Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Sensilla: Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Euphorbia: A large plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. They have a milky sap and a female flower consisting of a single pistil, surrounded by numerous male flowers of one stamen each. Euphorbia hirta is rarely called milkweed but that name is normally used for ASCLEPIAS.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Brachyura: An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)United StatesPolyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium: An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)Binge Drinking: Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.

*  Nature's Miracle® No-Chew Bitter Taste Dog Spray | dog Deterrents | PetSmart

Nature's Miracle No-Chew Deterrent Spray has a bitter taste that discourages destructive chewing, biting and licking. Features: ... Details http://www.petsmart.com/dog/training-and-behavior/deterrents/natures-miracle-no-chew-bitter-taste-dog-spray-5154680. ...
petsmart.com/dog/training-and-behavior/deterrents/natures-miracle-no-chew-bitter-taste-dog-spray-13671.html

*  Disulfiram, an option for the treatment of pathological gambling?

Disulfiram is one of the proven drugs for alcohol dependence. In addition to its inhibiting acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, ... Pathological gambling and comorbid alcohol dependence often occur in combination. ... Alcohol Deterrents / adverse effects, therapeutic use*. Alcoholism / rehabilitation*. Behavior Therapy. Combined Modality ... Title: Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire) Volume: 45 ISSN: 1464-3502 ISO Abbreviation: Alcohol Alcohol. Publication ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Disulfiram-Option-Treatment-Pathological-Gambling/20083479.html

*  Armchair Philosophizing

... you tax alcohol in a way that causes the revenues from alcohol use to pay for mitigation of the externalities (like accidents ... In fact, in high crime areas where the police presence is insufficient to provide a deterrent or the quality of life is so low ... This is not the first time we have run into a problem where a threat to one's life is not a sufficient deterrent against ... Similar things can be said about drugs, prostitution, alcohol during prohibition, etc. Sometimes restricting behavior with ...
feeds.feedburner.com/armchairphilosophizing/Urru

*  Is there any medicine besides campral that helps with alcohol cravings - Answers on HealthTap

Disulfiram can help in some patients by serving as a deterrent if used under proper supervision. Drinking alcohol while taking ... My sister committed suicide from a drug/alcohol overdose. I know it depends on the drug(s) & amount of alcohol. Would this been ... Most antibiotics are less effective in the presence of alcohol. Some can make you very sick e.g. metronidazole. Alcohol ... What to do if I have campral to help me get off alcohol but its from 2009, will it still work to take? ...
https://healthtap.com/topics/is-there-any-medicine-besides-campral-that-helps-with-alcohol-cravings

*  Plus it

The alcohol-abuse deterrent activity of DSF is thought to be due to S-oxygenation in vivo, which enhances its inhibition of the ... We have also demonstrated that the alcohol-abuse deterrent disulfiram (DSF) has a highly selective, Cu(II)-dependent toxicity ...
cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/65/9_Supplement/147.4

*  Last Call? | Boston Magazine | Boston Magazine

That hasn't proved much of a deterrent so far. Plenty of local spots, including Jerry Remy's Sports Bar and Grill and Mantra, ... Nolan says if Groupon continues to offer other deals on booze, the state plans to take legal action against the site. Not ... "If you redeem a gift certificate for a discounted rate and use it to buy alcohol, I'm afraid that's not legal." ... It's illegal for bars and restaurants to mark down alcohol here (thanks again, Puritans), but lately, some establishments have ...
bostonmagazine.com/2011/03/groupon-last-call/print/

*  Reduction of acceptable blood alcohol limits for drivers - Ars Technica OpenForum

If this is actually a deterrent, then it implicitly would deter some amount of non-fatal accidents. Those accidents have ... There are many factors beyond body type that interact with alcohol, from metabolism to allergies. Furthermore, alcohol ... There are many factors beyond body type that interact with alcohol, from metabolism to allergies. Furthermore, alcohol ... There are many factors beyond body type that interact with alcohol, from metabolism to allergies. Furthermore, alcohol ...
https://arstechnica.com/civis/viewtopic.php?p=24487803

*  House to hear DUI felony bill

The most effective deterrent in my opinion has been the Interlock device installed on the vehicle which prevents the car from ... DUI/DWAI is an alcohol-industrial complex, in which a wide range of providers feed at the trough: cops, prosecutors, judges, ... be a deterrent, hence multiple convictions of repeat offenders. (Does the. felony DUI actually WORK in other states?) ... DUI/DWAI is an alcohol-industrial complex, in which a wide range of providers feed at the trough: cops, prosecutors, judges, ...
blogs.denverpost.com/thespot/2010/02/07/house-to-hear-dui-felony-bill-monday/

*  Al Sharpton on Crime

It has not been proven to be a deterrent against crime. And I do not think because it has been proven wrong that we have the ... Support programs to provide prison inmates with drug and alcohol addiction treatment.*Reduce prison sentences for those who ... End the death penalty-discriminatory, non-deterrent, wrong Q: Do you disagree with the death penalty in the capital murder of a ...
ontheissues.org/2008/Al_Sharpton_Crime.htm

*  Taking the bottle away from dangerous drunks

... a small proportion of the total market for alcohol, but (if properly selected) a substantial portion of the alcohol problem. ... Such a system would have good deterrent effects - loss of drinking privileges, and in particular the ability to drink in bars ... an ankle bracelet that provides continuous remote monitoring of alcohol consumption by measuring the alcohol that transpires ... 1. The booze industry, and in particular the bar-and-restaurant trade, would hate it. Heavy drinking is their business, and ...
samefacts.com/2004/03/drug-policy/taking-the-bottle-away-from-dangerous-drunks/

Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.RID Insect Repellent: RID is an Australian brand of personal insect repellent sold and distributed in Australia, New Zealand, worldwide and online.Primary alcoholSlit sensilla: The slit sensilla, also known as the slit sense organ, is a small mechanoreceptory organ or group of organs in the exoskeleton of arachnids which detects physical deformation or strain due to forces experienced by the animal. The organ appears in the vast majority of discovered arachnids, and is "remarkably consistent" in location and direction within each order.Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Euphorbia hirta: Euphorbia hirta (sometimes called asthma-plant) is a pantropical weed, possibly native to India. It is a hairy herb that grows in open grasslands, roadsides and pathways.Andesobia jelskiiCentral chemoreceptors: Central chemoreceptors of the central nervous system, located on the ventrolateral medullary surface in the vicinity of the exit of the 9th and 10th cranial nerves, are sensitive to the pH of their environment.Alcohol dehydrogenaseAdalia bipunctata: Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region. It is very common in western and central Europe.Insecticide: An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively.Research Society on Alcoholism: The Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) is a learned society of over 1600 active members based in Austin, Texas. Its objective is to advance research on alcoholism and the physiological and cognitive effects of alcohol.Paramoeba: Paramoeba is a genus of common parasites, including species that can cause infection in fish, crabs (including the "blue crab", Callinectes sapidus), sea urchins and others.Chemical defense: Chemical defense is the use of chemical compounds by plants and animals to deter herbivory and predation. Chemical defenses can also be used in competitive interactions to prevent overgrowth or maintain spatial dominance.Ethanol fuel: Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline.Canna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.Antheraea pernyi: Antheraea pernyi, the Chinese (Oak) tussah moth (or "Chinese tasar moth"), also known as temperate tussah moth, is a large moth in the family Saturniidae. Antheraea roylei is an extremely close relative, and the present species might actually have evolved from ancestral A.Rakiura (genus): Rakiura is a genus of Trichoptera (caddisfly). The genus contains only one species, R.Sterling Clarren: Sterling K. Clarren is one of the world's leading researchers into Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), an umbrella term encompassing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, static encephalopathy:alcohol exposed and penatal alcohol exposed.PhytomedicineBlended malt whisky: A blended malt, formerly called a vatted malt, or pure malt, is a blend of different single malt whiskies from different distilleries. These terms are most commonly used in reference to Scotch whisky, or whisky in that style, such as Japanese whisky.Alcohol intoxicationVanillyl alcoholFluorotelomer alcohol: Fluorotelomer alcohols, or FTOHs, are fluorotelomers with an alcohol functional group. They are volatile precursors to perfluorinated carboxylic acids, such as PFOA and PFNA, and other compounds.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Polyvinyl alcoholClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Delirium Tremens (album)Misbehaving Mums To Be: Misbehaving Mums To Be is a BBC Three series following a team of midwives as they take pregnant women who binge drink, chain smoke and overeat and help them get back into shape before they give birth.

(1/186) Alcohol-histamine interactions.

Alcohol and histamine metabolic pathways in the body have the common enzymes aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase. The metabolite of ethanol, acetaldehyde, can effectively compete with the metabolites of histamine, methylimidazole acetaldehyde, and imidazole acetaldehyde. At the periphery, alcohol and acetaldehyde liberate histamine from its store in mast cells and depress histamine elimination by inhibiting diamine oxidase, resulting in elevated histamine levels in tissues. Histamine mediates alcohol-induced gastric and intestinal damage and bronchial asthma as well as flushing in Orientals. On the other hand, alcohol provokes food-induced histaminosis and histamine intolerance, which is an epidemiological problem. There are many controversial reports concerning the effect of H2 receptor antagonists on ethanol metabolism and the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in the stomach. In addition, alcohol affects histamine levels in the brain by modulating histamine synthesis, release, and turnover. Histamine receptor antagonists can affect ethanol metabolism and change the sensitivity of animals to the hypnotic effects of alcohol. In contrast to other neurotransmitters, the involvement of the brain histamine system in the mechanisms of the central actions of alcohol and in the pathogenesis of alcoholism is poorly studied and understood.  (+info)

(2/186) Effects of naltrexone and fluoxetine on alcohol self-administration and reinstatement of alcohol seeking induced by priming injections of alcohol and exposure to stress.

We have recently shown that priming injections of alcohol and footshock stress reinstate alcohol seeking in drug-free rats. Here we tested whether naltrexone and fluoxetine, two drugs used in the treatment of alcohol dependence, would affect reinstatement of alcohol seeking induced by these events. We also determined the effects of these drugs on alcohol self-administration during the maintenance phase. Rats were trained to press a lever for a 12% w/v alcohol solution. After stable drug-taking behavior was obtained, lever pressing for alcohol was extinguished. Reinstatement of drug seeking was then determined after priming injections of alcohol (0.24-0.96 g/kg) or exposure to intermittent footshock (5 and 15 min). Rats were pretreated with naltrexone (0.2-0.4 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (2.5-5 mg/kg) during maintenance or during tests for reinstatement. Both naltrexone and fluoxetine decreased lever presses for alcohol during the maintenance phase. Naltrexone blocked alcohol-induced, but not stress-induced reinstatement. In contrast, fluoxetine blocked stress-induced reinstatement, while its effect on alcohol-induced reinstatement was less consistent. The implications of these data to the understanding of relapse to alcohol are discussed.  (+info)

(3/186) Effects of Hypericum perforatum extraction on alcohol intake in Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

The present study investigated the effect of acute intragastric (i.g.) administration of dry Hypericum perforatum extract (HPE), containing 0.3% hypericin, on ethanol intake in genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats. The i.g. administration of HPE, 125 or 250 mg/kg, induced a 30-40% reduction in ethanol intake in rats offered 10% (v/v) ethanol for 2 h/day. The effect of these doses was selective, since they modified neither food intake nor food-associated drinking; neither did the same doses modify the rat's gross behaviour in the open-field test. A dose of 500 mg/kg frequently induced immobility and a general suppression of ingestive behaviour. In rats offered 10% ethanol for 12 h/day, ethanol intake following treatment with 250 mg/kg HPE was significantly lower than that of controls for up to 10 h. The effect on ethanol intake was not related to the antidepressant-like effect of HPE revealed in the forced swimming test. In this regard, the effect on ethanol intake was observed after a single administration of 125 mg/kg, whereas the antidepressant effect was observed only after repeated treatment with doses higher than 125 mg/kg HPE. The i.g. administration of HPE, 250 mg/kg, did not affect blood-alcohol levels following i.g. treatment with 0.7 g/kg ethanol, the amount usually ingested in a single drinking episode; thus, the effect is not related to changes in the pharmacokinetics of ethanol. The present study shows that HPE markedly reduces ethanol intake in msP rats, without significantly modifying food intake.  (+info)

(4/186) Attenuation of alcohol intake by extract of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort) in two different strains of alcohol-preferring rats.

Extract of the common plant Hypericum perforatum L. (St John's Wort, SJW) has been used successfully for the treatment of mild to moderate depression since ancient times and has recently been studied clinically. Depression and alcoholism have some neurochemical similarities, such as low brain serotonin activities. Thus, we hypothesized that SJW extract, which contains 0.22% hypericin and 4.05% hyperforin, also may be effective in suppressing alcohol intake. To test this hypothesis, the effects of SJW extract on voluntary alcohol intake were studied in two different genetic animal models of human alcoholism: fawn-hooded (FH) and high-alcohol drinking (HAD) rats. FH and HAD rats received a single oral administration (5 ml/kg) of either vehicle or one of the five doses (100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg) of SJW extract. The oral administration of SJW extract significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced alcohol intake in both FH and HAD rats. In a third study, FH rats did not develop tolerance to the suppressant effects of SJW on alcohol intake and preference following oral administration of (400 mg/kg) of the extract for 15 consecutive days. These promising findings suggest that SJW extract should be evaluated clinically as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of alcoholism.  (+info)

(5/186) United Kingdom Multicentre Acamprosate Study (UKMAS): a 6-month prospective study of acamprosate versus placebo in preventing relapse after withdrawal from alcohol.

A 6-month randomized controlled study of acamprosate versus placebo in preventing relapse following withdrawal from alcohol was undertaken in 20 centres throughout the UK. Patients diagnosed as alcohol-dependent and detoxified within the preceding 5 weeks were randomly assigned to treatment with either acamprosate (A) 666 mg three times/day or identical placebo (P). A total of 664 patients were screened; 581 were entered into the treatment phase. One-third were episodic drinkers, 84% were male, 44% were unmarried and 48% were unemployed. Medication was first taken on average 24 days after the start of detoxification; 32% of patients had already relapsed by this time. The 6-month study period was completed by 35% of patients; adverse events led to withdrawal of a further 14% (A) and 9% (P) respectively. Compliance was poor in that, by the end of the second week, only 57% of patients were judged to be taking at least 90% of their tablets. The mean total of abstinent days achieved was 77 (A) and 81 (P). Complete abstinence for 6 months was achieved by 12% (A) and 11% (P); drinking remained within controlled limits in a further 3% (A) and 6% (P). An effect of acamprosate on consumption was not seen when subgroups, including those defined by the Lesch typology, were analysed separately. However, the mean percentage reduction in craving for alcohol measured on a visual analogue scale was greater in the acamprosate, than placebo, patients at week 2 and week 4 (P<0.001) and the mean decrease in the Hamilton Anxiety score at the 4th week was greater in the acamprosate than placebo patients (P = 0.017). In comparison with other published trials of acamprosate, patients started study medication after a longer time following detoxification, had more often recommenced drinking before medication was started and had a higher drop-out rate, and this might have contributed to the lack of a treatment effect in this study.  (+info)

(6/186) Acamprosate and relapse prevention in the treatment of alcohol dependence: a placebo-controlled study.

The objective of this study was to compare acamprosate with placebo in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients during a 6-month post-detoxification treatment and a 3-month medication-free follow-up. Patients (n = 330) were detoxified and randomized to treatment with acamprosate (1998 mg/day) or placebo within an out-patient programme including medical counselling, psychotherapy and self-help groups. The main outcome criterion was drinking behaviour as assessed by: abstinence/relapse ratio, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and the period of continued abstinence. Anxiety, depression and craving were also monitored. Intention to treat (ITT) statistical principles were followed. Twenty-five per cent of patients dropped out over the first 6 months. At the end of the treatment period, the abstinence rate was 57.9% for acamprosate and 45.2% for placebo (P = 0.03). The CAD was 110+/-77 days for acamprosate and 89+/-77 days for placebo (P = 0.016). Patients on acamprosate had a higher continuous abstinence rate and experienced less severe relapses. No differential effect was noted for anxiety, depression or craving. Treatment remained positive, but not significant, 3 months after termination of study medication. No significant difference in adverse events was noted between treatment groups. Acamprosate treatment over 180 days was consistently more effective than placebo to maintain abstinence and to diminish relapse severity.  (+info)

(7/186) Blockage of drug resistance in vitro by disulfiram, a drug used to treat alcoholism.

BACKGROUND: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) pumps a wide range of cytotoxic drugs out of cells. Inhibiting maturation of P-gp would be a novel method for circumventing P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance, which complicates cancer chemotherapy and treatment of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. We examined the effect of disulfiram (Antabuse(TM)) on the maturation and activity of P-gp. METHODS: Embryonic kidney cells were transfected with a complementary DNA for the P-pg gene, and the effects of disulfiram on the sensitivity of the transfected cells to cytotoxic agents were determined. Enzyme assays were used to determine the effects of disulfiram on the verapamil-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of P-gp. Disulfiram modifies cysteine residues, and mutant forms of P-gp that lack individual cysteines were used to determine whether particular cysteine residues mediate disulfiram's effects on P-gp activity. Maturation of recombinant P-gp was followed on immunoblots. RESULTS: Disulfiram increased the sensitivity of P-gp-transfected cells to vinblastine and colchicine and inhibited P-gp's verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity. Half-maximal inhibition of ATPase activity occurred at 13.5 microM disulfiram. Disulfiram (at 100 microM) inhibited a P-gp mutant by 43% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 37%-48%) when cysteine was present at position 431 only and by 72% (95% CI = 66%-77%) when cysteine was present at position 1074 only. Treatment of P-gp-transfected cells with 50 nM disulfiram blocked maturation of recombinant P-gp. CONCLUSIONS: Disulfiram can potentially reduce P-gp-mediated drug resistance by inhibiting P-gp activity (possibly via cysteine modification) and/or by blocking its maturation. These results suggest that disulfiram has the potential to increase the efficacy of drug therapies for cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  (+info)

(8/186) Identifying and treating patients with alcohol-related problems.

Problem drinking is a serious health issue, but often patients whose alcohol consumption places them at risk are not diagnosed by physicians. Case finding is an essential component of "best practice." In many cases if given the appropriate advice, counselling and behavioural interventions, problem drinkers can be helped to reduce their use of alcohol and improve functioning in other areas of their lives. Some patients may benefit from more comprehensive therapy including the prescription of disulfiram, calcium carbimide or naltrexone. For those with serious problems with alcohol, referral to specialized addiction treatment programs and other community resource centres may also be appropriate.  (+info)



Disulfiram


  • Disulfiram is one of the proven drugs for alcohol dependence. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHOD: We describe the outcome of a patient with alcohol dependence and pathological gambling treated with disulfiram D. RESULTS: During treatment with disulfiram, the patient reported that his desire to gamble disappeared entirely. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Disulfiram can help in some patients by serving as a deterrent if used under proper supervision. (healthtap.com)
  • We have also demonstrated that the alcohol-abuse deterrent disulfiram (DSF) has a highly selective, Cu(II)-dependent toxicity against melanoma in culture. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Disulfiram is an alcohol-abuse deterrent. (kaspo.it)
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consume alcohol


  • The "license" to drink - legal permission to buy and consume alcohol in unlimited quantities - is taken to be irrevocable. (samefacts.com)
  • The project focused on identifying which law enforcement practices have the greatest deterrent effect on drivers who consume alcohol and/or drugs, and who indicate they are likely to drink drive and/or drug drive in the future from the driver's perspective. (ndlerf.gov.au)

Substance


  • It works to decrease the potential of the brain to make a substance called glutamate, and alcohol abuse is the only known cause of elevating glutamate levels in the brain, so far as i know. (healthtap.com)

addiction


  • What can I do in addition to campral to help with my alcohol addiction? (healthtap.com)
  • Support programs to provide prison inmates with drug and alcohol addiction treatment. (ontheissues.org)

dependence


  • AIM: Pathological gambling and comorbid alcohol dependence often occur in combination. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effects of acamprosate and/or naltrexone with placebo in patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence using a standardised system were eligible for inclusion. (york.ac.uk)

blood alcohol


  • Since drunk driving has been the subject of a moral panic for decades and intoxication at some level has been shown to cause crashes, the path of least resistance is to experiment with lowering acceptable blood alcohol levels. (arstechnica.com)
  • That's largely due to unjustifiable delays in blood-alcohol test results from the department of health. (iol.co.za)
  • And rightly so - the courts can't convict a driver of being 'over the limit' in the absence of timeous and reliable evidence of just what his blood-alcohol content was at the time. (iol.co.za)

Intake


  • Alcohol Intake and Systemic Markers of Inflammation--Shape of the Association According to Sex and B. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Can be started after stopping alcohol intake and it does not help with withdrawal symptoms while going through early detoxification. (healthtap.com)
  • Dehydration, sleep disturbances, lack of food intake, low blood sugar, the presence of certain by-products of alcohol in the body and other factors are likely involved. (doomandbloom.net)

enforcement


  • But the treasurer's office, which oversees alcohol enforcement, disagrees. (bostonmagazine.com)
  • The evaluation involved a mixed methodology, where review and a qualitative component guided the development of a survey to assess the deterrent effect of random breath testing (RBT) and random drug testing (RDT), and a quantitative component measured the influence of various law enforcement practices on a driver's decision to drink/drug drive. (ndlerf.gov.au)

proven


Drinking


  • Drinking alcohol while taking it makes you incredibly sick. (healthtap.com)
  • How long after you stop drinking alcohol can you begin campral? (healthtap.com)
  • Similarly, someone who loses his drinking license for some period of time as a result of an alcohol-related conviction could have his existing driver's license taken away and receive a new license, with some marking showing that it is not also a drinker's license. (samefacts.com)
  • Such a system would have good deterrent effects - loss of drinking privileges, and in particular the ability to drink in bars with one's friends, might be quite fearsome to some offenders and yet not at all hard for a judge to impose - and good incapacitative effects as well, insofar as reduced drinking by problem drinkers translates into reduced problems for everyone else. (samefacts.com)
  • The key to controlling this problem would be to limit the number of persons disqualified from drinking to a few million at a time: a small proportion of the total market for alcohol, but (if properly selected) a substantial portion of the alcohol problem. (samefacts.com)
  • Most of the primary studies defined heavy drinking as more than five standard drinks (10 g to 13.6 g of pure alcohol) per drinking occasion for men. (york.ac.uk)
  • Despite thousands of years of people having hangovers from drinking too much alcohol, the process which causes the condition isn't very well understood. (doomandbloom.net)
  • How long before drinking comprar espa a antabuse posologia alcohol like reaction thuoc cai ruou. (skinsolutionsbygayla.com)
  • Drinking alcohol while taking drugs causing like antabuse venezuela ce inseamna efect available australia. (skinsolutionsbygayla.com)

prescribe


reduce


  • It is used to reduce cravings for alcohol after the acute detox is over. (healthtap.com)
  • There's really no evidence that any inability to further reduce alcohol-impaired road fatalities is because the current standards are insufficiently strict. (arstechnica.com)

California


  • California, for the convenience of alcohol sellers, issues to those over 21 drivers' licenses with the bearer's photo in full-face, and issues to those under 21 drivers' licenses with the bearer's photo in profile. (samefacts.com)

drug


  • Efecto definicion e alcool benzyl alcohol and antabuse long does take drug classification. (skinsolutionsbygayla.com)
  • The Drug Testing Technology/Focused Offender Disposition (FOD) program was designed to examine two issues regarding drug users in the criminal justice system: (1) the utility of need assessment instruments in appropriately determining the level of treatment and/or supervision needed by criminal offenders with a history of drug use, and (2) the use of urinalysis monitoring as a deterrent to subsequent drug use. (umich.edu)
  • Half of all clients were assessed with the objective Offender Profile Index (OPI) created by the National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors (NASADAD). (umich.edu)

drivers


  • Johannesburg - What kind of message are we sending out when two drivers who were as high as kites on a mix of drugs and alcohol when they crashed while racing on a public road and killed four children get out of jail after four years? (iol.co.za)

Time


  • Doctors actually don't spend a lot of time researching hangover remedies, simply because they consider hangovers as effective deterrents to frequent alcohol abuse in many people. (doomandbloom.net)

effects


  • What are the effects if you were to drink alcohol while taking campral? (healthtap.com)
  • If you drink alcohol when you take campral, you do not have side effects. (healthtap.com)
  • It works by blocking the breakdown of alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects (eg, vomiting, upset stomach) when even a small amount of alcohol is consumed. (kaspo.it)

good


  • It doesn't look good: Groupon recently e-mailed buyers of a Tremont 647 deal, telling them it was no longer good on alcohol and offering refunds. (bostonmagazine.com)

take


  • What to do if I have campral to help me get off alcohol but its from 2009, will it still work to take? (healthtap.com)
  • Nolan says if Groupon continues to offer other deals on booze, the state plans to take legal action against the site. (bostonmagazine.com)

abuse


  • Could campral be used by patients who abuse other substances in addition to alcohol? (healthtap.com)
  • There is no evidence that acamprosate works for anything other than alcohol abuse . (healthtap.com)
  • The alcohol-abuse deterrent activity of DSF is thought to be due to S-oxygenation in vivo, which enhances its inhibition of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Antabuse is an alcohol-abuse deterrent. (skinsolutionsbygayla.com)

Terms


  • Especially as these two high-profile offenders were originally convicted of murder, before those convictions were reduced to culpable homicide on appeal, further diluting the deterrent value of even the eight-year terms to which to which they were finally sentenced. (iol.co.za)

people


  • 4. Some people legally allowed to buy alcohol would be willing to procure it for their disqualified friends, thus partially frustrating the intent of the law. (samefacts.com)

likely


  • 3) and are less likely to combine alcohol consumption and driving. (bikersrights.com)

test


  • The DWAI statute is unconstitutional on its face and as applied: it is statistically never overcome, and logically and empirically impossible, to overcome the test contained in jury instructions: is there the least possiblity of impairment from alcohol? (denverpost.com)

days


  • Treatment generally started from five to 14 days after alcohol detoxification. (york.ac.uk)

begin


  • Symptoms begin when the alcohol level has dropped down to zero, usually the morning after a bender. (doomandbloom.net)

least


  • Most motor vehicle registries issue a "non-driver's license," also called a "personal identification card," for those who cannot or do not wish to have a license to drive but need a piece of plastic to show who they are and how old they are: not least for the purpose of being able to buy alcohol. (samefacts.com)

help


  • Does campral help to get rid of the alcohol withdrawal symptoms? (healthtap.com)
  • There are medications that can help with alcohol craving, but it's most important to have a frank discussion with your doctor about treatments for this. (healthtap.com)

legal


  • If you redeem a gift certificate for a discounted rate and use it to buy alcohol, I'm afraid that's not legal. (bostonmagazine.com)