There was an error running the query [insert into queries_english (query) values ('agricultural workers' diseases') on duplicate key update repetitions=repetitions+1, last=now() - You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right syntax to use near 'diseases') on duplicate key update repetitions=repetitions+1, last=now()' at line 1]Medical search (Agricultural Workers' Diseases • Definitions)


Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Organophosphate Poisoning: Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.Gas PoisoningTransients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Phosmet: An organothiophosphorus insecticide that has been used to control pig mange.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Central AmericaAccidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Chlorpyrifos: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Butyrylcholinesterase: An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.PolandAcetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.IndiaOrganophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Workers' Compensation: Insurance coverage providing compensation and medical benefits to individuals because of work-connected injuries or disease.Sex Workers: People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.

*  Farmers Back Campaign For Safety

Around 15,000 farmers have got behind a campaign to promote safety at work after statistics revealed that 38 agricultural ... workers were killed last year in the UK. ... the highlighting of the fact that workers in the agricultural ... Industrial Disease Claims *Military Injury Compensation Claims *No Win No Fee Personal Injury Claims ... Figures for 2008/09 show that 27% of farm workers killed on the job died while working with moving machinery. Of those injured ...

*  Green tobacco sickness | Tobacco Control

1979) Studies on occupational health problems during agricultural operation of Indian tobacco workers. J Occup Med 21:45-47. ... 1993) NIOSH issues warning to tobacco harvesters. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for ... Younger workers are more likely than older workers to develop GTS.1-3 6 In one study, 58% of those suffering GTS were under age ... an Occupational Health Nurses in Agricultural Communities study of GTS was undertaken to educate tobacco workers and healthcare ...

*  Influenza Training | CIDRAP

Agricultural Worker Health and the Influenza Virus Measures that can protect agricultural workers from disease, including ... Ways in which disease patterns are tracked, and approaches to influenza surveillance among humans. ... Key milestones in the pH1N1 2009 influenza pandemic, disease patterns, and groups at high risk for influenza complications. ... CIDRAP - Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy. Academic Health Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN ...

*  Antonio Segni - Wikipedia

A law of 21 March 1959 extended insurance against occupational diseases to agricultural workers (for 7 diseases). A law of 17 ... he studied to become a lawyer with a degree in agricultural and commercial law. Segni joined the Italian People's Party ( ...

*  Bronchitis - Wikipedia

"Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in farmers and agricultural workers-an overview". Annals of Agricultural and ... Craven, V; Everard, ML (January 2013). "Protracted bacterial bronchitis: reinventing an old disease". Archives of Disease in ... and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. pp. 9-17. ... Acute bronchitis is one of the most common diseases. About 5% of adults are affected and about 6% of children have at least one ...

*  Beyond Pesticides Daily News Blog 2,4-D Archives - Page 3 of 5 - Beyond Pesticides Daily News Blog

Kidney disease afflicts agricultural workers in sugar cane fields, killing thousands each year in Central America as well as in ... CKD is a condition characterized by a gradual loss of kidney function and is often lethal for poor agricultural workers. As the ... The Bank's loan represents renewed support for an industry whose workers have been devastated by the disease, which has ... Posted in 2,4-D, Cancer, Chemicals, Corporations, Disease/Health Effects, Dow Chemical , No Comments » ...

*  Capital, Labour and the Politics of Inequality in Global Public Health ~ Global Labour Column

Chronic kidney disease among agricultural workers in Nicaragua, for example, is related to unprotected exposure to pesticides ... race and class that underlie the causes of disease and ill-health that workers carry with them beyond the workplace as well as ... a white disease and silico-tuberculosis, a black disease (McCulloch, 2012). But how was capital able to pre-empt the class ... Trade Unions Financial Crisis Workers' rights Globalisation Neoliberalism Labour Market Collective Bargaining Decent Work ...

*  Refsums disease - definition of Refsums disease by The Free Dictionary

Refsums disease synonyms, Refsums disease pronunciation, Refsums disease translation, English dictionary definition of Refsums ... disease. n. 1. An abnormal condition of a part, organ, or system of an organism resulting from various causes, such as ... aspergillosis - disease especially in agricultural workers caused by inhalation of Aspergillus spores causing lumps in skin and ... mimesis - any disease that shows symptoms characteristic of another disease. industrial disease, occupational disease - disease ...

*  Familial primary lymphoedema - definition of familial primary lymphoedema by The Free Dictionary

aspergillosis - disease especially in agricultural workers caused by inhalation of Aspergillus spores causing lumps in skin and ... mimesis - any disease that shows symptoms characteristic of another disease. industrial disease, occupational disease - disease ... disease. [dɪˈziːz] n. (lit) → maladie f. kidney disease → maladie rénale. liver disease → maladie du foie. respiratory disease ... liver disease - a disease affecting the liver. communicable disease - a disease that can be communicated from one person to ...

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All of the subjects were rural agricultural workers. The subjects had no evidence of diseases related to atherosclerosis, CHD ... Koenig, W. Haemostatic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Eur. Heart J 1998, 19, C39-C43. [Google Scholar] ... Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk. Nature 2011, 478, 103-109. [Google ... Obesity, the presence of excess body fat, has been clearly associated with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, ...

*  High suicide rate highlights plight of French farmers - France 24

... making suicide the third biggest cause of death among agricultural workers after cancer and cardiovascular disease, according ... to reduce suicide among farmers and following numerous international and domestic studies on the plight of agricultural workers ... France is the EU's top agricultural producer as well as the main beneficiary of EU farm aid. ... Meanwhile, France's Ministry of Agriculture hopes to soon launch a national helpline where agriculture workers can share ...

*  Anthrax

The disease has shifted from industrial to agricultural workers; 86.7% of cases occurred in farmers and herdsmen. Most (97.7%) ... Conclusions: Although the animal model of disease does not reflect the potential impact of supportive care (e.g. fluid ... Geographic expansion of the disease indicates that livestock control programs will be essential in eradicating anthrax. ... and demographic distribution of this disease in China. After 1978, incidence decreased until 2013, when it reached a low of ...

*  9. Wastewater use case studies

... effect of the use of wastewater on agricultural workers in Guadalajara concluded that a high prevalence of parasitic diseases ... Agricultural workers dealing with sewage effluent are medically controlled as a pre-employment measure and given periodic (6 ... Diarrhoeal diseases, typhoid fever and hepatitis A are the diseases of greatest concern, although protozoan cysts (Giardia and ... In agricultural use of treated effluent, at least twenty different food crops are being irrigated as well as at least eleven ...

*  Infectious Disease | Health Information | MedCentral Health System

In South America (especially Brazil), infections occur sporadically, and usually among forestry and agricultural workers. In ... Lyme Disease in Children Lyme Disease in Children What is Lyme disease? Lyme disease (LD) is a multi-stage, multi-system ... Pets and Infectious Diseases in Children Pets and Infectious Diseases in Children Pets and infectious diseases: Proper care of ... Infectious Diseases Infectious Diseases There are many different infectious diseases that require clinical care by a physician ...

*  Glyphosate Toxicity: Pathways to Modern Diseases

... is extremely well correlated with the concurrent increase in the incidence and/or death rate of multiple diseases. ... Agricultural workers have a higher risk of NHL than the general population, but it is difficult to tease out the effects of ... glyphosate was a key factor in the chronic kidney disease that was affecting an alarming number of young agricultural workers ... Reduced hippurate is linked to Crohn's diseases and inflammatory bowel disease, which show epidemiological trends that match ...

*  Farm Security Administration reports and miscellaneous documents, 1942-1943

The Worker shall enjoy, as regards occupational diseases and accidents, the same guarantees enjoyed by other agricultural ... 1. The Worker will be employed exclusively in agricultural work.. *2. The Worker will receive the same wages as those paid to ... established by the Government of the United States for agricultural workers. *25. The Worker represents and warrants that he ... If the Worker or any member of his family refuses so to return, the Patron may cause the Worker and his family to be removed to ...

*  Fall Harvest Requires Increased Focus on Safety

Every day, about 167 agricultural workers suffer a lost-work-time injury, according to the Centers for Disease Control and ... Harvesting is a time when farm workers are continually moving from one piece of equipment to another, Bauer said. This is a ... And in 2012, 374 farmers and farm workers died from a work-related injury, resulting in a fatality rate of 20.2 deaths per ... The additional stress could cause farmers to focus less on safety and lead to agricultural-related injuries, he said. ...

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Agricultural Workers' Diseases. *Airway Obstruction. *Alcoholism. *Alveolar Bone Loss. *Alzheimer Disease. *Alzheimer disease ...

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Agricultural Workers' Diseases. *Airway Obstruction. *Alcoholism. *Alveolar Bone Loss. *Alzheimer Disease. *Alzheimer disease ...

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Related Disease. *Acute Disease. *Aggressive Periodontitis. *Agricultural Workers' Diseases. *Amyloidosis. *Arthritis, Reactive ...

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Agricultural Workers' Diseases. *AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. *Alopecia. *Alopecia Areata. *Alport syndrome ...

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Agricultural Workers' Diseases. *Airway Obstruction. *Alcoholism. *Alveolar Bone Loss. *Alzheimer Disease. *Alzheimer disease ...

*  Spanish Guinea - Wikipedia

... the island's economy came to depend on imported agricultural contract workers. A labour treaty was signed with the Republic of ... With the indigenous Bubi population decimated by disease and forced labour, ... The number of clandestine contract workers on the island of Fernando Po grew to 20,000 in 1942. A labour treaty was signed with ... This led to a continuous stream of Nigerian workers going to Spanish Guinea. By 1968 at the time of independence, almost ...

*  History of Equatorial Guinea - Wikipedia

... the island's economy came to depend on imported agricultural contract workers. A Labour Treaty was signed with the Republic of ... With the indigenous Bubi population decimated by disease and forced labour, ... A labour treaty was signed in the same year, and a continuous stream of workers arrived in Spanish Guinea. It was this treaty ... The number of clandestine contract workers on the island of Fernando Po grew to 20,000 in 1942. ...

*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Genomic and Phenotypic Alterations of the Neuronal-Like Cells Derived from Human Embryonal Carcinoma...

Diminution in motor speed and latency has been reported in preschool children from agricultural communities. Organophosphorus ... greenhouse workers, agricultural workers and farmers occupationally exposed to pesticides (including OPs) [10-12]. OPs also ... Luteolin Reduces Alzheimer's Disease Pathologies Induced by Traumatic Brain Injury. Previous Article in Special Issue. ... Neurobehavioral performance in preschool children from agricultural and non-agricultural communities in Oregon and North ...

Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Pesticides in the United States: Pesticides in the United States are used predominantly by the agricultural sector,Kellogg RL, Nehring R, Grube A, Goss DW, and Plotkin S (February 2000), Environmental indicators of pesticide leaching and runoff from farm fields. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Organophosphate: An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) or phosphate ester is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid. Many of the most important biochemicals are organophosphates, including DNA and RNA as well as many cofactors that are essential for life.Hot water storage tank: A hot water storage tank (also called a hot water tank, thermal storage tank, hot water thermal storage unit, heat storage tank and hot water cylinder) is a water tank that is used for storing hot water for space heating or domestic use. A heavily insulated tank can retain heat for days.Nomad Rock: Nomad Rock () is an isolated rock in Bransfield Strait, 5 nautical miles (9 km) off the north coast of Trinity Peninsula and 9 nautical miles (17 km) northeast of Cape Legoupil. So named by United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee (UK-APC) because of confusion about the identity of geographic points along this coast, and because of the wandering of features and names on charts of this vicinity.ATCvet code QP53: ==QP53A Ectoparasiticides for topical use, including insecticides==Mineral dust: Mineral dust is a term used to indicate atmospheric aerosols originated from the suspension of minerals constituting the soil, being composed of various oxides and carbonates. Human activities lead to 30% of the dust load in the atmosphere.Athletics at the 2002 Central American and Caribbean GamesOccupational fatality: An occupational fatality is a death that occurs while a person is at work or performing work related tasks. Occupational fatalities are also commonly called “occupational deaths” or “work-related deaths/fatalities” and can occur in any industry or occupation.ChlorpyrifosCymserineWHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Pesticide residues in New Zealand: Pesticide residues are of concern in New Zealand and foods are regularly checked to see if they are within set limits.Katowice International Fair: Katowice International Fair () is an international trade fair in Katowice and one of the largest in Poland (the largest being the Poznań International Fair). Few dozen events are organized there each year, with the participation of some 4,500 companies.Acetylcholinesterase inhibitorM-Cumenyl methylcarbamateInsecticide: An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityChloro(cyclopentadienyl)bis(triphenylphosphine)rutheniumQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Office of Workers' Compensation Programs: The Office of Workers' Compensation Programs administers four major disability compensation programs which provide wage replacement benefits, medical treatment, vocational rehabilitation and other benefits to certain workers or their dependents who experience work-related injury or occupational disease.http://www.

(1/658) Incidence and occupational pattern of leukaemias, lymphomas, and testicular tumours in western Ireland over an 11 year period.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence of the following malignancies, testicular tumours, all leukaemias and all lymphomas in the West of Ireland in an 11 year period. Secondly, to examine the relation between disease patterns and available occupational data in male subjects of working age. DESIGN: A census survey of all cases occurring in the three counties in the Western Health Board (WHB) area, Galway, Mayo and Roscommon, for the 11 year period 1980 to 1990 inclusive. Average annual age standardised incidence rates for the period were calculated using the 1986 census data. Rates for the area are compared with rates from the southern region of Ireland, which had a tumour registry. Trends over the time period are evaluated. All male subjects for whom occupational data were available were categorised using the Irish socioeconomic group classification and incidence rates by occupation were compared using the standardised incidence ratio method. In one of the counties, Galway, a detailed occupational history of selected cases and an age matched control group was also elicited through patients' general practitioners. SETTING: All available case records in the West of Ireland. RESULTS: There are no national incidence records for the period. Compared with data from the Southern Tumour Registry, the number of cases of women with myeloid leukaemias was significantly lower. Male leukaemia rates were significantly lower as a group (SIR 84 (95% CI 74, 95) but not when considered as individual categories. Regression analysis revealed an increasing trend in the number of new cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among both men (r = 0.47, p = 0.02) and women (r = 0.90, p = 0.0001) and of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in men (r = 0.77, p = 0.005) and women (r = 0.68 p = 0.02) in the WHB region over the last decade. Four hundred and fifty six male cases over the age of 15 years were identified and adequate occupational information was available for 74% of these. Standardised incidence ratios of testicular tumours 100, 938) and agriworkers other than farmers (SIR 377, 95% CI 103, 967). There were also significantly increased incidence ratios for both non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR 169, 95% CI 124, 266) and three categories of leukaemias among farmers. Hodgkin's disease and acute myeloid leukaemias were significantly increased among semi-skilled people. Interview data with 90 cases and 54 controls of both sexes revealed that among farmers, cases (n = 31) were significantly less likely than controls (n = 20) to use tractor mounted spraying techniques (OR = 0.19 (95% CI 0.04, 0.80)) and less likely to wear protective masks (OR 0.22 (95% CI 0.05, 0.84)). CONCLUSIONS: Trends of increase in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and some leukaemias are consistent with studies elsewhere. The study provides further evidence of the relation between agricultural work and certain lymphoproliferative cancers. The possible carcinogenic role of chemicals used in agricultural industries must be considered as an explanation.  (+info)

(2/658) Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers.

Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence.  (+info)

(3/658) Mushroom worker's lung resulting from indoor cultivation of Pleurotus osteatus.

Indoor cultivation of oyster mushroom Pleurotus osteatus lead to an outbreak of extrinsic allergic alveolitis in two workers. High titer of indirect fluorescent antibody and positive precipitins against basidiospores of P. osteatus were demonstrated in sera of the patients. Mushroom workers should protect themselves from the basidiospores, being aware of their pathogenicity.  (+info)

(4/658) Low rates of ehrlichiosis and Lyme borreliosis in English farmworkers.

To determine the occupational significance of tick-borne zoonoses we sought serological evidence of Lyme borreliosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) in a representative sample of farmworkers. Although around 20% reported ticks on their domestic and companion animals, few (< 2% per year) reported being bitten by ticks. Seroprevalence of Lyme borreliosis (0.2%), HME (0.2%) and HGE (1.5%) was low. Those seropositive for HGE were no more likely to report tick bites nor more likely to report ticks on their animals. This study provides evidence that farmworkers in England are exposed to tick-borne zoonoses but that they are uncommon. Since the severity of these diseases is linked to delays in diagnosis and treatment, clinicians should be aware of these diagnoses in patients from rural communities, with or without a self-reported history of tick bite.  (+info)

(5/658) Environmental correlates of impaired lung function in non-smokers with severe alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZZ).

BACKGROUND: Active smoking is the most important risk factor for pulmonary emphysema in subjects with severe alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of environmental risk factors other than active smoking on lung function and on respiratory symptoms in non-smoking PiZZ individuals. METHODS: Lifetime exposure to passive smoking, domiciliary use of a kerosene (paraffin) heater or gas cooker, and all occupations since leaving school were reported by 205 non-smoking PiZZ individuals (95 men and 110 women) included in the Swedish AAT deficiency register. Lung function test results and histories of respiratory symptoms (chronic bronchitis, recurrent wheezing, and exertional dyspnoea) were elicited from the AAT register records. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, agricultural employment and domiciliary kerosene heater usage, but not gas cooker usage or passive smoking, were both associated with significantly decreased lung function. Multiple linear regression analysis showed age, sex, kerosene heater usage, and agricultural employment to be independent determinants of lung function impairment. Age and passive smoking for 10 years or more, both at home and at the work place, were associated with the presence of chronic bronchitis. Age and agricultural employment for > or = 10 years were associated with recurrent wheezing and exertional dyspnoea. CONCLUSIONS: Domiciliary kerosene heater usage and an agricultural occupation therefore appear to be environmental factors associated with decreased lung function in non-smoking PiZZ individuals, and passive smoking is associated with an increased frequency of chronic bronchitis, but not with impaired lung function.  (+info)

(6/658) Objectives, designs and populations of the European Asclepios study on occupational hazards to male reproductive capability.

The main objective of the Asclepios program was to examine occupational risk factors for the male reproductive system. The program focused on occupational exposure to fungicides (farmers, greenhouse workers, and vineyard workers), styrene (laminators in the reinforced plastics industry) and inorganic lead (battery workers, foundry workers, and lead smelters). Questionnaire studies of time to pregnancy were combined with longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of semen quality. The 8 data-collecting centers addressed 6553 male workers and contributed time-to-pregnancy values on the 3077 most recent pregnancies. Data collection was by interview or self-collection. The average response rate across all exposures and centers was 69.8%. The Asclepios project is the first international multicenter research project on environmental risks to male reproductive function. A protocol for epidemiologic research on occupational risk factors to the male reproductive system was developed, and links between epidemiologic and experimental units were established. The majority, but not all, of the studies was completed within the given time frame.  (+info)

(7/658) Cytogenetic effects from exposure to mixed pesticides and the influence from genetic susceptibility.

Exposure to pesticides remains a major environmental health problem. Health risk from such exposure needs to be more precisely understood. We conducted three different cytogenetic assays to elucidate the biological effects of exposure to mixed pesticides in 20 Costa Rica farmers (all nonsmokers) compared with 20 matched controls. The farmers were also exposed to dibromochloropropane during the early employment years, and most of them experienced sterility/fertility problems. Our data show that the farmers had consistently higher frequencies of chromosome aberrations, as determined by the standard chromosome aberration assay, and significantly abnormal DNA repair responses (p < 0.05), as determined by the challenge assay, but no statistically significant differences in the tandem-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay (p > 0.05). Genotype analysis indicates that farmers with certain "unfavorable" versions of polymorphic metabolizing genes (cytochrome P4502E1, the glutathione S-transferases mu and theta, and the paraoxonase genes) had significantly more biological effects, as determined by all three cytogenetic assays, than both the farmers with the "favorable" alleles and the matched controls. A unique observation is that, in individuals who had inherited any of the mentioned "unfavorable" alleles, farmers were consistently underrepresented. In conclusion, the Costa Rican farmers were exposed to genotoxic agents, most likely pesticides, which expressed the induction of biological and adverse health effects. The farmers who had inherited "unfavorable" metabolizing alleles were more susceptible to genotoxic effects than those with "favorable" alleles. Our genotype data suggest that the well-recognized "healthy worker effect" may be influenced by unrecognized occupational selection pressure against genetically susceptible individuals.  (+info)

(8/658) Mortality in a cohort of licensed pesticide applicators in Florida.

OBJECTIVES: Although the primary hazard to humans associated with pesticide exposure is acute poisoning, there has been considerable concern surrounding the possibility of cancer and other chronic health effects in humans. Given the huge volume of pesticides now used throughout the world, as well as environmental and food residue contamination leading to chronic low level exposure, the study of possible chronic human health effects is important. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study, analysed by general standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of licensed pesticide applicators in Florida compared with the general population of Florida. A cohort of 33,658 (10% female) licensed pesticide applicators assembled through extensive data linkages yielded 1874 deaths with 320,250 person-years from 1 January 1975 to 31 December 1993. RESULTS: The pesticide applicators were consistently and significantly healthier than the general population of Florida. As with many occupational cohorts, the risks of cardiovascular disease and of diseases associated with alcohol and tobacco use were significantly lower, even in the subpopulations--for example, men, women, and licence subcategories. Among male applicators, prostate cancer mortality (SMR 2.38 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.83 to 3.04) was significantly increased. No cases of soft tissue sarcoma were confirmed in this cohort, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was not increased. The number of female applicators was small, as were the numbers of deaths. Mortality from cervical cancer and breast cancer was not increased. Additional subcohort and exposure analyses were performed. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with previous publications on farmers but at odds with current theories about the protective effects of vitamin D, prostate cancer was increased in these pesticide applicators. Female breast cancer was not increased despite theories linking risk of breast cancer with exposure to oestrogen disruptors--such as the organochlorines. The lack of cases of soft tissue sarcoma is at odds with previous publications associating the use of the phenoxy herbicides with an increased risk of these cancers.  (+info)


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chronic obstruc

  • Most people with chronic bronchitis have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (wikipedia.org)

Centers for Diseas

  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), SARS was recognized as a global threat in March 2003. (medcentral.org)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Lyme disease continues to be a rapidly emerging infectious disease, and is the lea. (medcentral.org)
  • Every day, about 167 agricultural workers suffer a lost-work-time injury, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (countryfolks.com)
  • and is primarily funded by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), which is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, one particular product, ReNu with MoistureLoc brand of soft contact lens solutions made headlines regarding a report from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggesting an increased incidence of a specific type of fungal keratitis (Fusarium keratitis) in people using Bausch & Lomb products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (wikipedia.org)
  • The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates more than 600,000 needlestick injuries occur among healthcare workers in the US annually. (wikipedia.org)

infectious diseases

  • He also studied several infectious diseases of agricultural importance, such as in horses and cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the acute physiological effects of a needlestick injury are generally negligible, these devices can transmit blood-borne diseases, placing those exposed at increased risk of contracting infectious diseases, such as hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (wikipedia.org)

venereal disease

  • but the Patron may terminate the agreement immediately upon finding that the Worker is suffering from a heart, mental or venereal disease or has a chronic condition not contracted during or as a result of his employment in the United States, or if he has a contagious disease discovered while traveling from the point of origin to his destination in the United States. (cdlib.org)
  • The indigenous Bubi population of Bioko, pushed into the interior of the island and decimated by alcoholic addiction, venereal disease, smallpox and sleeping sickness, refused to work on plantations. (wikipedia.org)

injuries

  • The additional stress could cause farmers to focus less on safety and lead to agricultural-related injuries, he said. (countryfolks.com)
  • Worker's compensation in Germany is a national, compulsory program that insures workers for injuries or illness incurred through their employment, or the commute to or from their employment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occupational needlestick injuries primarily affect healthcare workers, who make up 80% of needlestick injuries in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among healthcare workers and laboratory personnel worldwide, more than 25 blood-borne viruses have been reported to be caused by needlestick injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increasing recognition of the unique occupational hazard posed by needlestick injuries, as well as the development of efficacious interventions to minimize the largely preventable occupational risk, encouraged legislative regulation in the US, causing a decline in needlestick injuries among healthcare workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, approximately half of all needlestick injuries affecting health care workers are not reported, citing the long reporting process and its interference with work as their reason for not reporting an incident. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surveillance systems to track needlestick injuries include the National Surveillance System for Healthcare Workers (NaSH), a voluntary system in the northeastern United States, and the Exposure Prevention Information Network (EPINet), a recording and tracking system that also gathers data. (wikipedia.org)

Cardiovascular Disease

  • A total of 485 farmers killed themselves between 2007 and 2009, making suicide the third biggest cause of death among agricultural workers after cancer and cardiovascular disease, according to a report published by the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (InVS) on Thursday. (france24.com)

Farmers

  • The report was commissioned by France's Ministry of Agriculture in 2011 as part of a three-year plan to reduce suicide among farmers and following numerous international and domestic studies on the plight of agricultural workers. (france24.com)
  • The social isolation of farmers has long been a topic of discussion in France, particularly when it comes to the high rate of agriculture workers without spouses or partners. (france24.com)
  • And in 2012, 374 farmers and farm workers died from a work-related injury, resulting in a fatality rate of 20.2 deaths per 100,000 workers, according to the government agency. (countryfolks.com)
  • A farmworker is a hired agricultural worker on a farm that works for the farmers. (wikipedia.org)

occupational diseases

  • A law of 21 March 1959 extended insurance against occupational diseases to agricultural workers (for 7 diseases). (wikipedia.org)
  • 67 diseases are considered occupational diseases and are also covered by the program. (wikipedia.org)

laborers

  • The people affected by the epidemic are mainly young and middle-aged male laborers in the agricultural sector, particularly sugarcane workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various other occupations are also at increased risk of needlestick injury, including law enforcement, laborers, tattoo artists, food preparers, and agricultural workers. (wikipedia.org)

Acute

  • Acute bronchitis is one of the most common diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a rapidly spreading, potentially fatal infectious viral disease. (medcentral.org)
  • The nature of multifactorial problems is, that the observed disease can be caused from regionally different sets of risk factors, e.g. agrochemicals and heavy metals are ubiquitous in endemic and non-endemic areas, feature proteinuria, or have not been related previously to CKD but only to acute kidney injury. (wikipedia.org)

prevailing wage

  • Rates for piece work will be so determined that a worker of average ability will earn the prevailing wage established in the area of employment. (cdlib.org)

livestock

  • Geographic expansion of the disease indicates that livestock control programs will be essential in eradicating anthrax. (utoledo.edu)
  • According to the US Department of Agriculture, the average wage rate for US [hired] agricultural field and livestock workers in 2014 was $11.29 per hour. (wikipedia.org)

illnesses

plantations

  • These habitats include forest edges, managed forests, agricultural fields and plantations. (wikipedia.org)

prevention

  • Mini-grants are provided to organizations, in the United States to support feasibility and pilot projects on prevention of childhood agricultural disease and injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prevention of this disease includes wearing long sleeves and gloves while working with soil, hay bales, rose bushes, pine seedlings, and sphagnum moss. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prevention of trauma with vegetable / organic matter, particularly in agricultural workers while harvesting can reduce the incidence of fungal keratitis. (wikipedia.org)

wages

  • 2. The Worker will receive the same wages as those paid to other workers in the area of employment for similar work. (cdlib.org)
  • 4. No deductions will be made from the wages of the Worker for commissions, fees or any other purpose (except as required by law) which will have the effect of reducing his wages below that provided for by Paragraph 2. (cdlib.org)
  • 5. The Worker agrees that ten (10) % of his wages may be deducted and authorizes the Patron to receive such amount from the Employer and to place it on deposit, to be refunded to him on his return to his place of origin, or as soon as practicable, in the form of credits to his account in the Agricultural Credit Bank of Mexico. (cdlib.org)

spores

  • Pulmonary sporotrichosis This rare form of the disease occur when S. schenckii spores are inhaled. (wikipedia.org)

pesticides

  • pesticides, environmental toxins, well water contamination, heavy metals, arsenic and others have been proposed among possible causes of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • since the disease is mainly seen in men/workers, it has been speculated it may be related to occupation, heat-stress or agrochemicals (particularly pesticides). (wikipedia.org)
  • agrochemicals traditionally have been widely used in these and other farming areas where the disease is not prevalent, so a specific product - or products combination - not used elsewhere but only in the coastlands should be brought into consideration by the pesticides hypothesis to offer a plausible explanation as the main culprit. (wikipedia.org)

organism

  • The course of disease involves the spread of the organism to multiple organ systems, including the lungs, liver, spleen, and lymphatic system. (wikipedia.org)

occur

  • When drawing blood, administering an intramuscular or intravenous drug, or performing any procedure involving sharps, accidents can occur and facilitate the transmission of blood-borne diseases. (wikipedia.org)

commonly

  • Lyme disease (LD) is a multi-stage, multi-system bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, a spiral shaped bacterium that is most commonly transmitted by a tick bite. (medcentral.org)
  • NSAIDs self-prescription is particularly widespread, possibly due to frequent agricultural work posture-related pains, and dysuria is commonly treated with aminoglycosides, often not related to urinary tract infections but perhaps associated with dehydration itself. (wikipedia.org)

fungal

  • This fungal disease usually affects the skin, although other rare forms can affect the lungs, joints, bones, and even the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many people come with fungal keratitis in the only eye and thus become blind due to the disease. (wikipedia.org)

bacteria

  • A disease is a particular kind of illness caused by bacteria or an infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hunters are at a higher risk for this disease because of the potential of inhaling the bacteria during the skinning process. (wikipedia.org)

hepatitis

  • It has become increasingly apparent that chronic inflammation increases cancer risk and, in fact, many inflammatory conditions, such as Crohn's disease, hepatitis, schistosomiasis, thyroiditis, prostatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease are known cancer risk factors. (mercola.com)

affects

Humans

  • Ways in which disease patterns are tracked, and approaches to influenza surveillance among humans. (umn.edu)

among

  • Childhood Immunizations The importance of immunizations: Immunization is key to preventing disease among the general population. (medcentral.org)
  • Increased competition among agricultural producers and consolidation have created a need for a large, inexpensive, and temporary workforce that increasingly comes from abroad. (wikipedia.org)
  • In El Salvador, the disease has become the second leading cause of death among adult men, and according to a recent editorial, it has been estimated that this largely unknown epidemic has caused the premature death of at least 20,000 men in the region. (wikipedia.org)

differentiation

  • Wasmannia auropunctata workers are monomorphic, which means they display no physical differentiation. (wikipedia.org)

Symptoms

  • Sporotrichosis is a chronic disease with slow progression and often subtle symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is difficult to diagnose, as many other diseases share similar symptoms and therefore must be ruled out. (wikipedia.org)

common

  • The most common way the disease is spread is via arthropod vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cutaneous or skin sporotrichosis This is the most common form of this disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • This disease is quite common in the tropics and with large agrarian population. (wikipedia.org)

Rural

  • The National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety (NCCRAHS) is a part of the National Farm Medicine Center, one of the research centers of the Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rural areas of Nicaragua the disease is colloquially called creatinina. (wikipedia.org)

exposure

  • The course of disease is different depending on the route of exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) estimates 5.6 million workers in the healthcare industry are at risk of occupational exposure to blood-borne diseases via percutaneous injury. (wikipedia.org)

illness

  • You can use the adjectives long and short in front of illness , but not in front of disease . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The disease takes its name from Lyme, Connecticut, where the illness was first identified in the United States in 1975. (medcentral.org)
  • Otto Von Bismarck, Chancellor of the German Empire, introduced the programs to assist workers in the event of accidental injury, illness or old age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Workers unable to perform their current job due to injury or illness receive periodic payments of 80% of their prior gross earnings until returning to work (up to a maximum total payment). (wikipedia.org)

work

  • 5. The Patron agrees to enter into agreements with the proprietor or administrator (hereinafter referred to as the Employer) of the farm or farms in the United States of America, upon which the Worker will work, under terms guaranteeing him proper compliance with the terms of this agreement, it being understood that the Patron will be responsible to the Worker and to the Mexican Government for such compliance. (cdlib.org)
  • 1. The Worker will be employed exclusively in agricultural work. (cdlib.org)
  • 3. The Patron agrees that its representatives or agents will inform the Worker at the beginning of his work and as frequently thereafter as may be necessary, using the Spanish language in an adequate manner, concerning the wage rates to which he is entitled, and the housing conditions, medical attention and other facilities to which he is entitled by virtue of the provisions of this agreement. (cdlib.org)
  • 6. The Worker accepts transportation, food, lodging, subsistence and work under the terms of this agreement and will execute all documents, receipts or instruments which the Patron may require in connection with this agreement. (cdlib.org)
  • However, of US hired farmworkers doing crop-related work (excluding workers with H-2A visas), about 50 percent lack legal authorization to work. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2012, of hired farmworkers other than agricultural service workers, 26 percent were employed in farm work for part of the year, rather than being year-round employees. (wikipedia.org)
  • North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks is a collection of guidelines to assist parents and others in assigning age-appropriate tasks for children (ages 7-16) that live or work on ranches or farms in North America Nurture is the center's newsletter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Safety Guidelines for Hired Adolescent Farmworkers is a series of 7 posters adviseing on supervisor responsibilities for ensuring work conditions are appropriate and adequate, and also used as an assessment tool for teen workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease has also been found to be prevalent in other occupations with a high risk of heat stress, implying strenuous work (miners, construction, port and transportation workers) in the high temperatures of the coastlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Workers who have a loss of earning capacity due to work injury or occupational disease of 20% or more receive a pension equal to 66.7% of their previous year's earnings, up to the specified maximum. (wikipedia.org)

crop

  • Also In 2012, of hired crop workers, about three-quarters were not "migrant", i.e. they worked at a single location within 75 miles of home. (wikipedia.org)

Suicide

  • The excess of suicide mortalities … could be partly associated with the tough financial constraints, linked to the economic crisis, faced by the agricultural sector since 2007," the authors commented. (france24.com)

voluntary

  • Model Policy is a voluntary guideline outlining best practices for employers that hire young workers. (wikipedia.org)

infection

  • Studies by Cooke on the immunology of the disease, and in 1927 a filtrate of culture specimens, later named coccidioidin, began to be used in skin testing to delineate the epidemiology of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnoses of active disease and skin testing, showed that it was also found in southern Nevada and Utah, western Texas, as well as Arizona, where the southern and central areas appeared to impose the highest risk of infection in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sporotrichosis (also known as "rose gardener's disease") is a disease caused by the infection of the fungus Sporothrix schenckii. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with this form of sporotrichosis are susceptible to developing tuberculosis and pneumonia Disseminated sporotrichosis When the infection spreads from the primary site to secondary sites in the body, the disease develops into a rare and critical form called disseminated sporotrichosis. (wikipedia.org)

injury

  • A thorn injury, or in agriculture workers, trauma with a wheat plant while cutting the harvest is typical. (wikipedia.org)

food

  • In agricultural use of treated effluent, at least twenty different food crops are being irrigated as well as at least eleven other crops and nursery products, as indicated in Table 32. (fao.org)

include

  • Agricultural service workers (which include labor provided by labor contractors) make up 27 percent of the hired workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • This figure does not include the average value of perquisites, such as cash bonuses, housing or meals that are provided to some agricultural workers. (wikipedia.org)

young

  • that provided compelling evidence that glyphosate was a key factor in the chronic kidney disease that was affecting an alarming number of young agricultural workers in the northern region,[4,and was probably further motivated by the WHO reevaluation of its carcinogenic potential. (mercola.com)

children

  • Children should be immunised against dangerous diseases . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Diminution in motor speed and latency has been reported in preschool children from agricultural communities. (mdpi.com)
  • The workers' compensation program is funded by employers (except for the government's coverage for students and children and a government subsidy to the Agricultural Accident Fund). (wikipedia.org)

employers

  • This initial system was financed by workers and employers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Workers who were completely disabled received benefits at 67% after the 13 week, financed entirely by employers. (wikipedia.org)

government

  • 1. The Government of the United States and the Worker mutually desire that the Worker be beneficially employed in the United States of America with a view to alleviate the present shortage of agricultural workers in that country and to cooperate in the successful prosecution of the war. (cdlib.org)
  • The government prohibited recruiting of Liberian workers for Spanish Guinea. (wikipedia.org)
  • http://www.qp.gov.bc.ca/rcwc/research/perrin-thorau-germany.pdf, Government of British Columbia, Comparative Review of Workers' Compensation Systems in Select Jurisdictions, Germany, Retrieved September 8, 2010. (wikipedia.org)

risk

  • Key milestones in the pH1N1 2009 influenza pandemic, disease patterns, and groups at high risk for influenza complications. (umn.edu)
  • Many risk factors have been proposed but to date, the causes of the disease remain uncertain and controversial. (wikipedia.org)

reduce

  • Spain mounted military campaigns in the 1920s to subdue the indigenous Fang people, as Liberia was trying to reduce recruiting of its workers. (wikipedia.org)

spread

  • The viral disease first appeared in Southern China in November 2002 and spread to more than 24 countries in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. (medcentral.org)
  • Because roses can spread the disease, it is one of a few diseases referred to as rose-thorn or rose-gardeners' disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases can also spread by means of small droplets in the breath, also called aerosols. (wikipedia.org)

account

  • Mortality in untreated (before the antibiotic era) patients has been as high as 50% in the pneumoniac and typhoidal forms of the disease, which however account for less than 10% of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The US had 1.063 million hired agricultural workers in 2012, Hired workers currently account for about one-third of agricultural workers. (wikipedia.org)

sector

  • In the corporate university much medical research is both funded by and oriented to the private sector, privileging the development of profitable pharmaceutical cures over research on the causes of disease. (global-labour-university.org)

known

  • Tularemia, also known as rabbit fever, is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. (wikipedia.org)

agriculture workers

  • Meanwhile, France's Ministry of Agriculture hopes to soon launch a national helpline where agriculture workers can share problems and gain access to psychological support. (france24.com)

farm

  • France is the EU's top agricultural producer as well as the main beneficiary of EU farm aid. (france24.com)
  • Harvesting is a time when farm workers are continually moving from one piece of equipment to another, Bauer said. (countryfolks.com)
  • However, in discussions relating to labor law application, the term "farmworker" is sometimes used more narrowly, applying only to a hired worker involved in agricultural production, including harvesting, i.e. not to a worker in other on-farm jobs, such as packing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the domestic farm labor force has decreased in the last century, the proportion of hired workers has grown. (wikipedia.org)
  • The remainder of agricultural workers are farm owners and members of their families. (wikipedia.org)

Research

  • An indefatigable worker, Lacerda also began research on microbiology, beriberi and yellow fever. (wikipedia.org)

million

  • In 1954, there were 2.73 million hired agricultural workers in the US The 61 percent reduction in farmworker numbers between then and 2012 occurred despite an agricultural output increase of about 140 percent, serving a population that increased by 93 percent over that period. (wikipedia.org)

safety

  • For more information on agricultural safety issues, contact Bauer at 614-247-7681 or bauer.528@osu.edu . (countryfolks.com)

areas

  • Historically, agricultural use has dominated, and continues to do so, but over the past decade reclaimed wastewater has been increasingly used for landscape irrigation in urban areas and for groundwater recharge. (fao.org)
  • Fernando Po was developed after the Second World War as one of Africa's most productive agricultural areas. (wikipedia.org)

animal

  • Conclusions: Although the animal model of disease does not reflect the potential impact of supportive care (e.g. fluid resuscitation received by critically ill patients) on PA kinetics and raxibacumab PK, the simulations suggest that administration of antitoxin in combination with antibiotics should provide a longer postexposure window for effective treatment than for antibiotics alone. (utoledo.edu)

Institute

  • Today, in Germany, every worker is a member of a related Workers Compensation Institute (Berufsgenossenschaft) and almost all self-employed persons can voluntarily become insured members of an institute as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • An injured worker has a right to appeal to the committee of their Institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • The institute must cover the costs of the appeal process, so there are no costs to the worker. (wikipedia.org)

physical

  • 4. The Worker satisfies the physical requirements for fulfilling this agreement, as evidenced by the attached certificate issued by the duly authorized officers of the Department of Health of Mexico and the United States Public Health Service. (cdlib.org)
  • These ants get the benefits of both asexual and sexual reproduction - the daughters who can reproduce (the queens) have all of the mother's genes, while the sterile workers whose physical strength and disease resistance are important are produced sexually. (wikipedia.org)

commercial

  • The son of a Sardinian landowning family, born in Sassari, Sardinia, he studied to become a lawyer with a degree in agricultural and commercial law. (wikipedia.org)