Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Chemistry, Agricultural: The science of the chemical composition and reactions of chemicals involved in the production, protection and use of crops and livestock. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Organic Agriculture: Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Technology, Industry, and AgricultureEcosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)United StatesBiotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Coffea: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Ethology: The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Gardening: Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Paternal Exposure: Exposure of the male parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Electronic Nose: A device used to detect airborne odors, gases, flavors, volatile substances or vapors.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Urban Renewal: The planned upgrading of a deteriorating urban area, involving rebuilding, renovation, or restoration. It frequently refers to programs of major demolition and rebuilding of blighted areas.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Agricultural Inoculants: Beneficial microorganisms (bacteria or fungi) encapsulated in carrier material and applied to the environment for remediation and enhancement of agricultural productivity.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.General Adaptation Syndrome: The sum of all nonspecific systemic reactions of the body to long-continued exposure to systemic stress.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Parakeratosis: Persistence of the nuclei of the keratinocytes into the stratum corneum of the skin. This is a normal state only in the epithelium of true mucous membranes in the mouth and vagina. (Dorland, 27th ed)History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Ethics: The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)MontanaTheology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Pathology, Veterinary: The field of veterinary medicine concerned with the causes of and changes produced in the body by disease.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Chlorpyrifos: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Ecological Systems, Closed: Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Dimethoate: An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic and contact insecticide.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Public Health Surveillance: The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Salt-Tolerant Plants: Plants that can grow well in soils that have a high SALINITY.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Colocasia: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain acrid calcium oxalate and LECTINS. Polynesians prepare the root into poi. Common names of Taro and Coco Yam (Cocoyam) may be confused with other ARACEAE; XANTHOSOMA; or with common yam (DIOSCOREA).Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Occupational Injuries: Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Vicia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is widely used as ground cover and forage and known for the edible beans, VICIA FABA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.KansasEuropePlant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Consumer Product SafetyCarbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Animal DiseasesBrazilPopulation Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Crop, Avian: A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Organophosphate Poisoning: Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spatial Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.VietnamDrug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
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Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Foundation Course for Agricultural Research ServicePlant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Organic fertilizer: Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter, human excreta or vegetable matter. (e.Meramec Conservation AreaTimeline of historic inventionsComputational archaeology: Computational archaeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behaviour and behavioural evolution. As with other sub-disciplines that have prefixed 'computational' to their name (e.College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand: The College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand was founded in 1964. It is a part of AAU, Anand, Gujarat, India.Pesticides in the United States: Pesticides in the United States are used predominantly by the agricultural sector,Kellogg RL, Nehring R, Grube A, Goss DW, and Plotkin S (February 2000), Environmental indicators of pesticide leaching and runoff from farm fields. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.Interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs: The interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs is an ongoing process affecting the population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia. The current population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia is now probably higher than in the past.Masuzo Shikata: Masuzo Shikata (Tokyo, August 10, 1895 – May 8, 1964) was a Japanese chemist and one of the pioneers in electrochemistry. Together with his mentor and colleague, Czech chemist and inventor Jaroslav Heyrovský, he developed the first polarograph, a type of electrochemical analyzing machine, and co-authored the paper which introduced the machine and the name "polarograph".History of the New York State College of Forestry: The New York State College of Forestry, the first professional school of forestry in North America, opened its doors at Cornell University, in Ithaca, New York, in the autumn of 1898.http://foresthistory.Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Polarized light pollution: Polarization is a property of light waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. Polarized light pollutionGábor Horváth, György Kriska, Péter Malik, Bruce Robertson.Organic farming and biodiversity: The effect of organic farming has been a subject of interest for researchers. Theory suggests that organic farming practices, which exclude the use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers, would be beneficial for biodiversity, and this has proven true.Mechanical pest control: Mechanical pest control is the management and control of pests using physical means such as fences, barriers or electronic wires. It includes also weeding and change of temperature to control pests.Israel and animal welfare: Israel's protection of animal welfare rests upon the Animal Welfare Law, 1994 which is composed of an Animal Protection Law and an Animal Experimentation Law. The law was originally introduced by Abraham Poraz in 1993 and passed by the Knesset on January 11, 1994.College of Agriculture, Pantnagar: The College of Agriculture, Pantnagar, India, is a constituent of Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar. It was opened on 17 November 1960 when Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, inaugurated the university.EcosystemAgrochemical F.C.: James Omondi|Tropical Asia: Through a crop-based biodiversity, natural resources and animals (birds, fruits, and forests), Tropical Asia is economically and physiogeographically rich. There are 16 countries of Tropical Asia ranging in size from around 610 km² (Singapore) to 3,000,000 km² (India).Irrigation District Act of 1916 (Smith Act): The Irrigation District Act of 1916 (Irrigation Smith Act) authorized the federal government to serve as the guarantor of debt obligations entered into by local governments to finance the acquisition, extension, or operation of irrigation, drainage, and flood control projects or to develop power generation facilities or water resources.Manure management: Manure management refers to capture, storage, treatment, and utilization of animal manures in an environmentally sustainable manner. It can be retained in various holding facilities.New Mexico Livestock Board: The New Mexico Livestock Board regulates livestock health and livestock identification in New Mexico, in the United States. It was created in 1967 by the merger of the New Mexico Cattle Sanitary Board and the New Mexico Sheep Sanitary Board.Indian Veterinary Research InstituteOccupational fatality: An occupational fatality is a death that occurs while a person is at work or performing work related tasks. Occupational fatalities are also commonly called “occupational deaths” or “work-related deaths/fatalities” and can occur in any industry or occupation.IPCC Second Assessment Report: The Second Assessment Report (SAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 1996, is an assessment of the then available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change. It was superseded by the Third Assessment Report (TAR) in 2001.Eutrophication: Eutrophication (Greek: eutrophia—healthy, adequate nutrition, development; ) or more precisely hypertrophication, is the ecosystem's response to the addition of artificial or natural nutrients, mainly phosphates, through detergents, fertilizers, or sewage, to an aquatic system.Schindler, David and Vallentyne, John R.Energy policy of Malaysia: The energy policy of Malaysia is determined by the Malaysian Government, which address issues of energy production, distribution, and consumption. The Department of Electricity and Gas Supply acts as the regulator while other players in the energy sector include energy supply and service companies, research and development institutions and consumers.Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Hardening (botany): Hardening in botany is the process by which an individual plant becomes tolerant to the effects of freezing during a period of weeks to months. It is a three-stage process.Herbicide: Herbicide(s), also commonly known as weedkillers, are pesticides used to control unwanted plants. Selective herbicides control specific weed species, while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightEvolution in Variable EnvironmentClimate change in the United Kingdom: Climate change in the United Kingdom has been a subject of protests and controversies, and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects. It is estimated to demand at least 80-85% emission reductions in the EU during 2008-2050 with reductions as soon as technically possible.Phlogiston theory: The phlogiston theory is an obsolete scientific theory that postulated that a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion. The name comes from the Ancient Greek [phlogistón (burning up), from φλόξ] phlóx (flame).Nitrogen deficiencyCastleberry's Food Company: Castleberry's Food Company was an Augusta, Georgia-based canned food company founded in the 1920s by Clement Stewart Castleberry with the help of his father Clement Lamar Castleberry and closed permanently in March 2008 by the United States Food and Drug Administration.Appropriation (By Any Other Name): June 13, 2005Insecticide: An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively.Christian Zheng Sheng College: Christian Zheng Sheng College () is a private school in Hong Kong established by the Christian Zheng Sheng Association (ZSA). Its founder and principal is Chan Siu Cheuk (Alman Chan).List of varieties of genetically modified maize: This is a partial list of varieties of maize that have been modified.Public water systemList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Biotechnology Industry Organization: The Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) is the largest trade organization to serve and represent the biotechnology industry in the United States and around the world.Anna Edney, "Biosciences Defy U.Food Race: American environmental author Daniel Quinn coined the term Food Race (by analogy to the Cold War's "nuclear arms race") to describe an understanding of the current overpopulation emergency as a perpetually escalating crisis between growing human population and growing food production, fueled by the latter. Quinn argues that as the worldwide human population increases, the typical international response is to more intensely produce and distribute food to feed these greater numbers of people.Pesticide residues in New Zealand: Pesticide residues are of concern in New Zealand and foods are regularly checked to see if they are within set limits.Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area: Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area (French, Eau Agriculture Et Sante Et Milieu Tropical (E.A.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Hungarian Food Safety Office: The Hungarian Food Safety Office (HFSO) was established as the Hungarian partner institution of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2003 in conformity with the EU requirements. One of its priority aims is to assess the health risks derived from food and indirectly from feed, to liaise with international and Hungarian authorities, and to communicate with the public on food safety issues.Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition: The Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition was adopted by governments attending the 1974 World Food Conference. In it, states recognised that it is the common purpose of all nations to eliminate hunger and malnutrition.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Coffea: Coffea is a genus of flowering plants whose seeds, called coffee beans, are used to make coffee. It is a member of the family Rubiaceae.Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Proto-Greek language: The Proto-Greek language is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean, the classical Greek dialects (Attic-Ionic, Aeolic, Doric and Arcado-Cypriot), and ultimately Koine, Byzantine and modern Greek. The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants, speaking the predecessor of the Mycenaean language, entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age.List of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.Zugunruhe: Zugunruhe (pronounced ) is a German compound word consisting of Zug (move, migration) and Unruhe (anxiety, restlessness).Agracetus: The Agracetus Campus of Monsanto Company is the world's largest soybean transformation laboratory. It has over 21,700 employees worldwide, and an annual revenue of USD$11.Newington Green Unitarian ChurchOccupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development: The Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development (ENVI) is a standing committee in the Canadian House of Commons.Healthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.Companies OfficeBiopesticide: Biopesticides, a contraction of 'biological pesticides', include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships. The term has been associated historically with biological control - and by implication - the manipulation of living organisms.Pocket petEasy Gardener Products, Inc.: Easy Gardener Products, Inc. headquartered in Waco, Texas, is a leading marketer and producer of branded gardening products with a leading market position in several garden care categories.Seismic response of landfill: Solid waste landfills can be affected by seismic activity. The tension in a landfill liner rises significantly during an earthquake, and can lead to stretching or tearing of the material.Department of Rural Development and Land Reform: The Department of Rural Development and Land Reform is one of the departments of the South African government. It is responsible for topographic mapping, cadastral surveying, deeds registration, and land reform.SAFE FOODSGreenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation: The Greenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation (GREC) is a consortium of neighborhood organizations in North Brooklyn that serves to facilitate and advocate the activities for city initiatives, as well as coordinate community involvement in the neighborhood of the former Greenpoint Hospital Complex.Lang, Frank.Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness Response ActMedical sign: A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a physician during a physical examination of a patient. For example, whereas paresthesia is a symptom (only the person experiencing it can directly observe their own tingling feeling), erythema is a sign (anyone can confirm that the skin is redder than usual).Hydraulic action: Hydraulic action is erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. Most generally, it is the ability of moving water (flowing or waves) to dislodge and transport rock particles.Southern corn leaf blight: Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is a fungal disease of maize caused by the plant pathogen Bipolaris maydis (also known as Cochliobolus heterostrophus in its teleomorph state).Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.United States regulation of point source water pollution: Point source water pollution comes from discrete conveyances and alters the chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of water. It is largely regulated by the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972.The Flash ChroniclesThe Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".Plant perception (physiology): Plant perception is the ability of plants to sense and respond to the environment to adjust their morphology, physiology and phenotype accordingly. Other disciplines such as plant physiology, ecology and molecular biology are used to assess this ability.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Breeding for drought stress toleranceOutline of hydrology: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to hydrology:Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Fungicide use in the United States: A more accurate title for this page would be "Common plant pathogens to food crops in the United States".Master StrokeSurat Urban Development Authority: Surat Urban Development Authority is the urban planning agency of Surat, India. SUDA was formed in 1976, under Gujarat Town Planning and Urban Development Act - 1976, which covers SMC (Surat Municipal Corporation) and 722 km area of 148 villages surrounding SMC.Andrew Dickson WhiteWater quality law: Water quality laws govern the release of pollutants into water resources, including surface water, ground water, and stored drinking water. Some water quality laws, such as drinking water regulations, may be designed solely with reference to human health.
(1/3155) Personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica in California agriculture.
AIMS: The aim of this study was to measure personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California over a period of one year. METHODS: Ten farms were randomly selected in Yolo and Solano counties and workers were invited to wear personal sampling equipment to measure inhalable and respirable dust levels during various operations. The samples were analysed for endotoxin using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay and crystalline silica content using X-ray diffraction. In total 142 inhalable samples and 144 respirable samples were collected. RESULTS: The measurements showed considerable difference in exposure levels between various operations, in particular for the inhalable fraction of the dust and the endotoxin. Machine harvesting of tree crops (Geometric mean (GM) = 45.1 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 7.9 mg/m3), and cleaning of poultry houses (GM = 6.7 mg/m3) showed the highest inhalable dust levels. Cleaning of poultry houses also showed the highest inhalable endotoxin levels (GM = 1861 EU/m3). Respirable dust levels were generally low, except for machine harvesting of tree crops (GM = 2.8 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 0.9 mg/m3). Respirable endotoxin levels were also low. For the inhalable dust fraction, levels were reduced considerably when an enclosed cabin was present. The percentage of crystalline silica was overall higher in the respirable dust samples than the inhalable dust samples. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable differences exist in personal exposure levels to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California agriculture with some operations showing very high levels. (+info)
(2/3155) Mechanical maceration of alfalfa.
Maceration is an intensive forage-conditioning process that can increase field drying rates by as much as 300%. Because maceration shreds the forage and reduces its rigidity, improvements in bulk density, silage compaction, and ensiling characteristics have been observed. Macerating forage also increases the surface area available for microbial attachment in the rumen, thereby increasing forage digestibility and animal performance. Feeding trials with sheep have shown increases in DMI of 5 to 31% and increases in DM digestibility of from 14 to 16 percentage units. Lactation studies have demonstrated increases in milk production and BW gain for lactating Holstein cows; however, there is a consistent decrease in milk fat percentage when dairy cattle are fed macerated forage. In vitro studies have shown that maceration decreases lag time associated with NDF digestion and increases rate of NDF digestion. In situ digestibility studies have shown that maceration increases the size of the instantly soluble DM pool and decreases lag time associated with NDF digestion, but it may not consistently alter the rate or extent of DM and NDF digestion. (+info)
(3/3155) Cancer mortality in agricultural regions of Minnesota.
Because of its unique geology, Minnesota can be divided into four agricultural regions: south-central region one (corn, soybeans); west-central region two (wheat, corn, soybeans); northwest region three (wheat, sugar beets, potatoes); and northeast region four (forested and urban in character). Cancer mortality (1980-1989) in agricultural regions one, two, and three was compared to region four. Using data compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics, cancer mortality was summarized by 5-year age groups, sex, race, and county. Age-standardized mortality rate ratios were calculated for white males and females for all ages combined, and for children aged 0-14. Increased mortality rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were observed for the following cancer sites: region one--lip (men), standardized rate ratio (SRR) = 2.70 (CI, 1.08-6.71); nasopharynx (women), SRR = 3.35 (CI, 1.20-9.31); region two--non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (women), SRR = 1.35 (CI, 1.09-1.66); and region three--prostate (men), SRR = 1.12 (CI, 1.00-1.26); thyroid (men), SRR = 2.95 (CI, 1.35-6.44); bone (men), SRR = 2.09 (CI, 1. 00-4.34); eye (women), SRR = 5.77 (CI, 1.90-17.50). Deficits of smoking-related cancers were noted. Excess cancers reported are consistent with earlier reports of agriculturally related cancers in the midwestern United States. However, reports on thyroid and bone cancer in association with agricultural pesticides are few in number. The highest use of fungicides occurs in region three. Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, whose metabolite is a known cause of thyroid cancer in rats, are frequently applied. This report provides a rationale for evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of this suspect agent in humans. (+info)
(4/3155) Organic: What's in a name?
The organic foods industry is booming: by one estimate, the market for organic foods is worth $4 billion annually and is expected to grow at a rate of more than 24% per year. Faced with the threat of pesticide exposures and other food safety problems, many consumers are turning to organic foods in hopes of finding a healthy alternative, but there is currently no consistency in organic food labeling and no guarantee that foods labeled as organic are actually grown and processed in a purely organic fashion. There is also controversy about whether the label "organic" covers such new technologies as irradiation and genetic engineering. As part of the 1990 Farm Bill, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is working to develop a proposed rule on organic foods. The rule would regulate the allowable methods, practices, and substances used in producing and handling crops and their processed products. The first draft of the proposed rule, released in December 1997, met with unprecedented opposition, which centered around the fact that the proposal appeared to virtually ignore the recommendations of a standards board formed to assist in the rule's development. Other criticism opposed three practices put forward for comment by the USDA: irradiation, genetic engineering, and the use of sewage sludge in farming. Due to the vehemence of the opposition to its original proposal, the USDA has decided to rewrite the proposed rule. In preparation for that proposal, the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service released three issue papers in October 1998 for public comment. The 10,000-plus comments received in response to those papers will be incorporated into the second draft proposal, due out later this year. (+info)
(5/3155) Farm worker illness following exposure to carbofuran and other pesticides--Fresno County California, 1998.
In California, suspected pesticide-related illnesses and suspected work-related illnesses and injuries are reportable conditions. On July 31, 1998, the Occupational Health Branch of the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) received a report from the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) of a pesticide exposure incident in Fresno County involving 34 farm workers. CDHS investigated this incident by reviewing medical records of the 34 workers and interviewing 29. The findings indicated that the workers became ill after early reentry into a cotton field that had been sprayed with a cholinesterase-inhibiting carbamate pesticides (+info)
(6/3155) Caregiver behaviors and resources influence child height-for-age in rural Chad.
The purpose of this study was to identify caregiver characteristics that influence child nutritional status in rural Chad, when controlling for socioeconomic factors. Variables were classified according to the categories of a UNICEF model of care: caregiving behaviors, household food security, food and economic resources and resources for care and health resources. Sixty-four households with 98 children from ages 12 to 71 mo were part of this study. Caregivers were interviewed to collect information on number of pregnancies, child feeding and health practices, influence on decisions regarding child health and feeding, overall satisfaction with life, social support, workload, income, use of income, and household food expenditures and consumption. Household heads were questioned about household food production and other economic resources. Caregiver and household variables were classified as two sets of variables, and separate regression models were run for each of the two sets. Significant predictors of height-for-age were then combined in the same regression model. Caregiver influence on child-feeding decisions, level of satisfaction with life, willingness to seek advice during child illnesses, and the number of individuals available to assist with domestic tasks were the caregiver factors associated with children's height-for-age. Socioeconomic factors associated with children's height-for-age were the amount of harvested cereals, the sources of household income and the household being monogamous. When the caregiver and household socioeconomic factors were combined in the same model, they explained 54% of the variance in children's height-for-age, and their regression coefficients did not change or only slightly increased, except for caregiver's propensity to seek advice during child illnesses, which was no longer significant. These results indicate that caregiver characteristics influence children's nutritional status, even while controlling for the socioeconomic status of the household. (+info)
(7/3155) Water pollution and human health in China.
China's extraordinary economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, coupled with inadequate investment in basic water supply and treatment infrastructure, have resulted in widespread water pollution. In China today approximately 700 million people--over half the population--consume drinking water contaminated with levels of animal and human excreta that exceed maximum permissible levels by as much as 86% in rural areas and 28% in urban areas. By the year 2000, the volume of wastewater produced could double from 1990 levels to almost 78 billion tons. These are alarming trends with potentially serious consequences for human health. This paper reviews and analyzes recent Chinese reports on public health and water resources to shed light on what recent trends imply for China's environmental risk transition. This paper has two major conclusions. First, the critical deficits in basic water supply and sewage treatment infrastructure have increased the risk of exposure to infectious and parasitic disease and to a growing volume of industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and algal toxins. Second, the lack of coordination between environmental and public health objectives, a complex and fragmented system to manage water resources, and the general treatment of water as a common property resource mean that the water quality and quantity problems observed as well as the health threats identified are likely to become more acute. (+info)
(8/3155) Predictors of crop diversification: a survey of tobacco farmers in North Carolina (USA).
OBJECTIVE: To assess the attitudes and behaviours of North Carolina tobacco farmers around crop diversification. DESIGN: Cross-sectional telephone survey. PARTICIPANTS: Active tobacco farmers in 14 North Carolina counties (n = 1236), interviewed between January and April 1997 (91% response rate). OUTCOME MEASURES: Interest in, experience with, and perceived barriers to diversification. RESULTS: Most farmers (95%) grew/raised a commodity other than tobacco (mean = 2.8). A total of 60% of farmers expressed interest in trying other on-farm activities to supplement their tobacco and 60% reported taking action in the past year around supplementation. Younger age and college education were positively associated with interest. College education, off-farm income, and larger farm size were associated with the number of actions taken. For perceived external barriers to diversification, use of tobacco, percent income from tobacco, lack of college education, and younger age were most strongly associated with the number of barriers. For internal barriers (personal factors), percent income from tobacco, use of tobacco, and lack of college education were most strongly associated with the number of barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Most farmers were involved in diverse operations and expressed interest in continuing to diversify, although the breadth of diversification was narrow. Farmers noted many barriers to diversifying. If conventional production and marketing techniques are employed for non-tobacco alternatives, these alternatives may not provide the sustainable profitability that tobacco has afforded. Competition from foreign tobacco growers is the primary threat to the future of American growers and tobacco dependent communities. (+info)
- Agricultura Ecologica offers a variety of on-line courses regarding organic and sustainable agriculture including advanced olive growing, natural pest control, hydroponics, and starting an agro-tourism business. (fao.org)
- AOFG is a service and development organisation that promotes sustainable agriculture and organic farming in India with a focus on natural resource management, rural economic sustainability, and womens empowerment. (fao.org)
- AFSIC specialises in locating and accessing information related to alternative cropping systems including sustainable, organic, low-input, biodynamic, and regenerative agriculture. (fao.org)
- What can the principles of organic agriculture - with or without certification - contribute to rural development in the tropics and subtropics? (fao.org)
- Association Kokopelli is a non-profit organisation devoted to the protection of vegetable and grain biodiversity, the production of organic seeds of heirloom vegetables and grains (planetary collection of 2 500 varieties), and the support of farmers in Africa, Asia and South-America in the development of organic agriculture. (fao.org)
- The site contains a large amount of information on organic agriculture and food. (fao.org)
- The National Standard of Canada for Organic Agriculture (CAN//CGSB-32.310) was developed by the CGSB of Public Works and Government Services Canada. (fao.org)
- The Future of Organic Agriculture: Otopia or Oblivion? (orgprints.org)
- Paull, John (2010) The Future of Organic Agriculture: Otopia or Oblivion? (orgprints.org)
- Organic agriculture could feed the world, but will it? (orgprints.org)
- A state of Otopia, an organic Utopia of 100% organic food and organic agriculture, is a dream, or is it a pipe-dream? (orgprints.org)
- The stated goal of the organic movement is the adoption worldwide of organic agriculture. (orgprints.org)
- That task has a long path to travel, with organic agriculture currently accounting for 0.8% of agricultural land worldwide. (orgprints.org)
- Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. (mdpi.com)