Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Sensilla: Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Euphorbia: A large plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. They have a milky sap and a female flower consisting of a single pistil, surrounded by numerous male flowers of one stamen each. Euphorbia hirta is rarely called milkweed but that name is normally used for ASCLEPIAS.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Brachyura: An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)United StatesPolyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium: An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)Binge Drinking: Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.
Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.RID Insect Repellent: RID is an Australian brand of personal insect repellent sold and distributed in Australia, New Zealand, worldwide and online.Primary alcoholSlit sensilla: The slit sensilla, also known as the slit sense organ, is a small mechanoreceptory organ or group of organs in the exoskeleton of arachnids which detects physical deformation or strain due to forces experienced by the animal. The organ appears in the vast majority of discovered arachnids, and is "remarkably consistent" in location and direction within each order.Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Euphorbia hirta: Euphorbia hirta (sometimes called asthma-plant) is a pantropical weed, possibly native to India. It is a hairy herb that grows in open grasslands, roadsides and pathways.Andesobia jelskiiCentral chemoreceptors: Central chemoreceptors of the central nervous system, located on the ventrolateral medullary surface in the vicinity of the exit of the 9th and 10th cranial nerves, are sensitive to the pH of their environment.Alcohol dehydrogenaseAdalia bipunctata: Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region. It is very common in western and central Europe.Insecticide: An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively.Research Society on Alcoholism: The Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) is a learned society of over 1600 active members based in Austin, Texas. Its objective is to advance research on alcoholism and the physiological and cognitive effects of alcohol.Paramoeba: Paramoeba is a genus of common parasites, including species that can cause infection in fish, crabs (including the "blue crab", Callinectes sapidus), sea urchins and others.Chemical defense: Chemical defense is the use of chemical compounds by plants and animals to deter herbivory and predation. Chemical defenses can also be used in competitive interactions to prevent overgrowth or maintain spatial dominance.Ethanol fuel: Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline.Canna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.Antheraea pernyi: Antheraea pernyi, the Chinese (Oak) tussah moth (or "Chinese tasar moth"), also known as temperate tussah moth, is a large moth in the family Saturniidae. Antheraea roylei is an extremely close relative, and the present species might actually have evolved from ancestral A.Rakiura (genus): Rakiura is a genus of Trichoptera (caddisfly). The genus contains only one species, R.Sterling Clarren: Sterling K. Clarren is one of the world's leading researchers into Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), an umbrella term encompassing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, static encephalopathy:alcohol exposed and penatal alcohol exposed.PhytomedicineBlended malt whisky: A blended malt, formerly called a vatted malt, or pure malt, is a blend of different single malt whiskies from different distilleries. These terms are most commonly used in reference to Scotch whisky, or whisky in that style, such as Japanese whisky.Alcohol intoxicationVanillyl alcoholFluorotelomer alcohol: Fluorotelomer alcohols, or FTOHs, are fluorotelomers with an alcohol functional group. They are volatile precursors to perfluorinated carboxylic acids, such as PFOA and PFNA, and other compounds.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Polyvinyl alcoholClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Delirium Tremens (album)Misbehaving Mums To Be: Misbehaving Mums To Be is a BBC Three series following a team of midwives as they take pregnant women who binge drink, chain smoke and overeat and help them get back into shape before they give birth.
(1/186) Alcohol-histamine interactions.
Alcohol and histamine metabolic pathways in the body have the common enzymes aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase. The metabolite of ethanol, acetaldehyde, can effectively compete with the metabolites of histamine, methylimidazole acetaldehyde, and imidazole acetaldehyde. At the periphery, alcohol and acetaldehyde liberate histamine from its store in mast cells and depress histamine elimination by inhibiting diamine oxidase, resulting in elevated histamine levels in tissues. Histamine mediates alcohol-induced gastric and intestinal damage and bronchial asthma as well as flushing in Orientals. On the other hand, alcohol provokes food-induced histaminosis and histamine intolerance, which is an epidemiological problem. There are many controversial reports concerning the effect of H2 receptor antagonists on ethanol metabolism and the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in the stomach. In addition, alcohol affects histamine levels in the brain by modulating histamine synthesis, release, and turnover. Histamine receptor antagonists can affect ethanol metabolism and change the sensitivity of animals to the hypnotic effects of alcohol. In contrast to other neurotransmitters, the involvement of the brain histamine system in the mechanisms of the central actions of alcohol and in the pathogenesis of alcoholism is poorly studied and understood. (+info)
(2/186) Effects of naltrexone and fluoxetine on alcohol self-administration and reinstatement of alcohol seeking induced by priming injections of alcohol and exposure to stress.
We have recently shown that priming injections of alcohol and footshock stress reinstate alcohol seeking in drug-free rats. Here we tested whether naltrexone and fluoxetine, two drugs used in the treatment of alcohol dependence, would affect reinstatement of alcohol seeking induced by these events. We also determined the effects of these drugs on alcohol self-administration during the maintenance phase. Rats were trained to press a lever for a 12% w/v alcohol solution. After stable drug-taking behavior was obtained, lever pressing for alcohol was extinguished. Reinstatement of drug seeking was then determined after priming injections of alcohol (0.24-0.96 g/kg) or exposure to intermittent footshock (5 and 15 min). Rats were pretreated with naltrexone (0.2-0.4 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (2.5-5 mg/kg) during maintenance or during tests for reinstatement. Both naltrexone and fluoxetine decreased lever presses for alcohol during the maintenance phase. Naltrexone blocked alcohol-induced, but not stress-induced reinstatement. In contrast, fluoxetine blocked stress-induced reinstatement, while its effect on alcohol-induced reinstatement was less consistent. The implications of these data to the understanding of relapse to alcohol are discussed. (+info)
(3/186) Effects of Hypericum perforatum extraction on alcohol intake in Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.
The present study investigated the effect of acute intragastric (i.g.) administration of dry Hypericum perforatum extract (HPE), containing 0.3% hypericin, on ethanol intake in genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats. The i.g. administration of HPE, 125 or 250 mg/kg, induced a 30-40% reduction in ethanol intake in rats offered 10% (v/v) ethanol for 2 h/day. The effect of these doses was selective, since they modified neither food intake nor food-associated drinking; neither did the same doses modify the rat's gross behaviour in the open-field test. A dose of 500 mg/kg frequently induced immobility and a general suppression of ingestive behaviour. In rats offered 10% ethanol for 12 h/day, ethanol intake following treatment with 250 mg/kg HPE was significantly lower than that of controls for up to 10 h. The effect on ethanol intake was not related to the antidepressant-like effect of HPE revealed in the forced swimming test. In this regard, the effect on ethanol intake was observed after a single administration of 125 mg/kg, whereas the antidepressant effect was observed only after repeated treatment with doses higher than 125 mg/kg HPE. The i.g. administration of HPE, 250 mg/kg, did not affect blood-alcohol levels following i.g. treatment with 0.7 g/kg ethanol, the amount usually ingested in a single drinking episode; thus, the effect is not related to changes in the pharmacokinetics of ethanol. The present study shows that HPE markedly reduces ethanol intake in msP rats, without significantly modifying food intake. (+info)
(4/186) Attenuation of alcohol intake by extract of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort) in two different strains of alcohol-preferring rats.
Extract of the common plant Hypericum perforatum L. (St John's Wort, SJW) has been used successfully for the treatment of mild to moderate depression since ancient times and has recently been studied clinically. Depression and alcoholism have some neurochemical similarities, such as low brain serotonin activities. Thus, we hypothesized that SJW extract, which contains 0.22% hypericin and 4.05% hyperforin, also may be effective in suppressing alcohol intake. To test this hypothesis, the effects of SJW extract on voluntary alcohol intake were studied in two different genetic animal models of human alcoholism: fawn-hooded (FH) and high-alcohol drinking (HAD) rats. FH and HAD rats received a single oral administration (5 ml/kg) of either vehicle or one of the five doses (100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg) of SJW extract. The oral administration of SJW extract significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced alcohol intake in both FH and HAD rats. In a third study, FH rats did not develop tolerance to the suppressant effects of SJW on alcohol intake and preference following oral administration of (400 mg/kg) of the extract for 15 consecutive days. These promising findings suggest that SJW extract should be evaluated clinically as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of alcoholism. (+info)
(5/186) United Kingdom Multicentre Acamprosate Study (UKMAS): a 6-month prospective study of acamprosate versus placebo in preventing relapse after withdrawal from alcohol.
A 6-month randomized controlled study of acamprosate versus placebo in preventing relapse following withdrawal from alcohol was undertaken in 20 centres throughout the UK. Patients diagnosed as alcohol-dependent and detoxified within the preceding 5 weeks were randomly assigned to treatment with either acamprosate (A) 666 mg three times/day or identical placebo (P). A total of 664 patients were screened; 581 were entered into the treatment phase. One-third were episodic drinkers, 84% were male, 44% were unmarried and 48% were unemployed. Medication was first taken on average 24 days after the start of detoxification; 32% of patients had already relapsed by this time. The 6-month study period was completed by 35% of patients; adverse events led to withdrawal of a further 14% (A) and 9% (P) respectively. Compliance was poor in that, by the end of the second week, only 57% of patients were judged to be taking at least 90% of their tablets. The mean total of abstinent days achieved was 77 (A) and 81 (P). Complete abstinence for 6 months was achieved by 12% (A) and 11% (P); drinking remained within controlled limits in a further 3% (A) and 6% (P). An effect of acamprosate on consumption was not seen when subgroups, including those defined by the Lesch typology, were analysed separately. However, the mean percentage reduction in craving for alcohol measured on a visual analogue scale was greater in the acamprosate, than placebo, patients at week 2 and week 4 (P<0.001) and the mean decrease in the Hamilton Anxiety score at the 4th week was greater in the acamprosate than placebo patients (P = 0.017). In comparison with other published trials of acamprosate, patients started study medication after a longer time following detoxification, had more often recommenced drinking before medication was started and had a higher drop-out rate, and this might have contributed to the lack of a treatment effect in this study. (+info)
(6/186) Acamprosate and relapse prevention in the treatment of alcohol dependence: a placebo-controlled study.
The objective of this study was to compare acamprosate with placebo in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients during a 6-month post-detoxification treatment and a 3-month medication-free follow-up. Patients (n = 330) were detoxified and randomized to treatment with acamprosate (1998 mg/day) or placebo within an out-patient programme including medical counselling, psychotherapy and self-help groups. The main outcome criterion was drinking behaviour as assessed by: abstinence/relapse ratio, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and the period of continued abstinence. Anxiety, depression and craving were also monitored. Intention to treat (ITT) statistical principles were followed. Twenty-five per cent of patients dropped out over the first 6 months. At the end of the treatment period, the abstinence rate was 57.9% for acamprosate and 45.2% for placebo (P = 0.03). The CAD was 110+/-77 days for acamprosate and 89+/-77 days for placebo (P = 0.016). Patients on acamprosate had a higher continuous abstinence rate and experienced less severe relapses. No differential effect was noted for anxiety, depression or craving. Treatment remained positive, but not significant, 3 months after termination of study medication. No significant difference in adverse events was noted between treatment groups. Acamprosate treatment over 180 days was consistently more effective than placebo to maintain abstinence and to diminish relapse severity. (+info)
(7/186) Blockage of drug resistance in vitro by disulfiram, a drug used to treat alcoholism.
BACKGROUND: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) pumps a wide range of cytotoxic drugs out of cells. Inhibiting maturation of P-gp would be a novel method for circumventing P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance, which complicates cancer chemotherapy and treatment of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. We examined the effect of disulfiram (Antabuse(TM)) on the maturation and activity of P-gp. METHODS: Embryonic kidney cells were transfected with a complementary DNA for the P-pg gene, and the effects of disulfiram on the sensitivity of the transfected cells to cytotoxic agents were determined. Enzyme assays were used to determine the effects of disulfiram on the verapamil-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of P-gp. Disulfiram modifies cysteine residues, and mutant forms of P-gp that lack individual cysteines were used to determine whether particular cysteine residues mediate disulfiram's effects on P-gp activity. Maturation of recombinant P-gp was followed on immunoblots. RESULTS: Disulfiram increased the sensitivity of P-gp-transfected cells to vinblastine and colchicine and inhibited P-gp's verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity. Half-maximal inhibition of ATPase activity occurred at 13.5 microM disulfiram. Disulfiram (at 100 microM) inhibited a P-gp mutant by 43% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 37%-48%) when cysteine was present at position 431 only and by 72% (95% CI = 66%-77%) when cysteine was present at position 1074 only. Treatment of P-gp-transfected cells with 50 nM disulfiram blocked maturation of recombinant P-gp. CONCLUSIONS: Disulfiram can potentially reduce P-gp-mediated drug resistance by inhibiting P-gp activity (possibly via cysteine modification) and/or by blocking its maturation. These results suggest that disulfiram has the potential to increase the efficacy of drug therapies for cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (+info)
(8/186) Identifying and treating patients with alcohol-related problems.
Problem drinking is a serious health issue, but often patients whose alcohol consumption places them at risk are not diagnosed by physicians. Case finding is an essential component of "best practice." In many cases if given the appropriate advice, counselling and behavioural interventions, problem drinkers can be helped to reduce their use of alcohol and improve functioning in other areas of their lives. Some patients may benefit from more comprehensive therapy including the prescription of disulfiram, calcium carbimide or naltrexone. For those with serious problems with alcohol, referral to specialized addiction treatment programs and other community resource centres may also be appropriate. (+info)