American Native Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Genealogy and HeraldryAfricaPolymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Central African Republic: A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Gene Pool: The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.African Swine Fever Virus: The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Trinidad and Tobago: An independent state in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, north of Venezuela, comprising the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Its capital is Port of Spain. Both islands were discovered by Columbus in 1498. The Spanish, English, Dutch, and French figure in their history over four centuries. Trinidad and Tobago united in 1898 and were made part of the British colony of Trinidad and Tobago in 1899. The colony became an independent state in 1962. Trinidad was so named by Columbus either because he arrived on Trinity Sunday or because three mountain peaks suggested the Holy Trinity. Tobago was given the name by Columbus from the Haitian tambaku, pipe, from the natives' habit of smoking tobacco leaves. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1228, 1216 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p555, 547)Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.African Swine Fever: A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Annual MEDLINE/PubMed Year-End Processing (YEP): Background InformationBlacks was a 2003 MeSH Heading that became an entry term to the new 2004 heading African Continental Ancestry Group, but all ... which is treed under the African Continental Ancestry Group. Some additional maintenance was performed as well; citations that ... that were also indexed to countries other than the United States had the new MeSH heading African Continental Ancestry Group ... For 2003 the MeSH heading Actinobacteria Group was deleted and all occurrences of that term in MEDLINE were replaced by the new ...
"Alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and early coronary calcification: findings from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in...Adult; African Continental Ancestry Group; Alcohol Drinking; Alcoholic Intoxication; Calcinosis; Chi-Square Distribution; ... European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Logistic Models; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle ...
A competing risks model in early screening for preeclampsia.African Continental Ancestry Group. Arterial Pressure. Asian Continental Ancestry Group. Biological Markers. Early Diagnosis. ...
Ethnic differences in titratable acid excretion and bone mineralization.African Continental Ancestry Group. Ammonium Chloride / administration & dosage. Biological Markers / urine. Calcification, ... European Continental Ancestry Group. Female. Fractures, Stress / ethnology*, urine*. Humans. Male. Risk Factors. Sodium / urine ...
Interocclusal distance: a comparison between American Caucasians and Negroes.Cephalometric analyses were performed on groups of American Negro and Caucasian subjects to establish whether or not there were ... African Continental Ancestry Group*. Aged. Cephalometry. European Continental Ancestry Group*. Female. Humans. Male. Middle ... Cephalometric analyses were performed on groups of American Negro and Caucasian subjects to establish whether or not there were ... Statistically significant differences were found between the mean interocclusal distances of the two treatment groups, ...
On the nature of keloid and hypertrophic scars.This suggests that different biological factors are involved in the two groups. In clinical practice in the United Kingdom most ... African Continental Ancestry Group. Child. Child, Preschool. Cicatrix / ethnology, etiology, pathology*. Female. Humans. ... This suggests that different biological factors are involved in the two groups. In clinical practice in the United Kingdom most ...
Polymorphism in the interleukin-1 gene complex and spontaneous preterm delivery.African Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. Case-Control Studies. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2. Female. Fetal Membranes, ... RESULTS: Homozygous carriage of IL1B+3953 allele 1 by fetuses of African descent was associated with a risk of preterm delivery ... 3953*1 and IL1RN*2 alleles in African and Hispanic populations, respectively.. ...
Long-term comparison of primary trabeculectomy with 5-fluorouracil versus mitomycin C in West Africa.... used adjunctively with primary trabeculectomy in a Black West African population. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative study ... African Continental Ancestry Group / ethnology. Aged. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Antimetabolites / ... Mean postoperative follow-up was 7.5 and 6.5 years in the 5-FU and MMC groups, respectively (P=0.17). A higher proportion of ... METHODS: Review of 68 eyes of 68 Black West African subjects that underwent primary trabeculectomy with the use of ...
"Liopropoma africanum" or "African Basslets" - GEO DataSets -..."african continental ancestry group"[MeSH Terms] OR African[All Fields]. Search. See more... ... Analysis of immortalized B cells from MZ twin pairs (14 of European ancestry, 12 African American) treated in vitro with ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gds/?term="Liopropoma africanum" or "African Basslets"
A Picture of the Healthful Food Environment in Two Diverse Urban CitiesKeywords: public health, environment, fruits, vegetables, African American, Asian continental ancestry group ... A census block group is a cluster of census blocks within a census tract which is designed to be homogeneous with respect to ... About 61% of residents were white and 31% African American, with a handful of Hispanic, Asian and mixed residents. Kansas City ... were African American, with 16.7% Hispanic and less than 3% Asian and mixed ethnicity residents.22 In Study 1, we 1) developed ...
CNV and paralogue ratio test (PRT) in the FCGR l ocus. | Open-iAfrican Continental Ancestry Group/genetics. *Alleles. *Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics. *Chi-Square Distribution ...
"Pancreatic resection: a key component to reducing racial disparities in pancreatic adenocarcinoma" by Melissa M....Adenocarcinoma; *African Americans; Aged; *European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; *Healthcare Disparities; Humans; Male; ...
"Ten-year incidence of elevated blood pressure and its predictors: the CARDIA study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young...... each of these variables was significantly related to incidence in at least one of the four sex-race groups. In multivariate ... Adult; African Americans; Cohort Studies; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Humans; Hypertension; Incidence; Male; ... each of these variables was significantly related to incidence in at least one of the four sex-race groups. In multivariate ...
Very low food security predicts obesity predominantly in California Hispanic men and women.African Americans. Asian Continental Ancestry Group. Body Mass Index*. California / ethnology. Continental Population Groups*. ... European Continental Ancestry Group. Female. Food Supply* / economics. Health Surveys. Hispanic Americans. Humans. Male. Middle ... We examined whether food insecurity was associated with BMI and obesity within gender and racial/ethnic groups in a large, ... No significant associations were observed for non-Hispanic whites, African Americans, Asian men or multi-racial women. ...
"The association between income, education, and experiences of discrimination in older African American and European American...This study suggests future research should focus less on differences between racial/ethnic groups and more on factors within ... In this study, we describe the associations of discrimination with income and education in elderly African Americans (AA) and ... African Americans; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Educational Status; *European Continental Ancestry Group ... In this study, we describe the associations of discrimination with income and education in elderly African Americans (AA) and ...
Racial and ethnic differences in determinants of intrauterine growth retardation and other compromised birth outcomes.African Americans* / statistics & numerical data. European Continental Ancestry Group* / statistics & numerical data. Female. ... The odds of compromised birth outcomes were much higher among African Americans than among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic ...
Facts and artifacts about anemia and preterm delivery. - PubMed - NCBIAfrican Continental Ancestry Group. *Anemia/complications*. *Anemia/ethnology. *Birth Weight. *European Continental Ancestry ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2661878?systemMessage=Wiley Online Library will be unavailable on Saturday 7th Oct from 03.00 EDT / 08:00 BST / 12:30 IST / 15.00 SGT to 08.00 EDT / 13.00 BST / 17:30 IST / 20.00 SGT and Sunday 8th Oct from 03.00 EDT / 08:00 BST / 12:30 IST / 15.00 SGT to 06.00 EDT / 11.00 BST / 15:30 IST / 18.00 SGT for essential maintenance. Apologies for the inconvenience caused
Influences of ethnicity on perinatal and child mortality in the Netherlands. - PubMed - NCBIAfrican Continental Ancestry Group. *Cause of Death. *Child. *Child, Preschool. *Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data* ... In the Mediterranean group the differences were explained by teenage pregnancy, grand multiparity, and socioeconomic status ... To investigate the differences in perinatal death and child mortality between different ethnic groups in the Netherlands. ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11207169?systemMessage=Wiley Online Library will be unavailable on Saturday 7th Oct from 03.00 EDT / 08:00 BST / 12:30 IST / 15.00 SGT to 08.00 EDT / 13.00 BST / 17:30 IST / 20.00 SGT and Sunday 8th Oct from 03.00 EDT / 08:00 BST / 12:30 IST / 15.00 SGT to 06.00 EDT / 11.00 BST / 15:30 IST / 18.00 SGT for essential maintenance. Apologies for the inconvenience caused
Aliza P Wingoafrican continental ancestry group*life change events*socioeconomic factors*depressive disorder*personality inventory*european ... continental ancestry group*child abuse*primary health care*urban population*schizophrenia*schizophrenic psychology ...
P H Whincupafrican continental ancestry group*social class*seasons*data collection*european continental ancestry group*health surveys* ... Little is known about levels of physical fitness in children from different ethnic groups in the UK. We therefore studied ... Nutritional composition of the diets of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European children in the United Kingdom ... Ethnic differences in carotid intima-media thickness between UK children of black African-Caribbean and white European origin. ...
Begoña Martínez-Jarretaafrican continental ancestry group*alleles*genotype*european continental ancestry group*medical students*genetic drift* ... Finally, the amount of African ancestry is also interesting, probably because of the contribution of Spanish conquerors with ... BIOMICs Research Group, Department of Z and Cell Biology, DNA Bank, University of Basque Country, Spain. Alcohol Clin Exp Res ... ethnic groups*ecuador*el salvador*gene frequency*spain*occupational medicine*microsatellite repeats*polymerase chain reaction* ...
Mark A Klebanoffafrican continental ancestry group*bacterial sexually transmitted diseases*hydrogen ion concentration*psychological stress* ... The Research Institute at Nationwide Children s Hospital, Columbus, OH Pulmonary Hypertension Group, Center for Perinatal ...
Sarah Stewart de Ramirezafrican continental ancestry group*developing countries*rural population*wounds and injuries*risk reduction behavior*linear ...
Shukri F Khuriafrican continental ancestry group*feedback*blood transfusion*program development*anemia. Shukri F Khuri. Summary. Country: USA ... whether worse surgical outcomes are influencing clinical decision-making regarding use of the operation among minority group ...
Alon Keinanethnic groups*chromosomes*african continental ancestry group*genes*genetic drift*alleles*human genome*genetic models*signal ... asian continental ancestry group*demography*heterozygote*genetic predisposition to disease*european continental ancestry group* ... This may reflect descent of these groups from a common ancestral population that already had some African ancestry prior to the ... The history of African gene flow into Southern Europeans, Levantines, and Jews. Priya Moorjani. Department of Genetics, Harvard ...
North American Native Fishes Association: The North American Native Fishes Association (NANFA) is a non-profit, tax-exempt U.S.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Vibe Australia: Vibe Australia Pty Ltd (Vibe) is an Aboriginal media, communications and events management agency. Located in Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, they work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people throughout Australia.Atomic heraldry: Atomic heraldry is heraldry characterised by the appearance of charges including the atom or showing the motion of parts of the atom; more loosely, it may describe heraldry in which atoms or the component parts thereof are represented through a combination of other charges. Obviously, this is a late development in heraldry.MIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.TrypanosomiasisPopulation stratification: Population stratification is the presence of a systematic difference in allele frequencies between subpopulations in a population possibly due to different ancestry, especially in the context of association studies. Population stratification is also referred to as population structure, in this context.HIV/AIDS in South African townships: South Africa’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the most severe in the world, is concentrated in its townships, where many black South Africans live due to the lingering effects of the Group Areas Act. A 2010 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.Religion in the Central African Republic: According to 2010 estimates, about 80 percent of the population of the Central African Republic are Christians. Islam is practiced by 15 percent of the population.Genetic variation: right|thumbGene pool: The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Lampreado: thumb | 250px | right | LampreadoImmunoglobulin C2-set domain: A:317–388 B:317–388 B:317–388Environment of Trinidad and Tobago: The environment of Trinidad and Tobago reflects the interaction between its biotic diversity, high population density, and industrialised economy.Disequilibrium (medicine): Disequilibrium}}Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.
(1/5501) Identification of DNA polymorphisms associated with the V type alpha1-antitrypsin gene.
alpha1-Antitrypsin (alpha1-AT) is a highly polymorphic protein. The V allele of alpha1-AT has been shown to be associated with focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS) in Negroid and mixed race South African patients. To identify mutations and polymorphisms in the gene for the V allele of alpha1-AT in five South African patients with FGS nephrotic syndrome DNA sequence analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the coding exons were carried out. Four of the patients were heterozygous for the BstEII RFLP in exon III [M1(Val213)(Ala213)] and one patient was a M1(Ala213) homozygote. The mutation for the V allele was identified in exon II as Gly-148 (GGG)-->Arg (AGG) and in all patients was associated with a silent mutation at position 158 (AAC-->AAT). The patient who was homozygous for (Ala213) also had a silent mutation at position 256 in exon III (GAT-->GAC) which was not present in any of the other four patients. Although the V allele of alpha1-AT is not associated with severe plasma deficiency, it may be in linkage disequilibrium with other genes on chromosome 14 that predispose to FGS. Furthermore, the associated silent mutation at position 158 and the Ala213 polymorphism are of interest, as these could represent an evolutionary intermediate between the M1(Ala213) and M1(Val213) subtypes. (+info)
(2/5501) NaCl-induced renal vasoconstriction in salt-sensitive African Americans: antipressor and hemodynamic effects of potassium bicarbonate.
In 16 African Americans (blacks, 14 men, 2 women) with average admission mean arterial pressure (MAP, mm Hg) 99.9+/-3.5 (mean+/-SEM), we investigated whether NaCl-induced renal vasoconstriction attends salt sensitivity and, if so, whether supplemental KHCO3 ameliorates both conditions. Throughout a 3-week period under controlled metabolic conditions, all subjects ate diets containing 15 mmol NaCl and 30 mmol potassium (K+) (per 70 kg body wt [BW] per day). Throughout weeks 2 and 3, NaCl was loaded to 250 mmol/d; throughout week 3, dietary K+ was supplemented to 170 mmol/d (KHCO3). On the last day of each study week, we measured renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using renal clearances of PAH and inulin. Ten subjects were salt sensitive (SS) (DeltaMAP >+5%) and 6 salt resistant (SR). In NaCl-loaded SS but not SR subjects, RBF (mL/min/1.73 m2) decreased from 920+/-75 to 828+/-46 (P<0.05); filtration fraction (FF, %) increased from 19. 4+/- to 21.4 (P<0.001); and renal vascular resistance (RVR) (10(3)xmm Hg/[mL/min]) increased from 101+/-8 to 131+/-10 (P<0.001). In all subjects combined, DeltaMAP varied inversely with DeltaRBF (r =-0.57, P=0.02) and directly with DeltaRVR (r = 0.65, P=0.006) and DeltaFF (r = 0.59, P=0.03), but not with MAP before NaCl loading. When supplemental KHCO3 abolished the pressor effect of NaCl in SS subjects, RBF was unaffected but GFR and FF decreased. The results show that in marginally K+-deficient blacks (1) NaCl-induced renal vasoconstrictive dysfunction attends salt sensitivity; (2) the dysfunction varies in extent directly with the NaCl-induced increase in blood pressure (BP); and (3) is complexly affected by supplemented KHCO3, GFR and FF decreasing but RBF not changing. In blacks, NaCl-induced renal vasoconstriction may be a pathogenetic event in salt sensitivity. (+info)
(3/5501) Heart rate and subsequent blood pressure in young adults: the CARDIA study.
The objective of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that baseline heart rate (HR) predicts subsequent blood pressure (BP) independently of baseline BP. In the multicenter longitudinal Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study of black and white men and women initially aged 18 to 30 years, we studied 4762 participants who were not current users of antihypertensive drugs and had no history of heart problems at the baseline examination (1985-1986). In each race-sex subgroup, we estimated the effect of baseline HR on BP 2, 5, 7, and 10 years later by use of repeated measures regression analysis, adjusting for baseline BP, age, education, body fatness, physical fitness, fasting insulin, parental hypertension, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, oral contraceptive use, and change of body mass index from baseline. The association between baseline HR and subsequent systolic BP (SBP) was explained by multivariable adjustment. However, HR was an independent predictor of subsequent diastolic BP (DBP) regardless of initial BP and other confounders in white men, white women, and black men (0.7 mm Hg increase per 10 bpm). We incorporated the part of the association that was already present at baseline by not adjusting for baseline DBP: the mean increase in subsequent DBP was 1.3 mm Hg per 10 bpm in white men, white women, and black men. A high HR may be considered a risk factor for subsequent high DBP in young persons. (+info)
(4/5501) Associations of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I autoantibodies with HLA class II alleles in three ethnic groups.
OBJECTIVE: To determine any HLA associations with anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta2GPI) antibodies in a large, retrospectively studied, multiethnic group of 262 patients with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or another connective tissue disease. METHODS: Anti-beta2GPI antibodies were detected in sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HLA class II alleles (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1) were determined by DNA oligotyping. RESULTS: The HLA-DQB1*0302 (DQ8) allele, typically carried on HLA-DR4 haplotypes, was associated with anti-beta2GPI when compared with both anti-beta2GPI-negative SLE patients and ethnically matched normal controls, especially in Mexican Americans and, to a lesser extent, in whites. Similarly, when ethnic groups were combined, HLA-DQB1*0302, as well as HLA-DQB1*03 alleles overall (DQB1*0301, *0302, and *0303), were strongly correlated with anti-beta2GPI antibodies. The HLA-DR6 (DR13) haplotype DRB1*1302; DQB1*0604/5 was also significantly increased, primarily in blacks. HLA-DR7 was not significantly increased in any of these 3 ethnic groups, and HLA-DR53 (DRB4*0101) was increased in Mexican Americans only. CONCLUSION: Certain HLA class II haplotypes genetically influence the expression of antibodies to beta2GPI, an important autoimmune response in the APS, but there are variations in HLA associations among different ethnic groups. (+info)
(5/5501) Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody in white and black patients with diabetes mellitus.
The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg) and antibody (anti-HBS) was determined in 531 white and 519 black diabetic outpatients and in appropriate white and black control populations. There was no difference between the prevalence of either HBSAg or anti-HBS in either the white or black diabetics and that in the white and black controls. These findings make it unlikely that the vast majority of patients with diabetes mellitus have either an increased susceptibility to infection by the hepatitis B virus or an impaired ability to clear the virus once they are infected. (+info)
(6/5501) Racial differences in the outcome of left ventricular dysfunction.
BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have found that black patients with congestive heart failure have a higher mortality rate than whites with the same condition. This finding has been attributed to differences in the severity, causes, and management of heart failure, the prevalence of coexisting conditions, and socioeconomic factors. Although these factors probably account for some of the higher mortality due to congestive heart failure among blacks, we hypothesized that racial differences in the natural history of left ventricular dysfunction might also have a role. METHODS: Using data from the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) prevention and treatment trials, in which all patients received standardized therapy and follow-up, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction among black and white participants. The mean (+/-SD) follow-up was 34.2+/-14.0 months in the prevention trial and 32.3+/-14.8 months in the treatment trial among the black and white participants. RESULTS: The overall mortality rates in the prevention trial were 8.1 per 100 person-years for blacks and 5.1 per 100 person years for whites. In the treatment trial, the rates were 16.7 per 100 person-years and 13.4 per 100 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for age, coexisting conditions, severity and causes of heart failure, and use of medications, blacks had a higher risk of death from all causes in both the SOLVD prevention trial (relative risk, 1.36; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.74; P=0.02) and the treatment trial (relative risk, 1.25; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.50; P=0.02). In both trials blacks were also at higher risk for death due to pump failure and for the combined end point of death from any cause or hospitalization for heart failure, our two predefined indicators of the progression of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Blacks with mild-to-moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction appear to be at higher risk for progression of heart failure and death from any cause than similarly treated whites. These results suggest that there may be racial differences in the outcome of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction. (+info)
(7/5501) The effect of race and sex on physicians' recommendations for cardiac catheterization.
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have reported differences in the use of cardiovascular procedures according to the race and sex of the patient. Whether the differences stem from differences in the recommendations of physicians remains uncertain. METHODS: We developed a computerized survey instrument to assess physicians' recommendations for managing chest pain. Actors portrayed patients with particular characteristics in scripted interviews about their symptoms. A total of 720 physicians at two national meetings of organizations of primary care physicians participated in the survey. Each physician viewed a recorded interview and was given other data about a hypothetical patient. He or she then made recommendations about that patient's care. We used multivariate logistic-regression analysis to assess the effects of the race and sex of the patients on treatment recommendations, while controlling for the physicians' assessment of the probability of coronary artery disease as well as for the age of the patient, the level of coronary risk, the type of chest pain, and the results of an exercise stress test. RESULTS: The physicians' mean (+/-SD) estimates of the probability of coronary artery disease were lower for women (probability, 64.1+/-19.3 percent, vs. 69.2+/-18.2 percent for men; P<0.001), younger patients (63.8+/-19.5 percent for patients who were 55 years old, vs. 69.5+/-17.9 percent for patients who were 70 years old; P<0.001), and patients with nonanginal pain (58.3+/-19.0 percent, vs. 64.4+/-18.3 percent for patients with possible angina and 77.1+/-14.0 percent for those with definite angina; P=0.001). Logistic-regression analysis indicated that women (odds ratio, 0.60; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.9; P=0.02) and blacks (odds ratio, 0.60; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.9; P=0.02) were less likely to be referred for cardiac catheterization than men and whites, respectively. Analysis of race-sex interactions showed that black women were significantly less likely to be referred for catheterization than white men (odds ratio, 0.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.2 to 0.7; P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the race and sex of a patient independently influence how physicians manage chest pain. (+info)
(8/5501) Genetic polymorphism and interethnic variability of plasma paroxonase activity.
A method for determining plasma paroxonase activity using an auto-analyser is described. Frequency distributions for British and Indian subjects show bimodality. A study of 40 British families confirms the presence of a genetic polymorphism with regard to plasma paroxonase activity. Two phenotypes can be defined, controlled by two alleles at one autosomal locus. The frequency of the low activity phenotype is less in the Indian population than in the British population. Malay, Chinese, and African subjects fail to show obvious bimodality. (+info)
- No significant associations were observed for non-Hispanic whites, African Americans, Asian men or multi-racial women. (biomedsearch.com)
- In this study, we describe the associations of discrimination with income and education in elderly African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA). (bepress.com)
- The odds of compromised birth outcomes were much higher among African Americans than among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. (biomedsearch.com)
- CONCLUSION: There are associations of spontaneous preterm delivery with the fetal carriage of IL1B+3953*1 and IL1RN*2 alleles in African and Hispanic populations, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
- We examined whether food insecurity was associated with BMI and obesity within gender and racial/ethnic groups in a large, diverse sample of low-income adults. (biomedsearch.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the association of food insecurity and obesity is limited to individuals of certain low-income, minority racial/ethnic groups. (biomedsearch.com)
- 001). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests future research should focus less on differences between racial/ethnic groups and more on factors within minority populations that may contribute to healthcare disparities. (bepress.com)
- To investigate the differences in perinatal death and child mortality between different ethnic groups in the Netherlands. (nih.gov)
- Cephalometric analyses were performed on groups of American Negro and Caucasian subjects to establish whether or not there were differences in interocclusal distance attributable to ethnic origin. (biomedsearch.com)
- Statistically significant differences were found between the mean interocclusal distances of the two treatment groups, supporting the hypothesis that American Negroes have an average interocclusal distance which is less than that of Caucasians. (biomedsearch.com)
- A higher proportion of eyes in the MMC group achieved "qualified" (with or without medical therapy) success with varying IOP targets relative to the 5-FU group, but the differences were not statistically significant. (biomedsearch.com)
- In the Mediterranean group the differences were explained by teenage pregnancy, grand multiparity, and socioeconomic status rather than prematurity. (nih.gov)
- RESULTS: Homozygous carriage of IL1B+3953 allele 1 by fetuses of African descent was associated with a risk of preterm delivery (P =.033). (biomedsearch.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative MMC use is associated with a lower likelihood of requiring postoperative medications and a greater likelihood of achieving IOP lowering without medications relative to the use of 5-FU in a Black West African population. (biomedsearch.com)
- Mean postoperative follow-up was 7.5 and 6.5 years in the 5-FU and MMC groups, respectively (P=0.17). (biomedsearch.com)
- METHODS: Review of 68 eyes of 68 Black West African subjects that underwent primary trabeculectomy with the use of intraoperative 5-FU or MMC between January 1, 1988 and January 1, 2002 and had at least 3 years postoperative follow-up. (biomedsearch.com)
- This suggests that different biological factors are involved in the two groups. (biomedsearch.com)