Alcoholics: Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Fatty Liver, Alcoholic: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.Pancreatitis, Alcoholic: Acute or chronic INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS due to excessive ALCOHOL DRINKING. Alcoholic pancreatitis usually presents as an acute episode but it is a chronic progressive disease in alcoholics.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Alcoholics Anonymous: An organization of self-proclaimed alcoholics who meet frequently to reinforce their practice of abstinence.Cardiomyopathy, Alcoholic: Disease of CARDIAC MUSCLE resulting from chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Myocardial damage can be caused by: (1) a toxic effect of alcohol; (2) malnutrition in alcoholics such as THIAMINE DEFICIENCY; or (3) toxic effect of additives in alcoholic beverages such as COBALT. This disease is usually manifested by DYSPNEA and palpitations with CARDIOMEGALY and congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcoholic Neuropathy: A condition where damage to the peripheral nervous system (including the peripheral elements of the autonomic nervous system) is associated with chronic ingestion of alcoholic beverages. The disorder may be caused by a direct effect of alcohol, an associated nutritional deficiency, or a combination of factors. Clinical manifestations include variable degrees of weakness; ATROPHY; PARESTHESIAS; pain; loss of reflexes; sensory loss; diaphoresis; and postural hypotension. (From Arch Neurol 1995;52(1):45-51; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1146)Psychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.Alcohol Amnestic Disorder: A mental disorder associated with chronic ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) and nutritional deficiencies characterized by short term memory loss, confabulations, and disturbances of attention. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Wernicke Encephalopathy: An acute neurological disorder characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and disturbances of mental activity or consciousness. Eye movement abnormalities include nystagmus, external rectus palsies, and reduced conjugate gaze. THIAMINE DEFICIENCY and chronic ALCOHOLISM are associated conditions. Pathologic features include periventricular petechial hemorrhages and neuropil breakdown in the diencephalon and brainstem. Chronic thiamine deficiency may lead to KORSAKOFF SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1139-42; Davis & Robertson, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp452-3)Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium: An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Alcohol Abstinence: Non-consumption of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Hyalin: A clear, homogenous, structureless, eosinophilic substance occurring in pathological degeneration of tissues.Pellagra: A disease due to deficiency of NIACIN, a B-complex vitamin, or its precursor TRYPTOPHAN. It is characterized by scaly DERMATITIS which is often associated with DIARRHEA and DEMENTIA (the three D's).Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Korsakoff Syndrome: An acquired cognitive disorder characterized by inattentiveness and the inability to form short term memories. This disorder is frequently associated with chronic ALCOHOLISM; but it may also result from dietary deficiencies; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NEOPLASMS; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; ENCEPHALITIS; EPILEPSY; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Thiamine Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Splenorenal Shunt, Surgical: Anastomosis of splenic vein to renal vein to relieve portal hypertension.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Esophageal and Gastric Varices: Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Event-Related Potentials, P300: A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)Gait Ataxia: Impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal ambulation (WALKING) which may result from impairments of motor function or sensory feedback. This condition may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES (including CEREBELLAR DISEASES and BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES); SPINAL CORD DISEASES; or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES.Disulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.Thiamine Monophosphate: Thiamine dihydrogen phosphate ester. The monophosphate ester of thiamine. Synonyms: monophosphothiamine; vitamin B1 monophosphate.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Father-Child Relations: Interaction between the father and the child.Personality Tests: Standardized objective tests designed to facilitate the evaluation of personality.Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical: Surgical venous shunt between the portal and systemic circulation to effect decompression of the portal circulation. It is performed primarily in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices resulting from portal hypertension. Types of shunt include portacaval, splenorenal, mesocaval, splenocaval, left gastric-caval (coronary-caval), portarenal, umbilicorenal, and umbilicocaval.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pentoxifylline: A METHYLXANTHINE derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Parotid DiseasesSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Hepatorenal Syndrome: Functional KIDNEY FAILURE in patients with liver disease, usually LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL), and in the absence of intrinsic renal disease or kidney abnormality. It is characterized by intense renal vasculature constriction, reduced renal blood flow, OLIGURIA, and sodium retention.Ketosis: A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Pyruvate Decarboxylase: Catalyzes the decarboxylation of an alpha keto acid to an aldehyde and carbon dioxide. Thiamine pyrophosphate is an essential cofactor. In lower organisms, which ferment glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide, the enzyme irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetaldehyde. EC 4.1.1.1.Boredom: A psychological state resulting from any activity that lacks motivation, or from enforced continuance in an uninteresting situation.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Energy Drinks: Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Aversive Therapy: A treatment that suppresses undesirable behavior by simultaneously exposing the subject to unpleasant consequences.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Self-Help Groups: Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.Nutritional Support: The administration of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient by means other than normal eating. It does not include FLUID THERAPY which normalizes body fluids to restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Ellagic Acid: A fused four ring compound occurring free or combined in galls. Isolated from the kino of Eucalyptus maculata Hook and E. Hemipholia F. Muell. Activates Factor XII of the blood clotting system which also causes kinin release; used in research and as a dye.Rib FracturesDiet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Povidone-Iodine: An iodinated polyvinyl polymer used as topical antiseptic in surgery and for skin and mucous membrane infections, also as aerosol. The iodine may be radiolabeled for research purposes.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Dextropropoxyphene: A narcotic analgesic structurally related to METHADONE. Only the dextro-isomer has an analgesic effect; the levo-isomer appears to exert an antitussive effect.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Cooking and Eating UtensilsPancreatic Pseudocyst: Cyst-like space not lined by EPITHELIUM and contained within the PANCREAS. Pancreatic pseudocysts account for most of the cystic collections in the pancreas and are often associated with chronic PANCREATITIS.Adrenal Cortex HormonesGenotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Transactional Analysis: A psychoanalytic therapy wherein each social transaction is analyzed to determine the involved ego state (whether parent-like, child-like, or adult-like) as a basis for understanding behavior.Extraversion (Psychology): A state in which attention is largely directed outward from the self.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Recreation Therapy: The enhancement of physical, cognitive, emotional and social skills so an individual may participate in chosen activities. Recreational modalities are used in designed intervention strategies, incorporating individual's interests to make the therapy process meaningful and relevant.Agave: A genus known for fibers obtained from their leaves: sisal from A. sisalana, henequen from A. fourcroyoides and A. cantala, or Manila-Maguey fiber from A. cantala. Some species provide a sap that is fermented to an intoxicating drink, called pulque in Mexico. Some contain agavesides.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Buspirone: An anxiolytic agent and serotonin receptor agonist belonging to the azaspirodecanedione class of compounds. Its structure is unrelated to those of the BENZODIAZAPINES, but it has an efficacy comparable to DIAZEPAM.NebraskaGlossitis: Inflammation of the tongue.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Marital Therapy: A form of psychotherapy involving the husband and wife and directed to improving the marital relationship.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Water SofteningPsychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Strongyloides stercoralis: A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Bible: The book composed of writings generally accepted by Christians as inspired by God and of divine authority. (Webster, 3d ed)EstoniaPharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Medicine, Ayurvedic: The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.Cassia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Many species of this genus, including the medicinal C. senna and C. angustifolia, have been reclassified into the Senna genus (SENNA PLANT) and some to CHAMAECRISTA.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Soaps: Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.Codependency (Psychology): A relational pattern in which a person attempts to derive a sense of purpose through relationships with others.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (NAD+)Ethyl EthersTrypsinogen: The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Lipotropic Agents: Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.Beriberi: A disease caused by a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1) and characterized by polyneuritis, cardiac pathology, and edema. The epidemic form is found primarily in areas in which white (polished) rice is the staple food, as in Japan, China, the Philippines, India, and other countries of southeast Asia. (Dorland, 27th ed)Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.Stearates: Salts and esters of the 18-carbon saturated, monocarboxylic acid--stearic acid.Portacaval Shunt, Surgical: Surgical portasystemic shunt between the portal vein and inferior vena cava.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.Yeast, Dried: The dry cells of any suitable strain of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE or CANDIDA. It can be obtained as a by-product from the brewing of beer or by growing on media not suitable for beer production. Dried yeast serves as a source of protein and VITAMIN B COMPLEX.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.Binge Drinking: Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.Personality Disorders: A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.Mamillary Bodies: A pair of nuclei and associated gray matter in the interpeduncular space rostral to the posterior perforated substance in the posterior hypothalamus.Trypsin Inhibitor, Kazal Pancreatic: A pancreatic trypsin inhibitor common to all mammals. It is secreted with the zymogens into the pancreatic juice. It is a protein composed of 56 amino acid residues and is different in amino acid composition and physiological activity from the Kunitz bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (APROTININ).Pancreatic Juice: The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Vitamin B Deficiency: A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.

*  Online Intergroup : Alcoholics Anonymous

Alcoholics Anonymous and AA are registered trademarks of Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. ... of carrying the AA message to the alcoholic who still suffers. Online Intergroup Publications , Anonymity & Privacy , Contact ...
aa-intergroup.org/cal.php?date=2012-04-08&view=day

*  About Alcoholics Anonymous AA - Find Meetings | Addict-Help

Alcoholics Anonymous is the worldwide support group for recovering alcoholics find history of AA and a link to meetings ... Alcoholics Anonymous. Listen text. Posted September 17, 2016. by Addict Help. Alcoholics Anonymous is a worldwide, non-profit ... About Alcoholics Anonymous. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) was founded by Bill Wilson and Dr. Bob Smith on June 10, 1935. It is a ... The 12-Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous are the core of AA's recovery modality. They are designed to help an alcoholic learn how ...
https://addict-help.com/AA-alcoholics-anonymous/

*  Alcoholics Anonymous Requires Belief in God

While Alcoholics Anonymous is religious in nature, many involved state that your high power can be whatever you like, a door ... Alcoholics Anonymous Requires Belief in God. August 2, 2013 2268 views AA, alcoholic, Alcoholics Anonymous, god, higher power ... However, Alcoholics Anonymous co-founder Bill W. refers to God 133 times in the 2013 edition of the Big Book. He uses the ... But he does say that for an alcoholic to be delivered from alcoholism, "The only condition is that he trust in God and clean ...
soberforever.net/addictionblog/index.php/alcoholics-anonymous-requires-belief-in-god/

*  Dealing with an alcoholic - Posts

Find Dealing with an alcoholic information, treatments for Dealing with an alcoholic and Dealing with an alcoholic symptoms. ... MedHelp's Dealing with an alcoholic Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Dealing with an ... Posts on Dealing with an alcoholic. How to deal with an Alcoholic - Alcoholic, Living with an Community ... my question is i think i am a alcoholic , i been going to aa for 5 years i with off and on ... ...
medhelp.org/tags/show/226608/Dealing-with-an-alcoholic?section=subjects

*  Daughters of Alcoholics Support - Page 8 - Mothering Forums

My brother is not an alcoholic per say, but he is a gambler.. She always complains that she does all this work all the time and ... I am just finding out now that my father is probably an alcoholic. He has been violent and unpredictable my whole life but we ... My Mother has not lived with my alcoholic father for 15 years, yet she still has enabler/co-dependent issues with my brother. ... I didn't know until recently that this was part of his alcoholic behavior. Sad, huh? ...
mothering.com/forum/12-personal-growth/223686-daughters-alcoholics-support-8.html

*  Alcoholics Anonymous Suite - Wikipedia

A Alcoholics Anonymous Suite (também conhecida como Twelve-step Suite e Mikey Suite) é uma série de cinco canções da banda ...
https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcoholics_Anonymous_Suite

*  Lies Alcoholics Tell Themselves | AOL.com

Gail discusses the lies that alcoholics tell themselves. ... Lies Alcoholics Tell Themselves. Gail discusses the lies that ...
https://aol.com/video/view/lies-alcoholics-tell-themselves/517128411/

*  Rot Gut by Alcoholics Unaminous - Pandora

Alcoholics Unaminous - Pandora
https://pandora.com/artist/alcoholics-unaminous/20-years-of-tanked-up-tunes/rot-gut/TRKrtp935ld7zPg

*  Alcoholics Anonymous : Contribuciones y Automantenimiento

La Séptima Tradición dice:
aa.org/pages/es_ES/contributions-and-self-support

*  Diabetes and Alcoholics....

Perhaps an alcoholic's physical craving is connected to a sugar imbalance. Alcohol is mainly sugar. Or perhaps alcoholics have ... I have come across a few alcoholics in my day, and a few have reformed. It always made me wonder why it is that the reformed ...
wines.com/wineboard/thread-3314-post-14135.html

*  Children Of Alcoholics

In general, these children are at greater risk for having emotional problems than children whose parents are not alcoholics. ... One in five adult Americans have lived with an alcoholic relative while growing up. ... The child feels anger at the alcoholic parent for drinking, and may be angry at the non-alcoholic parent for lack of support ... Alcoholism runs in families, and children of alcoholics are four times more likely than other children to become alcoholics ...
aacap.org/AACAP/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/Facts_for_Families_Pages/Children_Of_Alcoholics_17.aspx

*  Alcoholic Doctor

Sinitech responds: Long time no see, dude! Yeah I never really feel like a song is 'finished', I usually just stop when I get tired of hearing it. You know when you're making it you're listening to the same song over and over again hundreds of times, in some cases for hours at a time, and eventually it becomes grating. I guess that probably happens to everyone, but that's usually when I decide to call it quits and work on a different project.. I appreciate the feedback, man, I really have no way to gauge with my own ears whether or not I've improved over time, so I kind of rely on everyone telling me what's good and bad and where I went wrong and etc. ...
https://newgrounds.com/audio/listen/679147

*  List of 9 Alcoholics Books

... alcoholics' by our club members to find the best alcoholics books. ... Looking for Alcoholics Books? Browse a list of books tagged ' ... The honorable alcoholic. Author: Harold E Hughes. *. ? Book ... Author: Bill W., Alcoholics Anonymous World Services. *Currently 4.1/5 Stars.. 22. Book Type: Hardcover. Publication Date: 1976 ... Kids' Power: Healing Games for Children of Alcoholics. Author: Jerry Moe, Don Pohlman, Peter Ways. *Currently 3.8/5 Stars. ...
paperbackswap.com/Alcoholics/tag/179447/

*  Alcoholic Faith Mission - Wikipedia

Alcoholic Faith Mission, su AllMusic, All Media Network. (EN) Alcoholic Faith Mission, su Discogs, Zink Media. (EN) Alcoholic ... Gli Alcoholic Faith Mission sono un gruppo musicale alternative rock/indie rock danese, formatosi a New York. Sune Sølund ...
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcoholic_Faith_Mission

*  Urban Dictionary: alcoholic

A true Alcoholic would rather drink, then get a Blowjob.. Bills wife was getting ready to go down on him, but Bill said no, I& ... If an alcoholic just doesn't have that first next one, they are on the right track. That first one is the killer. ... alcoholicunknown. A two-fold malady characterized by (i) an obsession of the mind coupled with (ii) an allergy of the body. The ... John the alcoholic finds that he honestly does want to quit drinking but finds he cannot quit entirely, or if when drinking, he ...
urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=alcoholic

*  Alcoholics Anonymous in Dallas, TX - YellowBot

Alcoholics Anonymous at 11277 E Northwest Hwy, Dallas, TX 75238 ... Alcoholics Anonymous. Address. 11277 E Northwest Hwy Dallas TX ... What the community has to say about Alcoholics Anonymous Add Photo or Video User Photos & Videos. Be the first YellowBot user ... Alcoholics Anonymous is located at 11277 E Northwest Hwy Ste 123A, Dallas, TX. This location is in the Highland Meadows ...
yellowbot.com/alcoholics-anonymous-dallas-tx-26.html

*  Alcoholic Beverages - MarketWatch.com Topics

... analysis and video updates on Alcoholic Beverages from MarketWatch ... AB InBev to buy energy drinks maker HiballJust as the soda giants are going after startups making healthy, non-alcoholic fizz, ... Weekend Sip: Is this the world's first distilled non-alcoholic spirit? British-made Seedlip aims to woo the non-drinking ...
marketwatch.com/topics/subjects/alcoholic-beverages

*  Category:ro:Alcoholic beverages - Wiktionary

Fundamental » All languages » Romanian » All topics » Food and drink » Beverages » Alcoholic beverages ... Pages in category "ro:Alcoholic beverages". The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Category:ro:Alcoholic_beverages&oldid=47126921" ...
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Category:ro:Alcoholic_beverages

*  alcoholic Archives - Jewish Journal

Can an alcoholic who was poisoned with his father's anti-Semitism use a moment of naked exposure to confront his bigotry? Can ... But Orli (not her real name) became an alcoholic,a disease, she says, that afflicted her father. At first, she woulddrink for ... Hello, my name is successful professional, social activist, community leader, major UJF donor and Jewish alcoholic ("Dirty ...
jewishjournal.com/tag/alcoholic/

*  bitters | alcoholic beverage | Britannica.com

Any of numerous aromatized and often alcoholic liquids containing bitter substances (chiefly alkaloids, glycosides, or ... alcoholic beverage. Any fermented liquor, such as wine, beer, or distilled spirit, that contains ethyl alcohol, or ethanol (CH ... alcoholic beverage distilled from wine or a fermented fruit mash. The term used alone generally refers to the grape product; ... Alcoholic beverage produced by extracting raw materials with water, boiling (usually with hops), and fermenting. In some ...
https://britannica.com/topic/bitters

*  brandy | alcoholic beverage | Britannica.com

Alcoholic beverage distilled from wine or a fermented fruit mash. The term used alone generally refers to the grape product; ... Brandy, alcoholic beverage distilled from wine or a fermented fruit mash. The term used alone generally refers to the grape ... alcoholic beverage distilled from wine or a fermented fruit mash. The term used alone generally refers to the grape product; ... Take this food quiz at Encyclopedia Britannica to test your knowledge of alcoholic drinks and their plant sources. ...
https://britannica.com/topic/brandy

*  Alcoholics Anonymous : Is A.A. for Me?

P-36 - Is A.A. for Me? - Based on the 12 questions in
aa.org/assets/en_US/aa-literature/p-36-is-aa-for-me

*  Best Alcoholic Beverages - AskMen

Top 10 manly drinks.
https://askmen.com/top_10/entertainment/137c_top_10_list.html

FibroTest: FibroTest, known as FibroSure in the US, is a patented biomarker test that uses the results of six blood serum tests to generate a score that is correlated with the degree of liver damage in people with a variety of liver diseases. FibroTest has the same prognostic value as a liver biopsy.Alcoholic hepatitisBlended malt whisky: A blended malt, formerly called a vatted malt, or pure malt, is a blend of different single malt whiskies from different distilleries. These terms are most commonly used in reference to Scotch whisky, or whisky in that style, such as Japanese whisky.Research Society on Alcoholism: The Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) is a learned society of over 1600 active members based in Austin, Texas. Its objective is to advance research on alcoholism and the physiological and cognitive effects of alcohol.Ethanol fuel: Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline.Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS): Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome still under research, leading to rapid onset Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or tics in children and adolescents. It may be either connected to Group A streptococcal infections (PANDAS sub-group) or caused by immunologic reactionsKatherine E.Draught beer: Draught beer, also spelt draft, is beer served from a cask or keg rather than from a bottle or can. Canned draught is beer served from a pressurised container featuring a widget.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.Wernicke: Wernicke is a surname, and may refer toRice wineAlcohol intoxicationDelirium Tremens (album)Prokaryotic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase dimerisation domain: In molecular biology, prokaryotic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase dimerisation domain is a protein domain found at the C-terminus of prokaryotic acetaldehyde dehydrogenases, it adopts a structure consisting of an alpha-beta-alpha-beta(3) core, which mediates dimerisation of the protein.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIMir-652 microRNA precursor family: In molecular biology mir-652 microRNA is a short RNA molecule. MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other genes by several mechanisms, with expression levels of miRNAs and respective target mRNAs negatively correlated.American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases: The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) is the leading organization of scientists and health care professionals committed to preventing and curing liver disease. AASLD was founded in 1950 by a small group of leading liver specialists (including Hans Popper, Leon Schiff, Fred Hoffbauer, Cecil Watson, Jesse Bollman, and Sheila Sherlock, to name a few) to bring together those who had contributed to the field of hepatology.Liver biopsyHyalinizing clear cell carcinoma: Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, abbreviated HCCC, is a rare malignant salivary gland tumour, with a good prognosis, that is usually found on the tongue or palate.PellagraPrimary alcoholFatty liverPancreatitisTransaminaseAlcohol dehydrogenaseHistory of psychopathy: Psychopathy, from psych (soul or mind) and pathy (suffering or disease), was coined by German psychiatrists in the 19th century and originally just meant what would today be called mental disorder, the study of which is still known as psychopathology. By the turn of the century 'psychopathic inferiority' referred to the type of mental disorder that might now be termed personality disorder, along with a wide variety of other conditions now otherwise classified.Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromeNested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Alanine transaminase: Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme (). It is also called alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and was formerly called serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) or serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT).Wernicke–Korsakoff syndromeLong-chain-aldehyde dehydrogenase: Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (or Long-chain-aldehyde dehydrogenase) is an aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme that in human is encoded in the ALDH3A2 gene on chromosome 17.Lactic acid fermentationHepatic encephalopathyKupffer cell: Kupffer cells, also known as Browicz-Kupffer cells and stellate macrophages, are specialized macrophages located in the liver lining the walls of the sinusoids that form part of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) (or mononuclear phagocyte system).Jean Emond: Jean C. Emond is the current Thomas S.M74 syndrome: The M74 syndrome is a reproduction disorder of salmon (Salmo salar) feeding in the Baltic Sea. M74 manifests as offspring mortality during the yolk-sac fry phase.Thiamine transporter: Members of this protein family have been assigned as thiamine transporters by a phylogenomic analysis of families of genes regulated by the THI element, a broadly conserved RNA secondary structure element through which thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) levels can regulate transcription of many genes related to thiamine transport, salvage, and de novo biosynthesis. Species with this protein always lack the ThiBPQ ABC transporter.Chronic pancreatitisNon-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Liver function tests: LFT}}W. Dean Warren: W. Dean Warren (October 28, 1924 - May 10, 1989) was Joseph B.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingGastric varicesTandem gait: Tandem gait is a gait (method of walking or running) where the toes of the back foot touch the heel of the front foot at each step. Neurologists sometimes ask patients to walk in a straight line using tandem gait as a test to help diagnose ataxia, especially truncal ataxia, because sufferers of these disorders will have an unsteady gait.Benzyl benzoate/disulfiram: Benzyl benzoate/disulfiram (trade name Tenutex) is a combination drug used in the treatment of scabies. It consists of the antiparasitic insecticides benzyl benzoate and disulfiram.Thiamine monophosphatePentoxifyllineAscitesKetosisBilirubinTesticular atrophy: Testicular atrophy is a medical condition in which the male reproductive organs (the testes, which in humans are located in the scrotum) diminish in size and may be accompanied by loss of function. This does not refer to temporary changes, such as those brought on by cold.Pyruvate decarboxylase: Pyruvate decarboxylase is a homotetrameric enzyme () that catalyses the decarboxylation of pyruvic acid to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes, and in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of eukaryotes. It is also called 2-oxo-acid carboxylase, alpha-ketoacid carboxylase, and pyruvic decarboxylase.Outline of human–computer interaction: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to human–computer interaction:Sports drink: Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.PhytomedicinePortal hypertensionBiomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Energy shot: Energy shots are a specialized kind of energy drink that contain a dose of the stimulant caffeine in a small amount of liquid. Whereas most energy drinks are sold in cans or bottles, energy shots are usually sold in 50ml bottles.Low-dose naltrexone: Low-dose naltrexone (LDN) describes the off-label use of the medication naltrexone at low doses for diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Naltrexone is typically prescribed for opioid dependence or alcohol dependence, as it is a strong opioid antagonist.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.

(1/52) Deficits in affective prosody comprehension: family history of alcoholism versus alcohol exposure.

 (+info)

(2/52) Psychological distress in non-drinkers: associations with previous heavy drinking and current social relationships.

 (+info)

(3/52) Relationship between plasma folate and homocysteine concentrations in alcoholics according to liver enzyme activity.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between folate and homocysteine levels in alcoholics taking into consideration the liver enzyme activity as sensitive markers of hepatocellular injury. Folate and homocysteine concentrations did not differ between alcoholics classified according to the liver enzyme activity. The association between folate and homocysteine levels exists in the alcoholics with normal liver enzyme activity and in the controls. Therefore, we concluded that before the liver hepatocellular injury due to alcohol abuse, the correlation between folate and homocysteine concentrations in alcoholics exists as in the healthy controls. In the presence of hepatocellular injury, the association disappears.  (+info)

(4/52) An ongoing process: a qualitative study of how the alcohol-dependent free themselves of addiction through progressive abstinence.

 (+info)

(5/52) Community-acquired bacterial meningitis in alcoholic patients.

 (+info)

(6/52) Connective tissue growth factor production by activated pancreatic stellate cells in mouse alcoholic chronic pancreatitis.

 (+info)

(7/52) Sensation seeking in long-term abstinent alcoholics, treatment-naive active alcoholics, and nonalcoholic controls.

 (+info)

(8/52) Breeding of a low pyruvate-producing sake yeast by isolation of a mutant resistant to ethyl alpha-transcyanocinnamate, an inhibitor of mitochondrial pyruvate transport.

Pyruvate is the key substance controlling the formation of diacetyl, acetaldehyde, and acetate during alcoholic fermentation. Here we report the breeding of a low pyruvate-producing sake yeast by isolation of a mutant resistant to ethyl alpha-transcyanocinnamate, an inhibitor of mitochondrial pyruvate transport. Mitochondrial function was involved in resistance to this substance and in the production of pyruvate by the mutants.  (+info)



hepatitis


  • To evaluate the effect of an intensive enteral nutrition (compared to clinical routine) in association with corticosteroïds in patients with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH) is characterized by hepatocellular necrosis, ballooning degeneration and an inflammatory reaction with many polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and fibrosis (Mezey E. Treatment of alcoholic liver disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Alcoholic Hepatitis (n. (leparisien.fr)
  • SAN DIEGO, Sept. 10, 2013 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Conatus Pharmaceuticals (Nasdaq:CNAT), a biotechnology company focused on the development and commercialization of novel medicines to treat liver disease, today announced initiation of dosing in the Phase 2 clinical trial of emricasan in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. (biospace.com)
  • This study is being conducted by the Translational Research and Evolving Alcoholic Hepatitis Treatment (TREAT) Consortium consisting of the Mayo Clinic Rochester, Indiana University, and Virginia Commonwealth University in collaboration with the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). (biospace.com)
  • Symptoms of cirrhosis are similar to those of alcoholic hepatitis. (hubpages.com)
  • Many heavy drinkers will progress from fatty liver to alcoholic hepatitis and finally to alcoholic cirrhosis, though the progression may vary from patient to patient. (hubpages.com)

fatty liver disease


  • Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) imposes a high and increasing burden on the NHS, yet there is presently no licensed treatment or validated approach to management. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We are asking the research question ' Does treatment with purified long chain n-3 fatty acids (purified fish oil) improve non alcoholic fatty liver disease and risk factors for heart disease and type 2 (adult) diabetes that are strongly linked to this liver condition? (clinicaltrials.gov)

liver


  • Alcoholic liver disease is long-term damage to the liver from extensive alcohol use, leading to loss of liver function. (ourhealth.com)
  • Do you have an Alcoholic Liver Disease question or want to share advice? (ourhealth.com)
  • A review article in the January issue of Gastroenterology summarizes recent findings and highlights emerging trends in the gut-liver axis relevant to alcoholic liver disease. (gastro.org)
  • Szabo G. Gut-Liver Axis in Alcoholic Liver Disease. (gastro.org)
  • Alcoholic cirrhosis is the most serious type of alcohol-induced liver disease. (hubpages.com)

Severe


  • Severe cases of alcoholic neuropathy can lead to the development of symptoms in the proximal lower extremities and distal upper extremities. (medscape.com)

fibrosis


  • A significant recent development relates to the characterization of pancreatic stellate cells, increasingly implicated in alcoholic pancreatic fibrosis. (karger.com)

Symptoms


  • Symptoms of alcoholic neuropathy, like those of many of the other axonal mixed polyneuropathies, manifest initially in the distal lower extremities. (medscape.com)
  • Protein kinases A and C have also been implicated in the painful symptoms associated with alcoholic neuropathy. (medscape.com)

alcohol


  • Alcoholic pancreatitis is a major complication of alcohol abuse. (karger.com)

neuropathy


  • Little Known Facts About alcoholic neuropathy. (blog2learn.com)
  • In most cases of alcoholic neuropathy, the onset of the polyneuropathy is insidious and prolonged, but some cases have been associated with acute, rapidly progressive onset. (medscape.com)
  • Alcoholic neuropathy is a primary axonal neuropathy characterized by wallerian degeneration of the axons and a reduction in the myelination of neural fibers. (medscape.com)
  • A review of the human literature implicates nutritional deficiencies, most often thiamine deficiency, that are common in alcoholic patients, as commonly accompanying complicating factors in the development of this neuropathy. (medscape.com)
  • Recently, attention has been paid to the hypothesis that alcoholic neuropathy is a result, in part, of increased oxidative stress leading to free radical damage to nerves. (medscape.com)
  • In one recent study, curcumin, an alkaloid isolated from Curcuma longa , was shown to produce significant protection from alcoholic neuropathy in a rat model, demonstrated by improved motor nerve conduction velocity and reduction in nociception. (medscape.com)
  • Another study demonstrated that in a rat model, tocotrienol, an isoform of vitamin E, given after the development of alcoholic neuropathy may be neuroprotective via its antioxidant properties. (medscape.com)
  • A combination of nutritional deficiency and direct toxicity is likely involved in the pathogenesis of alcoholic neuropathy, and these effects may be additive. (medscape.com)

consumption


  • It is the purpose of this chapter to protect the public interest, welfare, health and safety within the Town of Williamson, by prohibiting the consumption of alcoholic beverages in public places within the town. (ecode360.com)
  • The Town Board finds that possession of an open container of alcoholic beverage in a public place within the town has led to consumption of the same, resulting in public intoxication, disorderly conduct, disturbance of the public peace, littering of the public places and destruction of property. (ecode360.com)

patients


  • Thiamine deficiency is commonly found in alcoholic patients, due to decreased absorption and hepatic depletion. (medscape.com)

beer


  • Even non-alcoholic beer contains silicon and phytoestrogens. (redorbit.com)

motor


  • This chapter shall not apply to any person consuming alcoholic beverages in certain motor vehicles in violation of § 1227 of the Vehicle and Traffic Law of the State of New York as that section will cover such situations. (ecode360.com)