantial engineering and the use of an airlock to prevent implosion), the altitude tent remains at normal air pressure, substituting low concentration of oxygen for low pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • While normal air contains 20.9% oxygen independent of altitude, the air in an altitude tent contains as little as 12% oxygen (the remainder being nitrogen). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most altitude tents create the low-oxygen environment with a "hypoxic air generator" outside the tent pumping the hypoxic (low oxygen) air into the tent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gamow bag Altitude training Hypoxicator Hyperbaric oxygen therapy Oxygen tent * The Australian September 17th 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, it has been shown that athletes performing primarily anaerobic activity do not necessarily benefit from altitude training as they do not rely on oxygen to fuel their performances. (wikipedia.org)
  • lungs
  • An alternative might be to exercise your lungs (without simulating altitude) by using a respiratory trainer, such as Power Lung, which is about 100 USD. (summitpost.org)
  • lower
  • Individuals with the condition must immediately descend to a lower altitude or coma and death can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Everett suggests that the sounds are more popular at altitude because lower air pressure may make it easier to produce the burst of air that is a key characteristic of ejective consonants. (yahoo.com)
  • Could moving to a warm, lower altitude place help polycythemia vera? (dailystrength.org)
  • Descent to lower altitudes alleviates the symptoms of HAPE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Training or spending time at a higher altitude will cause the body to adapt to the higher altitude and provide enhanced performance when returning to a lower altitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years, advances in altitude tent design, and in the performance of the hypoxic air-supply units, have all resulted in greater air-exchange and significantly lower noise levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proponents claim that when such athletes travel to competitions at lower altitudes they will still have a higher concentration of red blood cells for 10-14 days, and this gives them a competitive advantage. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptations
  • This training idea involves living at higher altitudes in order to experience the physiological adaptations that occur, such as increased erythropoietin (EPO) levels, increased red blood cell levels, and higher VO2 max, while maintaining the same exercise intensity during training at sea level. (wikipedia.org)
  • displaystyle
  • If we denote the length of the altitude by hc, we then have the relation h c = p q {\displaystyle h_{c}={\sqrt {pq}}} (Geometric mean theorem) For acute and right triangles the feet of the altitudes all fall on the triangle's sides (not extended). (wikipedia.org)
  • Then: The product of the lengths of the segments that the orthocenter divides an altitude into is the same for all three altitudes: A H ⋅ H D = B H ⋅ H E = C H ⋅ H F . {\displaystyle AH\cdot HD=BH\cdot HE=CH\cdot HF. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990s
  • Altitude tents were first marketed in the mid 1990s, and are provided by many different companies in a number of designs. (wikipedia.org)
  • feet
  • In an obtuse triangle (one with an obtuse angle), the foot of the altitude to the obtuse-angled vertex falls in the interior of the opposite side, but the feet of the altitudes to the acute-angled vertices fall on the opposite extended side, exterior to the triangle. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • Hypoventilation training, which consists of reducing the breathing frequency while exercising, can also mimic altitude training by significantly decreasing blood and muscle oxygenation. (wikipedia.org)
  • tent
  • Because of the use of plastic panels to reduce exchange with the room, heat and humidity can build up in an altitude tent. (wikipedia.org)
  • An alternative to the sealed altitude tent is the altitude canopy, which drapes over the user's bed, and features a weighted edge instead of a tent floor. (wikipedia.org)
  • By virtue of smaller internal volumes, canopies come to altitude faster than conventional altitude tents, however the ever-changing barrier between the canopy and the bedding as the occupant moves during the night results in a less-stable altitude being simulated than with an enclosed tent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The USADA report on doping in the Lance Armstrong case also indicates that sleeping in an altitude tent can be used to hide doping using EPO, as natural Erythropoietin production is increased, confusing the tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • level
  • It's one of those games that implants itself in your head so at random moments throughout the day you think "Ooh, I should go play Altitude, see if I can gain a level or two. (jayisgames.com)
  • Aviation altitude is measured using either mean sea level (MSL) or local ground level (above ground level, or AGL) as the reference datum. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study using simulated altitude exposure for 18 days, yet training closer to sea-level, showed performance gains were still evident 15 days later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altitude is significant in diving because the depths and decompression used for dives at altitude are different from those used for the same dive profile at sea level. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount of time the diver has spent acclimatising at altitude is also of concern as divers with gas loadings near those of sea level may also be at an increased risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • Stenobarc includes those with lesser ability to endure a range of differences in altitude, such as rabbits, mountain goats, sheep, and cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • regime
  • Modern dive computers detect changes in altitude or accept it as a user input and automatically adjust their calculation of a safe decompression regime for a dive at that altitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Altitude, formerly known as 96 Iconic Tower is a proposed skyscraper dedicated to the Sri Lankan Victory in the 1996 Cricket World Cup. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of drawing the altitude from the vertex to the foot is known as dropping the altitude at that vertex. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • The length of the altitude, often simply called "the altitude", is the distance between the extended base and the vertex. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is common to mark the altitude with the letter h (as in height), often subscripted with the name of the side the altitude is drawn to. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike camping tents, altitude tents cannot have much ventilation, and often substitute clear plastic windows for the typical nylon and mesh vents. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to making depth adjustments using the Cross Conversions, dives at altitude often require pre- and post-dive altitude ascents which must be taken into consideration. (wikipedia.org)
  • measurement
  • As a general definition, altitude is a distance measurement, usually in the vertical or "up" direction, between a reference datum and a point or object. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capillary gauges have been shown to be a conservative method for measurement of compensated depth at altitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • either
  • He took a sample of 567 languages spoken around the world, and compared the locations and altitudes of those that either contained or ignored ejective consonants. (yahoo.com)
  • Opt in for either Altitude Points or Qantas Points, and earn points for every $1 spent on eligible purchases. (westpac.com.au)
  • There's no limit to the amount of points you can earn with your chosen rewards program, either Altitude Points or Qantas points. (westpac.com.au)
  • Height
  • Altitude is the height of an object over a datum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The altitude obtained is corrected for dip (the error caused by the observers height above the sea) and refraction to obtain the true altitude of the object above the horizon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The building was completed in 2009, and has 26 floors of apartments up to floor 25, hence the name Altitude 25, a roof height of 82.00 and a structural height of 94 m (307 ft). (wikipedia.org)
  • opposite
  • In geometry, an altitude of a triangle is a line segment through a vertex and perpendicular to (i.e., forming a right angle with) a line containing the base (the side opposite the vertex). (wikipedia.org)
  • This line containing the opposite side is called the extended base of the altitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • True
  • In aviation, the term altitude can have several meanings, and is always qualified by explicitly adding a modifier (e.g. "true altitude"), or implicitly through the context of the communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • I don't know much about altitude, but from what I have read, time is your friend. (summitpost.org)
  • This is the simplest calculation of astronomical navigation and is when an observer determines his latitude by measuring the altitude of a heavenly object at the time of its meridian passage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Observer C at the same time is at latitude 20°N on the same meridian, i.e. on the same longitude as observer A. His measured altitude would be 70° and by subtracting this from 90° gives a 20° zenith distance which in turn is his latitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • The estimated time of meridian altitude of the heavenly object is extracted from the nautical almanac. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few minutes before this time the observer starts observing the altitude of the object with a sextant. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The tissue supersaturation following an ascent to altitude can also be accounted for by considering it to be residual nitrogen and allocating a residual nitrogen group when using tables with this facility. (wikipedia.org)
  • passes
  • If you choose Altitude Rewards you can register your Altitude Black American Express card to receive two complimentary passes per year to use at over 700 VIP airport lounges worldwide. (westpac.com.au)
  • As the object passes the meridian a maximum altitude will be observed. (wikipedia.org)