Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts research focused on improving the treatment and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems to reduce the health, social, and economic consequences of this disease. NIAAA, NIMH, and NIDA were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Alcoholics: Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.Disulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Event-Related Potentials, P300: A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)Alcoholics Anonymous: An organization of self-proclaimed alcoholics who meet frequently to reinforce their practice of abstinence.Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium: An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Alcohol Amnestic Disorder: A mental disorder associated with chronic ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) and nutritional deficiencies characterized by short term memory loss, confabulations, and disturbances of attention. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)Psychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.Marital Therapy: A form of psychotherapy involving the husband and wife and directed to improving the marital relationship.Father-Child Relations: Interaction between the father and the child.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.OklahomaSubstance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Lipomatosis, Multiple Symmetrical: A condition characterized by the growth of unencapsulated masses of ADIPOSE TISSUE symmetrically deposited around the neck, shoulders, or other sites around the body.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Pellagra: A disease due to deficiency of NIACIN, a B-complex vitamin, or its precursor TRYPTOPHAN. It is characterized by scaly DERMATITIS which is often associated with DIARRHEA and DEMENTIA (the three D's).Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.MMPI: A personality inventory consisting of statements to be asserted or denied by the individual. The patterns of response are characteristic of certain personality attributes.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Ethnology: The comparative and theoretical study of culture, often synonymous with cultural anthropology.Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.Thiamine Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to substance abuse and mental health. It is commonly referred to by the acronym SAMHSA. On 1 October 1992, the United States Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA) became SAMHSA.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Stress Disorders, Traumatic: Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, increased arousal, and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world. Traumatic stress disorders can be further classified by the time of onset and the duration of these symptoms.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Cardiomyopathy, Alcoholic: Disease of CARDIAC MUSCLE resulting from chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Myocardial damage can be caused by: (1) a toxic effect of alcohol; (2) malnutrition in alcoholics such as THIAMINE DEFICIENCY; or (3) toxic effect of additives in alcoholic beverages such as COBALT. This disease is usually manifested by DYSPNEA and palpitations with CARDIOMEGALY and congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Hydroxytryptophol: 5-Hydroxy-indole-3-ethanol.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Wernicke Encephalopathy: An acute neurological disorder characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and disturbances of mental activity or consciousness. Eye movement abnormalities include nystagmus, external rectus palsies, and reduced conjugate gaze. THIAMINE DEFICIENCY and chronic ALCOHOLISM are associated conditions. Pathologic features include periventricular petechial hemorrhages and neuropil breakdown in the diencephalon and brainstem. Chronic thiamine deficiency may lead to KORSAKOFF SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1139-42; Davis & Robertson, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp452-3)Gypsies: Ethnic group originating in India and entering Europe in the 14th or 15th century.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Endophenotypes: Measurable biological (physiological, biochemical, and anatomical features), behavioral (psychometric pattern) or cognitive markers that are found more often in individuals with a disease than in the general population. Because many endophenotypes are present before the disease onset and in individuals with heritable risk for disease such as unaffected family members, they can be used to help diagnose and search for causative genes.Delta Rhythm: Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Character: In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Myelinolysis, Central Pontine: A demyelinating condition affecting the PONS and characterized clinically by an acute progressive QUADRIPLEGIA; DYSARTHRIA; DYSPHAGIA; and alterations of consciousness. Pathologic features include prominent demyelination in the central PONS with sparing of axons and neurons. This condition is usually associated with systemic disorders such as HYPONATREMIA; chronic ALCOHOLISM; LIVER FAILURE; severe BURNS; malignant NEOPLASMS; hemorrhagic PANCREATITIS; HEMODIALYSIS; and SEPSIS. The rapid medical correction of hyponatremia has been cited as a cause of this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1125-6)Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.

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Research Society on Alcoholism: The Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) is a learned society of over 1600 active members based in Austin, Texas. Its objective is to advance research on alcoholism and the physiological and cognitive effects of alcohol.Ethanol fuel: Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline.College student alcoholism: The rates of college students binge drinking in the United States have fluctuated for the past years. As high as 40% of college students could now be considered alcoholics as defined by the next edition psychiatry's diagnostic manual but many would have only a mild problem which is intentionally for early treatment.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.Benzyl benzoate/disulfiram: Benzyl benzoate/disulfiram (trade name Tenutex) is a combination drug used in the treatment of scabies. It consists of the antiparasitic insecticides benzyl benzoate and disulfiram.Low-dose naltrexone: Low-dose naltrexone (LDN) describes the off-label use of the medication naltrexone at low doses for diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Naltrexone is typically prescribed for opioid dependence or alcohol dependence, as it is a strong opioid antagonist.Alcohol intoxicationDelirium Tremens (album)History of psychopathy: Psychopathy, from psych (soul or mind) and pathy (suffering or disease), was coined by German psychiatrists in the 19th century and originally just meant what would today be called mental disorder, the study of which is still known as psychopathology. By the turn of the century 'psychopathic inferiority' referred to the type of mental disorder that might now be termed personality disorder, along with a wide variety of other conditions now otherwise classified.Exercise addiction: An exercise addiction can have harmful consequences although it is not listed as a disorder in the latest revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). This type of addiction can be classified under a behavioral addiction in which a person’s behavior becomes obsessive, compulsive, and/or causes dysfunction in a person's life.Long-chain-aldehyde dehydrogenase: Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (or Long-chain-aldehyde dehydrogenase) is an aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme that in human is encoded in the ALDH3A2 gene on chromosome 17.Alcohol dehydrogenaseBenzodiazepine withdrawal syndromePediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS): Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome still under research, leading to rapid onset Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or tics in children and adolescents. It may be either connected to Group A streptococcal infections (PANDAS sub-group) or caused by immunologic reactionsKatherine E.FibroTest: FibroTest, known as FibroSure in the US, is a patented biomarker test that uses the results of six blood serum tests to generate a score that is correlated with the degree of liver damage in people with a variety of liver diseases. FibroTest has the same prognostic value as a liver biopsy.Oklahoma City Oil Field: The Oklahoma City Oil Field is one of the world's giant petroleum fields and is located in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma in the United States of America. The field was opened just south of the city limits on December 4, 1928, and first entered Oklahoma City limits on May 27, 1930.Substance-related disorderProkaryotic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase dimerisation domain: In molecular biology, prokaryotic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase dimerisation domain is a protein domain found at the C-terminus of prokaryotic acetaldehyde dehydrogenases, it adopts a structure consisting of an alpha-beta-alpha-beta(3) core, which mediates dimerisation of the protein.SchizophreniaBarratt WaughBenign symmetric lipomatosis: Benign symmetric lipomatosis (also known as Benign symmetric lipomatosis of Launois–Bensaude, Madelung's disease, multiple symmetric lipomatosis and cephalothoracic lipodystrophy) is a cutaneous condition characterized by extensive symmetric fat deposits in the head, neck, and shoulder girdle area. The German surgeon Otto Wilhelm Madelung was the first to give a detailed description of the disorder.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.PellagraTaurineJon Elhai: Jon Elhai (born 1972 in Baltimore, Maryland) is a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Toledo. He directs the University of Toledo's Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Research Lab.Genetic linkage: Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction. Genes whose loci are nearer to each other are less likely to be separated onto different chromatids during chromosomal crossover, and are therefore said to be genetically linked.Shunri: Shunris () are a Bengali Hindu caste whose traditional occupation is the distillation and selling of country wine. The Shunris, except those having family name Saha are listed as Scheduled Castes by the Government of India and Government of West Bengal.Thiamine transporter: Members of this protein family have been assigned as thiamine transporters by a phylogenomic analysis of families of genes regulated by the THI element, a broadly conserved RNA secondary structure element through which thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) levels can regulate transcription of many genes related to thiamine transport, salvage, and de novo biosynthesis. Species with this protein always lack the ThiBPQ ABC transporter.M74 syndrome: The M74 syndrome is a reproduction disorder of salmon (Salmo salar) feeding in the Baltic Sea. M74 manifests as offspring mortality during the yolk-sac fry phase.Treatment Improvement Protocols: Treatment Improvement Protocols (TIPs) are a series of best-practice manuals for the treatment of substance use and other related disorders. The TIP series is published by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA an agency of the U.Blended malt whisky: A blended malt, formerly called a vatted malt, or pure malt, is a blend of different single malt whiskies from different distilleries. These terms are most commonly used in reference to Scotch whisky, or whisky in that style, such as Japanese whisky.Quantitative electroencephalography: Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a field concerned with the numerical analysis of electroencephalography data and associated behavioral correlates.Reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A: Reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A (RIMAs) are a class of drugs which selectively and reversibly inhibit the enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). They are used clinically in the treatment of depression and dysthymia, though they have not gained widespread market share in the United States.Alcoholic hepatitisWGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Wernicke: Wernicke is a surname, and may refer toPopulation stratification: Population stratification is the presence of a systematic difference in allele frequencies between subpopulations in a population possibly due to different ancestry, especially in the context of association studies. Population stratification is also referred to as population structure, in this context.Comorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Shanghai Drug Abuse Treatment Centre: The Shanghai Drug Abuse Treatment Centre, or SDATC (), is a governmental organization providing drug abuse treatment and rehabilitation services in Shanghai, China. SDATC is the only government-supported centre in Shanghai and was established in 1997 on the approval of Shanghai Narcotic Control Commission and Shanghai Public Health Bureau.Middle frontal gyrus: The middle frontal gyrus makes up about one-third of the frontal lobe of the human brain. (A gyrus is one of the prominent "bumps" or "ridges" on the surface of the human brain.Temperament and Character Inventory: The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is an inventory for personality traits devised by Cloninger et al.Document-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.Central pontine myelinolysisRobinson Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California: The Robinson Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California is a federally recognized tribe of Eastern Pomo people in Lake County, California.California Indians and Their Reservations.

(1/5630) Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) in alcoholic liver disease.

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) was determined in the supernatants of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic liver disease. PIF was assayed by determining inhibition of DNA synthesis in WI-38 human lung fibroblasts. A two-fold greater inhibition in thymidine incorporation into DNA by lung fibroblasts was observed in supernatants of PHA stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic hepatitis or active Laennec's cirrhosis as compared with that found in control subjects or patients with fatty liver. It is suggested that decreased liver cell regeneration seen in some patients with alcoholic hepatitis may be due to increased elaboration of PIF.  (+info)

(2/5630) Antibodies against phospholipids and oxidized LDL in alcoholic patients.

Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) are a generic term describing antibodies that recognize various phospholipids. Hepatocyte damage is a cardinal event in the course of alcoholic liver injury and autoantibodies against phospholipids could play an important role in this process. APA in alcoholic patients seem to reflect membrane lesions, impairment of immunological reactivity, liver disease progression and they correlate significantly with disease severity. LDL oxidation is supposed to be one of the most important pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerosis and antibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are some kind of an epiphenomenon of this process. The scope of our study was to determine some autoantibodies (IgG-oxLDL and antiphospholipid antibodies) and their possible changes in alcoholic patients. We studied IgG-oxLDL and four APA - anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA), antiphosphatidylserine antibodies (APSA) antiphosphatidylethanolamine antibodies (APE) and antiphosphatidylcholine antibodies (APCA) in 35 alcoholic patients with mildly affected liver function at the beginning of the abuse treatment. The control group consisted of 60 healthy blood donors. In the studied group, we obtained positive results concerning total ACA in 17.1 % of alcoholic patients (8.3 % in the control group), 11.4 % IgG-ACA (6.7 %), 8.6 % IgM-ACA (3.3 %), 14.3 % total APE (6.7 %), 14.3 % total APCA (8.3 %) and 20 % total APSA (8.3 % in the control group). The IgG-oxLDL (406.4+/-52.5 vs 499.9+/-52.5 mU/ml) was not affected in alcoholic patients. We conclude that the autoantibodies against oxLDL are present in sera of alcoholics and healthy blood donors. Based on our results which revealed a wide range of IgG-oxLDL titres in the healthy population, this parameter does not appear to be very promising for the evaluation of the risk of atherosclerosis. Alcoholics with only mild affection of liver functions did not exhibit a significantly higher prevalence of all studied antiphospholipid antibodies (ACA, APSA, APE, APCA) which could lead to membrane lesions in these patients.  (+info)

(3/5630) Involvement of cytochromes P-450 2E1 and 3A4 in the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate in humans.

Hydroxylation of salicylate into 2,3 and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids (2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA) by human liver microsomal preparations was investigated. Kinetic studies demonstrated that salicylate was 5-hydroxylated with two apparent Km: one high-affinity Km of 606 microM and one low-affinity Km greater than 2 mM. Liver microsomes prepared from 15 human samples catalyzed the formation of 2,5-DHBA at metabolic rate of 21.7 +/- 8.5 pmol/mg/min. The formation of 2, 3-DHBA was not P-450 dependent. Formation of 2,5-DHBA was inhibited by 36 +/- 14% following preincubation of microsomes with diethyldithiocarbamate, a mechanism-based selective inhibitor of P-450 2E1. Furthermore, the efficiency of inhibition was significantly correlated with four catalytic activities specific to P-450 2E1, whereas the residual activity was correlated with three P-450 3A4 catalytic activities. Troleandomycin, a mechanism-based inhibitor selective to P-450 3A4, inhibited by 30 +/- 12% the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate, and this inhibition was significantly correlated with nifedipine oxidation, specific to P-450 3A4. The capability of seven recombinant human P-450s to hydroxylate salicylate demonstrated that P-450 2E1 and 3A4 contributed to 2, 5-DHBA formation in approximately equal proportions. The Km values of recombinant P-450 2E1 and 3A4, 280 and 513 microM, respectively, are in the same range as the high-affinity Km measured with human liver microsomes. The plasmatic metabolic ratio 2,5-DHBA/salicylate, measured 2 h after ingestion of 1 g acetylsalicylate, was increased 3-fold in 12 alcoholic patients at the beginning of their withdrawal period versus 15 control subjects. These results confirm that P-450 2E1, inducible by ethanol, is involved in the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate in humans. Furthermore, this ratio was still increased by 2-fold 1 week after ethanol withdrawal. This finding suggests that P-450 3A4, known to be also inducible by alcoholic beverages, plays an important role in this increase, because P-450 2E1 returned to normal levels in less than 3 days after ethanol withdrawal. Finally, in vivo and in vitro data demonstrated that P-450 2E1 and P-450 3A4, both inducible by alcohols, catalyzed the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate.  (+info)

(4/5630) The role of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in the treatment of alcoholism: from animal to clinical studies.

Since its discovery nearly 40 years ago, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has attracted several waves of scientific interest due to new developments in the knowledge of its mechanisms of action and ideas for its potential use in clinical practice. Its effects have been claimed to treat different psychiatric conditions, but over time its use has become limited to a few specific situations (e.g. sedating patients in non-painful surgical procedures and narcolepsy). New interest in the drug derives from its potential use in the treatment of alcoholism. Recent studies demonstrated a marked effect of the substance in suppressing ethanol (ETOH) withdrawal symptoms and in reducing craving for alcohol, compared to other available drugs. However, GHB has to be given under very careful supervision because of its side-effects, including the risk of abuse and dependence and possible interference with the metabolic pathways of endogenous GHB and ETOH. This short review discusses these and related issues and we hope that it will stimulate further interest in GHB.  (+info)

(5/5630) The impact of Alcohol and Alcoholism among substance abuse journals.

This article concerns the question of journal impact factor and other bibliometric indicators made available by the Institute for Scientific Information in their Journal Citation Report for 1996. The impact factors of journals within the subject category 'substance abuse' are listed along with total citations, immediacy indices, and cited half-lives. The relationship between cited and citing journals is discussed with the main focus on the data available for Alcohol and Alcoholism. Some of the problems and limitations of bibliometric measures of productivity are dealt with, especially when these are used to evaluate the work of individual scientists. Although bibliometric measures are easy to compute, they become difficult to interpret, such as when dealing with collaborative research and the problem posed by multiple authorship. The need to adjust impact factors and citation counts for the number of co-authors in a paper becomes important when credit has to be attributed to one individual from a multi-author paper. This is often necessary in connection with grant applications and when making decisions about academic promotion and tenure. The impact factor of Alcohol and Alcoholism has increased steadily over the past 5 years, even after adjusting for the number of self-citations, which resulted in an even greater increase in impact. However, the impact factors of substance abuse journals are generally low, compared with disciplines such as immunology, genetics, and biochemistry. Some suggestions are made for increasing the impact factors of substance abuse journals if this is considered necessary. But instead of paying attention to the impact factor of a journal, scientists should give more consideration to the speed and efficiency of the editorial handling of their manuscripts and particularly to the quality and timeliness of the peer review.  (+info)

(6/5630) Enhancing the identification of excessive drinkers on medical wards: a 1-year follow-up study.

This paper describes a 1-year follow-up study examining whether hospital ward doctors and nurses continue to take quantitative alcohol histories and provide brief intervention to problem drinkers on general medical wards after the introduction of a simple protocol. Regular training in the use of this protocol was stipulated in the annual service contract between the Health Authority and the Hospital Trusts. Improvements in staff practice persisted at 1-year follow-up, although it fell from a peak at an earlier phase of the study. The positive role of state purchasers of health services in sustaining improvements in clinical practice is discussed.  (+info)

(7/5630) Urban-rural comparisons of drink-driving behaviour among late teens: a preliminary investigation.

A preliminary study was conducted to examine the nature and extent of urban-rural differences in self-reported drinking and driving among youths in Western Australia. A total of 102 youths aged 17, 18 and 19 years were surveyed via a random street sampling technique about their alcohol consumption and drink-driving behaviour. Analyses indicated that urban youths had a significantly higher level of self-reported drink-driving behaviour than their rural counterparts. Males indicated a higher level of self-reported drink-driving behaviour than females. This article also provides a review and summary of youth drink-driving literature with special focus on urban-rural comparisons.  (+info)

(8/5630) Alcohol consumption profile by time in middle-aged men: a longitudinal study based on three different diagnostic instruments.

This longitudinal study aimed at comparing aggregate measures of heavy or problem drinking and their variations across time among the same subjects. We examined middle-aged men participating in a health survey over a 5-year interval. Of the 133 consecutive men in the whole age group interviewed as 40-year-olds in 1989, 114 were reached and re-interviewed in 1994. Alcohol consumption was measured by self-report, Malmo-modified Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (Mm-MAST), and serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT). Self-reported alcohol consumption decreased with years (142 vs 105 g/week, P = 0.01), as did CDT (16.9 vs 14.4 U/l, P = 0.02), but there was no change in the Mm-MAST results. There was no significant difference in the number of heavy drinkers (either Mm-MAST score > or = 3, or by self-reported alcohol consumption > or = 280 g/week, or by CDT > or = 20 U/l) at 40 and 45 years of age (37 and 47% respectively). At the individual level, alcohol consumption both increased and decreased with age. At 45 years of age 5/114 (4%) of the men reported that they had increased their alcohol consumption by more than 80 g/week and 25/114 (22%) said that they had reduced their drinking by the same amount. The remaining 84 (74%) reported drinking the same amount as 5 years earlier (+/- 80 g/week). This indicates that alcohol drinking habits are not stable in middle age. Most heavy drinkers in both age groups were detected by Mm-MAST and this proportion increased with age while the proportion of positive self-reports and CDTs decreased. Thus, the social consequences, measured here by the Mm-MAST, may be more readily experienced with years even at smaller consumption levels.  (+info)



  • 1983
  • The National Review hailed the first edition (1983) as "a genuine revolution in the field of alcoholism research" and said that "Vaillant has combined clinical experience with an unprecedented amount of empirical data to produce what may ultimately come to be viewed as the single most important contribution to the literature of alcoholism since the first edition of AA's Big Book. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1983: Vaillant publishes The Natural History of Alcoholism: causes, patterns and paths to recovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995: Vaillant publishes a new edition entitled The Natural History of Alcoholism Revisited, which includes the entire text of the 1983 edition plus new material marked "Revisited. (wikipedia.org)
  • binge
  • 56% of students reported binge drinking once a week.In comparison, the comparable figure of alcoholism for American Indian and Alaskan Native youth ("Native youth" hereafter) is approximately 80 percent (Beauvais, Oetting, & Wolf, 1989). (wikipedia.org)
  • alcoholics
  • The Natural History of Alcoholism Revisited (1995) is a book by psychiatrist George E. Vaillant that describes two multi-decade studies of the lives of 600 American males, non-alcoholics at the outset, focusing on their lifelong drinking behaviours. (wikipedia.org)
  • That for most alcoholics, attempts at controlled drinking in the long term end in either abstinence or a return to alcoholism. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • COGA researchers will interview subjects using the SSAGA, or Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism, specifically created for the COGA project. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • Other factors for alcoholism include the stress levels, individual emotional health and the social environment of the individual. (drugstrategies.org)
  • The risk of developing alcoholism depends on many factors, such as environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In consequence, research has sought to determine the factors responsible for the development and persistence of alcoholism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In coordination with these factors, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms influence the progression toward alcoholism. (wikipedia.org)
  • By following the men from youth to old age it was possible to chart their drinking patterns and what factors may have contributed to alcoholism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factors predicting alcoholism were related to ethnic culture, alcoholism in relatives, and a personality that is antisocial and extroverted. (wikipedia.org)
  • That means there are several different genes that influence risk factors involved in alcoholism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases
  • Genes not only carry information about eye and skin color, but also carry vulnerability to specific diseases, and probably cause a susceptibility to alcoholism as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • drinkers
  • However, modern views of alcoholism emphasize that many individuals enjoy drinking without experiencing any alcohol-related difficulties and that one therefore should focus on problem drinkers rather than on alcohol use. (springer.com)
  • The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) screening tool was developed in 1971 and is one of the oldest alcoholism screening tests in identifying dependent drinkers. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • These reasons include: Availability of alcohol Peer pressure Role model Television Anxiety or stress There are a number of ways to preventing alcoholism throughout adolescents. (wikipedia.org)
  • anxiety
  • An increased propensity for alcoholism has been associated with stress-related anxiety and dysphoria, a state of general unease or dissatisfaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies
  • Evidence from twin studies show that concordance rates for alcoholism are higher for monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins-76% for monozygotic twins and 61% for dizygotic twins. (wikipedia.org)