African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.United StatesAsian Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Mexican Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican descent.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.AfricaNorth CarolinaMississippiChicagoGeorgiaAlabamaSouth CarolinaPrejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Religion: A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Southeastern United States: The geographic area of the southeastern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not included. The states usually included in this region are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, West Virginia, and Virginia.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Central African Republic: A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.BaltimoreHealthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Religion and Psychology: The interrelationship of psychology and religion.PhiladelphiaFocus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Los AngelesCultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.African Swine Fever Virus: The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Clergy: Persons ordained for religious duties, who serve as leaders and perform religious services.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.MichiganSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Racism: Differential treatment or unequal access to opportunities, based on group membership such as origin or ethnicity.MissouriNorth AmericaSocial Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Minority Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of members of minority groups.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Spirituality: Sensitivity or attachment to religious values, or to things of the spirit as opposed to material or worldly interests. (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed, and Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed)Cultural Competency: Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. Competence implies the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.African Swine Fever: A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).American Samoa: A group of islands of SAMOA, in the southwest central Pacific. Its capital is Pago Pago. The islands were ruled by native chiefs until about 1869. An object of American interest beginning in 1839, Pago Pago and trading and extraterritorial rights were granted to the United States in 1878. The United States, Germany, and England administered the islands jointly 1889-99, but in 1899 they were granted to the United States by treaty. The Department of the Interior has administered American Samoa since 1951. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p44)CaliforniaLouisianaSocial Identification: The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)TexasHypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.American Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Nursing Methodology Research: Research carried out by nurses concerning techniques and methods to implement projects and to document information, including methods of interviewing patients, collecting data, and forming inferences. The concept includes exploration of methodological issues such as human subjectivity and human experience.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.IndianaIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Protestantism: The name given to all Christian denominations, sects, or groups rising out of the Reformation. Protestant churches generally agree that the principle of authority should be the Scriptures rather than the institutional church or the pope. (from W.L. Reese, Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion, 1999)Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Faith Healing: The use of faith and spirit to cure disease.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Community-Based Participatory Research: Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.New York CityLinear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.PennsylvaniaRegression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.FloridaAdaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Race Relations: Cultural contacts between people of different races.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Transcultural Nursing: A nursing specialty created to answer the need for developing a global perspective in the practice of nursing in a world of interdependent nations and people. The focus of this nursing discipline is on the integration of international and transcultural content into the training. Courses include study in the area of cultural differences, nursing in other countries, and international health issues and organizations, as an example.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.South AmericaAfrican Horse Sickness: An insect-borne reovirus infection of horses, mules and donkeys in Africa and the Middle East; characterized by pulmonary edema, cardiac involvement, and edema of the head and neck.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Masculinity: Male-associated sex-specific social roles and behaviors unrelated to biologic function.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Nephrosclerosis: Hardening of the KIDNEY due to infiltration by fibrous connective tissue (FIBROSIS), usually caused by renovascular diseases or chronic HYPERTENSION. Nephrosclerosis leads to renal ISCHEMIA.KansasReligion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Elephants: Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.MarylandChristianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.African horse sickness virus: A species of ORBIVIRUS that causes disease in horses, mules, and donkeys. Via its principal vector CULICOIDES, it can also infect dogs, elephants, camels, cattle, sheep, goats, and, in special circumstances, humans.West Indies: Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.IllinoisMothers: Female parents, human or animal.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.American Native Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Barbering: The occupation concerned with the cutting and dressing of the hair of customers and, of men, the shaving and trimming of the beard and mustache. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Southwestern United States: The geographic area of the southwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Midwestern United States: The geographic area of the midwestern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not indicated. The states usually included in this region are Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin.ArkansasProgram Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.

*  How to Teach About African American History (with Pictures)

African American history is the study of the rich cultural and political history of an American cultural group and America in ... African American history lessons are taught extensively in... ... assign reports or focus a unit on important African Americans, ... Plan a feast or potluck that includes African American cuisine. Ask some students to make and bring African cuisine, which can ... Students should learn how the political and social struggles of African Americans have shaped our modern society. Teachers can ...

*  Electronic Village: New AfroSpear Member: TransGriot

"I believe the Afrospear's purpose is to not only inform our people, but to correct disinformation about African Americans and ... As a African American progressive blogger who is transgender as well, I have another perspective to bring to the table of ... I also want to show through my blog that African American transpeople like myself have much to offer our community and are as ... issues that affect our African American family. I lecture and do seminars about transgender issues as well in addition to on ...

*  Sexually Transmitted Infections Among African American Women Who Have Sex With Women - Full Text View -

... especially among African Americans. This is a group of women that may exhibit distinctive behavioral characteristics that may ... Bacterial vaginosis among African American women who have sex with women. Sex Transm Dis. 2013 Sep;40(9):751-5. doi: 10.1097/ ... MedlinePlus related topics: African American Health HIV/AIDS Sexually Transmitted Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases ... African American women who have sex with women. Sexually transmitted infections. Homosexuality. Human papillomavirus. Cervical ...

*  Electronic Village: Uplift Your Soul With African American Art

Study Shows Disconnect Between African Americans' .... *Evolution of the AfroSpear. * ► February (50) ... I thought that all Villagers would appreciate an uplifting montage of music and African American artwork. Check out this video ... What an awesome montage of artistic expression and a fabulous celebration of the sense of love, pride, and family of African ...

*  CDC H1N1 Flu | African Americans and H1N1

Some African-Americans may also face barriers to accessing health care, such as lack of insurance or transportation. There is ... Many African Americans are concerned about the safety of influenza vaccines. For example, in a recent survey of 1500 registered ... However, this concern was twice as high among African Americans.10 According to a University of Michigan study, despite ... Promotion of 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccination among African Americans recommended for these vaccines is a key part ...

*  Nitric Oxide, LPS and the Pathogenesis of Asthma Phase II - Full Text View -

In this study, we will determine the effect of inhaled endotoxin on exhaled NO in healthy African Americans, with and without ...

*  Black News, Entertainment, Style and Culture - HuffPost Black Voices | HuffPost

... and discuss the issues that matter most to the African American community. ... 4 Ways African Americans Can Tackle Mental Illness James LaVelle Dickens, DNP, FNP-BC, FAANP, Contributor Captain, U.S. Public ... This Is Not A New America For African Americans Ace Robinson, Contributor Global Health Advocate Focused on Reducing the Impact ... Get Out' Gets In Our Heads About African Americans And Mental Health Jenee Darden , Contributor Journalist, Public Speaker, ...

*  Safer Sex Program for Young African-American Men - Full Text View -

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has termed AIDS a 'health crisis' for African Americans and has called for ... Safer Sex Program for Young African-American Men. This study is currently recruiting participants. See Contacts and Locations ... The crisis is especially dramatic in the South and it is now apparent that young African American men who have sex with men ( ... MedlinePlus related topics: African American Health Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Treponema Infection ...

*  Effects of Low Birth Weight on Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Caucasian and African-American Children | Diabetes Care

In children with NBW, African-Americans had a significantly lower visceral fat level than Caucasians (P , 0.01; Fig. 1E). ... Among children with LBW, the fasting insulin was significantly higher in African-Americans than Caucasians (Fig. 1A). ... Among African-American children, LBW was significantly related to a lower AIR (P , 0.01). Among children with NBW, African- ... 53 African-Americans) aged 4-12 years (mean 8.1) at the start of the study and 8-14 years (mean 11.7) at the end of the study. ...

*  Intensive Interferon Therapy Does Not Increase Virological Response Rates in African Americans with Chronic Hepatitis C |...

African Americans and Caucasians had similar initial response rates. However, unlike Caucasians, African Americans did not have ... Levels of HCV RNA decreased more slowly during the first 12 weeks of therapy among African Americans. Nelson-Aalen cumulative ... Howell C, Jeffers L, Hoofnagle JH: Hepatitis C in African Americans: Summary of a workshop. Gastroenterology 119:1385-1396, ... Intensive Interferon Therapy Does Not Increase Virological Response Rates in African Americans with Chronic Hepatitis C. ...

*  High Mortality Rate among African Americans with Type 1 Diabetes due Largely to Acute Complications, Say University of...

High Mortality Rate among African Americans with Type 1 Diabetes due Largely to Acute Complications, Say University of ... High Mortality Rate among African Americans with Type 1 Diabetes due Largely to Acute Complications, Say University of ... These results, while preliminary, suggest an inadequacy in care for African Americans with type 1 diabetes,' said Trevor ... mortality among African Americans with the disease remains higher than in whites, and acute complications such as diabetic coma ...

*  African Americans | AMERICAN HERITAGE

American Heritage has been the leading magazine of U.S. history, politics, culture, and heritage travel for over six decades. Read more ,,. ...

*  Dominance, Prejudiced Stereotypes, and Social Inequality in To Kill A Mockingbird - College Paper

the opinions of the white population towards the coloured population during the 1930's; if the African Americans tried to act ... Anglo-Saxon dominance over the African American population is an issue significant to racism and .... Want to read the rest of ... They wish to slowly eradicate all evidence of African American life. When Atticus arrives home and sees the snowman, he asks ... However, Jem disapproves, arguing that: "if he did, the snowman would become muddy and cease to be a snowman." (8.74) African ...

*  Plus it

... than in African Americans (19%). In African Americans but not Caucasians, the Pro/Pro phenotype significantly correlated with a ... Nine (7%) African American and 16 (7%) Caucasian patients were lost to follow-up and 5 (4%) African Americans and 8 (3%) ... the wild-type Arg/Arg variants were more common in Caucasians than in African Americans. In African American patients, ... For both African Americans (A, log-rank, P = 0.001) and Caucasians (B, log-rank, P = 0.028) colorectal cancers with p53 ...

*  Human Behavior in the Social Environment from an African American Perspective (Paperback) - Routledge

... leading black scholars come together to discuss complex human behavior problems faced by African Americans and to force the ... In Human Behavior in the Social Environment from an African American Perspective, ... Enhancing the Resilience of African American Families * The Psychological Effects of Skin Color on African Americans' Self ... the use of emotive behavior therapy to help African Americans cope with the prospect of imminent death *advocating for changes ...

*  African Americans : NPR

African Americans

*  Blasian - For African-Americans and Asians

A site where African-Americans and Asians can come together ... This site is for the bringing together of African-Americans and ... For African-Americans & Asians. BlasianChat. Forums. Say What?. Join Blasian. Login Sign Guestbook. View ...

*  Smashwords - Books Tagged 'african americans'

Includes podcasts by African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans. Recommended apps for listening are ... Books tagged: african americans The adult filter is active; there may be additional content. To view this content, click the " ... What did African American entrepreneurship and the African American economic infrastructure look like 100 years ago, and how ... Categories: Fiction » African American fiction » General, Fiction » African American fiction » Urban life ...

*  African Americans in Film | UC Berkeley Library

African Americans in Film Beat Street (1984) Director, Stan Lathan. Cast: Rae DawnChong, Guy Davis, Robert Taylor, JonChardiet ... A key figure in the development of African-American entertainment, he was by far the best-selling black recording artist before ...

*  Primetime Blues: African Americans on Network Television

... type:. Book. Current Status:. In Season. author:. Donald Bogle. ... Most often, even when they are the stars of a show, African Americans are denied the range of emotion and experience that ... African Americans on Network Television, the Benny program showcased wonderful, nervy work by Eddie "Rochester" Anderson, who ... "appealed to the African-American audience in [an] intensely personal way" because he was "a middle class black man who asserted ...

*  African-Americans Retire Earlier, With Less Savings

A new study finds African-Americans retire earlier than the general population on average, despite significantly lower ... The new retirement age is getting younger for many Americans who can least afford to retire. ... African-Americans Retire Earlier, With Less Savings. Sharon Epperson , @sharon_epperson Published 12:43 PM ET Wed, 22 May 2013 ... Yet African-Americans are also retiring with a far more meager financial cushion than average. Even if they participate in 401( ...

*  Project MUSE - African Americans in Global Affairs

Browse , Area and Ethnic Studies , African American and African Diaspora Studies 11: African Americans, Transnational ... ELEVEN African Americans, Transnational Contention, and Cross-National Politics in the United States and Venezuela Sekou M. ... For example, TransAfrica Forum, a U.S.-based social justice group that lobbies for African and African Diaspora issues, sent a ... African American/Venezuelan) nations or global/supranational institutions. From the standpoint of African American/Venezuelan ...

*  Project MUSE - African Americans in Global Affairs

African American and African Diaspora Studies 2: Conceptualizing the Foreign Affairs Participation of African Americans: ... TWO Conceptualizing the Foreign Affairs Participation of African Americans STRATEGIES AND EFFECTS OF THE CONGRESSIONAL BLACK ... Interestingly, the rise of African Americans to prominent institutional roles within the foreign policy establishment starkly ... Some social analysts and citizens have begun to question whether and how the recent emergence of African Americans and people ...

*  Lesson Plans - English Language Arts Grade 3

Native Americans Today In this lesson plan, teachers use photo essays and other texts to introduce students to Native American ... In these activities, students research narratives from the Federal Writers' Project and describe the lives of former African ...

*  Psychiatric Medication News: FDA Eases Rules on Access to Investigational Psychotropic Drugs

African Americans (2) * African-Americans (1) * age (2) * Aging (1) * Agomelatin (1) ...

African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Robinson Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California: The Robinson Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California is a federally recognized tribe of Eastern Pomo people in Lake County, California.California Indians and Their Reservations.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.MIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009Steven Zeisel: Steven H. Zeisel, M.University of Mississippi Medical Center School of Dentistry: The University of Mississippi Medical Center School of Dentistry is a dental graduate school that is part of the University of Mississippi. Located in Jackson, Mississippi, U.Chicago Tafia: The Chicago Tafia Welsh Society (also known as the Chicago Tafia) is an expatriate Welsh group formed in Chicago, Illinois, USA, in 1999. As one of the youngest and most contemporary Welsh groups in North America, the society strives to provide a link between the present culture of Wales and the Chicago area.Emory University Hospital: Emory University Hospital is a 587-bed facility in Atlanta, Georgia, specializing in the care of the acutely ill adults. Emory University Hospital is staffed exclusively by Emory University School of Medicine faculty who also are members of The Emory Clinic.Outline of Alabama: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the U.S.Florence Crittenton Home (Charleston, South Carolina)Pride and Prejudice and Zombies: Dawn of the Dreadfuls: Pride and Prejudice and Zombies: Dawn of the Dreadfuls (2010) is a parody novel by Steve Hockensmith. It is a prequel to Seth Grahame-Smith's 2009 novel Pride and Prejudice and Zombies, focusing on "the early life and training of Elizabeth Bennet, heroine of the earlier Pride and Prejudice and Zombies as she strove to become a gifted zombie hunter, with some mishaps in her early romantic encounters also included.TrypanosomiasisHoward University College of DentistryWGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.WOW Worship: Orange: [ Allmusic review]Pinguicula lutea: Pinguicula lutea, commonly known as the yellow butterwort, is a species of warm-temperate carnivorous plant in the Lentibulariaceae family. It grows in savannas and sandy bog areas of the Southeastern United States.Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom: People from various ethnic groups reside in the United Kingdom. Migration from Northern Europe has been happening for millennia, with other groups such as British Jews also well established.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Religion in the Central African Republic: According to 2010 estimates, about 80 percent of the population of the Central African Republic are Christians. Islam is practiced by 15 percent of the population.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.William Donald SchaeferClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.The Ayurvedic Trust: The Ayurvedic Trust (AVT), founded in 1950, is a health-related trust in India. It is headquartered at Coimbatore, the second largest city of Tamil Nadu in India.Philadelphia Badlands: The Philadelphia Badlands is a section of North Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States that is known for an abundance of open-air recreational drug markets and drug-related violence.Volk, Steve.Los Angeles County Department of Public HealthHofstede's cultural dimensions theory: Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication, developed by Geert Hofstede. It describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.HIV/AIDS in South African townships: South Africa’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the most severe in the world, is concentrated in its townships, where many black South Africans live due to the lingering effects of the Group Areas Act. A 2010 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.Immunoglobulin C2-set domain: A:317–388 B:317–388 B:317–388Henry Hopkins (clergy): Henry Hopkins (30 November 1837 – 28 August 1908) was an American clergyman and a president of Williams College.Michigan State University College of Nursing: The Michigan State University College of Nursing is the nursing college at Michigan State University. It is located on the southeastern side of campus in East Lansing, Michigan, USA.Haridas ChaudhuriUniversity of Missouri Health Care: University of Missouri Health System is an academic health system located in Columbia, Missouri. It is owned by the University of Missouri System.American Medical Student AssociationAge adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Secular spirituality: Secular spirituality refers to the adherence to a spiritual ideology without the advocation of a religious framework. Secular spirituality emphasizes the inner peace of the individual, rather than a relationship with the divine.Business Model of Intercultural Analysis: The Business Model of Intercultural Analysis (BMIA) is a tool developed to address cross-cultural problems. The BMIA framework uses six comprehension lenses to analyze cross-cultural interaction in the business environment.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Genetic variation: right|thumbClassification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Population stratification: Population stratification is the presence of a systematic difference in allele frequencies between subpopulations in a population possibly due to different ancestry, especially in the context of association studies. Population stratification is also referred to as population structure, in this context.List of Superfund sites in American Samoa: This is a list of Superfund sites in American Samoa designated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) environmental law:San Diego County, California Probation: The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on community supervision orders.Louisiana State University School of Dentistry: Louisiana State University School of Dentistry is a school of dentistry located in the United States city of New Orleans. It is the only dental school located in the state of Louisiana.University of Texas Health Science Center at HoustonHypertensionLifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Aultman Hospital: Aultman Hospital is a non-profit hospital located in Canton, Ohio, United States. It is the largest hospital and the largest employer, with over 5000 employees, in Stark County.Disequilibrium (medicine): Disequilibrium}}Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Substance-related disorderDisinhibition: In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania.Indiana University School of Dentistry: The Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD) is the dental school of Indiana University. It is located on the Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis campus in downtown Indianapolis.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Gene polymorphismAdventist Health Studies: Adventist Health Studies (AHS) is a series of long-term medical research projects of Loma Linda University with the intent to measure the link between lifestyle, diet, disease and mortality of Seventh-day Adventists.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Cancer screening

(1/9421) Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody in white and black patients with diabetes mellitus.

The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg) and antibody (anti-HBS) was determined in 531 white and 519 black diabetic outpatients and in appropriate white and black control populations. There was no difference between the prevalence of either HBSAg or anti-HBS in either the white or black diabetics and that in the white and black controls. These findings make it unlikely that the vast majority of patients with diabetes mellitus have either an increased susceptibility to infection by the hepatitis B virus or an impaired ability to clear the virus once they are infected.  (+info)

(2/9421) Prevalence and social correlates of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Harlem.

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the prevalence, social correlates, and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in a predominantly Black, poor, urban community. METHODS: Associations of risk factor prevalences with sociodemographic variables were examined in a population-based sample of 695 men and women aged 18 to 65 years living in Central Harlem. RESULTS: One third of the men and women were hypertensive, 48% of the men and 41% of the women were smokers, 25% of the men and 49% of the women were overweight, and 23% of the men and 35% of the women reported no leisure-time physical activity over the past month. More than 80% of the men and women had at least 1 of these risk factors, and 9% of the men and 19% of the women had 3 or more risk factors. Income and education were inversely related to hypertension, smoking, and physical inactivity. Having 3 or more risk factors was associated with low income and low education (extreme odds ratio [OR] = 10.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.0, 34.5 for education; OR = 3.7, CI = 1.6, 8.9 for income) and with a history of unstable work or of homelessness. CONCLUSIONS: Disadvantaged, urban communities are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. These results highlight the importance of socioenvironmental factors in shaping cardiovascular risk.  (+info)

(3/9421) Evidence for a black-white crossover in all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in an older population: the North Carolina EPESE.

OBJECTIVES: This cohort study evaluated racial differences in mortality among Blacks and Whites 65 years and older. METHODS: A total of 4136 men and women (1875 Whites and 2261 Blacks) living in North Carolina were interviewed in 1986 and followed up for mortality until 1994. Hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality were calculated, with adjustment for sociodemographic and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. RESULTS: Black persons had higher mortality rates than Whites at young-old age (65-80 years) but had significantly lower mortality rates after age 80. Black persons age 80 or older had a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR of Blacks vs Whites, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.62, 0.90) and of CHD mortality (HR 0.44: 95% CI = 0.30, 0.66). These differences were not observed for other causes of death. CONCLUSIONS: Racial differences in mortality are modified by age. This mortality crossover could be attributed to selective survival of the healthiest oldest Blacks or to other biomedical factors affecting longevity after age 80. Because the crossover was observed for CHD deaths only, age overreporting by Black older persons seems an unlikely explanation of the mortality differences.  (+info)

(4/9421) A critical approach to stress-related disorders in African Americans.

This article outlines an integrative, dynamic approach to stress and is, in part, a response to emergent debates within social science research and practice that suggest that African Americans are currently experiencing the reverberating psychological effects of slavery and oppression. It is the product of the work of an African-American mental health think tank situated at the Community Mental Health Council, Chicago, Illinois. We suggest the need to attend to biopsychosocial, environmental, and cultural factors that inform both exposure and responses to stress. Finally, consideration is given to matters of resiliency.  (+info)

(5/9421) Influence of maternal ethnicity on infant mortality in Chicago, 1989-1996.

This study compared infant mortality rates between large ethnic groups in Chicago from 1989-1996. Infant mortality information about ethnic groups was compared using data from annual reports published by the Epidemiology Program, Department of Public Health, City of Chicago and vital statistics documents in Illinois, which include information on ethnicity. Chi-squared analysis was used to evaluate the differences between the proportions. A P value of < .05 was considered significant. During the study period, there were 461,974 births and 6407 infant deaths in Chicago. African Americans contributed 212,924 (46.1%) births and 4387 (68.5%) deaths; Hispanics 132,787 (28.7%) births and 1166 (18.2%) deaths; and whites 99,532 (21.6%) births and 780 (12.2%) infant deaths. Compared with the other groups. African Americans suffered a twofold increased mortality (P < .00001) for five of the six most common causes of infant mortality. Deaths from congenital malformations, although significant, were not excessively increased among African Americans (P = .014). Hispanics demonstrated a higher mortality rate than whites (P = .01), especially for postnatal mortality and respiratory distress syndrome. These data confirm excessive infant mortality among African Americans. Further studies are needed to evaluate the apparent low mortality among some Hispanics compared with the other groups studied.  (+info)

(6/9421) HIV risk differences between African-American and white men who have sex with men.

African-American men who have sex with men remain at disproportionately greater risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. While high HIV seroincidence has been documented among homosexual African-American men, behavioral research has rarely studied the HIV risk issues confronting these men. This study assessed a sample of 253 men who have sex with men to determine if African-American (n = 79) and white (n = 174) men report different rates of HIV risk behaviors and differ in characteristics indicative of risk. African-American men who have sex with men were more likely to be HIV-seropositive, to report past treatment for gonorrhea and syphilis, and to have a recent unprotected sex partner known or believed to be HIV-seropositive. Multivariate analyses of covariance, controlling for group differences in age, education, and income, revealed that African-American men who have sex with men were less open about their sexual orientation, scored lower in HIV risk behavior knowledge, had more female sexual partners, and more frequently used cocaine in association with sex relative to white men who have sex with men. Human immunodeficiency virus prevention programs tailored to the needs and risk issues of African-American men who have sex with men are needed.  (+info)

(7/9421) Pterygium and its relationship to the dry eye in the Bantu.

A comparative study was performed on two groups of Bantus in Johannesburg to see if there was any relationship between the "dry eye" and pterygia, but no correlation was found.  (+info)

(8/9421) Plasma cortisol suppression response in the South African black population with glaucoma.

Plasma cortisol suppression was measured in 25 Black glaucomatous patients and in 19 Black patients of similar age and sex, but without glaucoma, who acted as controls. Initial serum cortisol levels were found to be slightly higher in the glaucomatous group. The response to systemically-administered cortisone was statistically more marked in the glaucomatous patients compared with the control group.  (+info)


  • In the book, we examine the past, present and future of African American entrepreneurship in America. (
  • Major corporate support for The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross is provided by Bank of America . (


  • Most often, even when they are the stars of a show, African Americans are denied the range of emotion and experience that whites are granted. (


  • What did African American entrepreneurship and the African American economic infrastructure look like 100 years ago, and how does it compare to where we are today? (
  • Race-Related: The Rise and Fall of the African American is a lightening fast read, chronicling how a government authorized and CIA run Crack Epidemic, Reaganomics and the so-called War on Drugs, wiped out most if not all social and economic gains African Americans had struggled to achieve during the sixties and early seventies. (
  • This 2009 H1N1 and Seasonal Flu and African American Communities: Questions and Answers document summarizes current understanding of the impact of 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza virus on African Americans, describes some of the barriers to uptake of 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccines, and outlines potential strategies for improving health and increasing vaccine coverage in African American communities. (
  • What impact is 2009 H1N1 having on African American communities? (
  • What factors contribute to 2009 H1N1's impact on African American communities? (
  • Disparities in underlying medical conditions, such as asthma and diabetes, may contribute to the impact of 2009 H1N1 on African American communities. (
  • A key figure in the development of African-American entertainment, he was by far the best-selling black recording artist before 1920. (
  • Bogle nails the appeal of the Norman Lear issue oriented squawk comedies like "All in the Family," "Maude," and "The Jeffersons," praising Sherman Hemsley's George Jefferson as a character who "appealed to the African-American audience in [an] intensely personal way" because he was "a middle class black man who asserted…his racial identity at every opportunity. (
  • The highlight of Jesse Jackson's trip was his thirty-minute speech before the Venezuelan National Assembly on August 28, perhaps the first of its kind by an African American leader. (
  • The Rainbow/push Coalition's visit was part of a series of dialogues involving African American activists and elected officials, Venezuelan government leaders, and Afro-Venezuelan activists. (
  • This chapter examines African American/Venezuelan alliances and social movement activities, or what I refer to as transnational contention. (
  • Some social analysts and citizens have begun to question whether and how the recent emergence of African Americans and people of color on the institutional scene will affect the substance and direction of, and global response to, American foreign policymaking. (
  • Largely, the twentieth-century independence movements of African, Latin American, and Asian states were instrumental in prompting the need for inclusiveness in foreign policymaking. (
  • These developments also lay bare the notion that the quality of domestic social relations partially affects a state's foreign relations, and they demand a conceptual framework of African American participation in foreign affairs that takes into account their unique background and experiences at the domestic level and globally. (
  • This chapter presents a conceptual approach to African American participation in foreign affairs. (
  • We apply this approach to two of the premier sources of African American foreign affairs organizations-the Congressional Black Caucus (cbc) and TransAfrica Forum-with the aim of assessing their influence in foreign policymaking. (
  • In Virginia, and elsewhere, the debate over school choice and voucher-like programs has split the African American community along generational, and perhaps, class lines. (
  • Go look at the areas where the schoolchildren are trapped and look what the color of their skin is,' said Alberta Wilson of Chesapeake, an African American who founded a scholarship organization to help children attend private schools. (
  • And so the struggle has led to scenes like the one in Virginia's legislature last week when Jameera, 18, and 16 classmates - all African American and all neatly attired in navy blue school uniforms - spoke up for school choice, only to be shot down. (
  • And it was a real uproar in the LGBT community, in the African-American community, especially in the African-American gay community. (
  • The friendly audience of African American political leaders matched Edwards's somber restraint throughout the speech, applauding only three times. (
  • The person who spearheaded "the first, black initiated 'back to Africa' effort in U.S. history," according to the historian Donald R. Wright, was also the first free African American to visit the White House and have an audience with a sitting president. (
  • The study reported that African-American students have overwhelmingly chosen majors that traditionally lead to low-paying jobs since 2009, including majors like health administration, human services, community organization and social work. (
  • Alternatively, relatively few African-American students study high-paying science, technology, engineering and math and business majors. (
  • Only 8 percent of general engineering majors, 7 percent of mathematics majors, and 5 percent of computer engineering majors are African-American. (
  • CEW Chief Economist Nicole Smith said African-American students may choose these majors based on their interests or because of the impact of others. (
  • According to Smith, the study of major selection and earnings specifically by African-American students was prompted by findings on previous studies conducted by the CEW that focused on majors as a whole. (
  • Findings published today in, Arthritis & Rheumatism , a journal of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), show that compared with Caucasians, African-American patients were more likely to have antibodies that increased frequency and severity of pulmonary fibrosis, which is associated with decreased survival. (
  • To understand how auto-antibodies affect systemic sclerosis in African-American and Caucasian patients, a research team led by Dr. Virginia Steen from Georgetown University Medical Center in Washington, DC, analyzed data from the Pittsburgh Scleroderma Database. (
  • This database includes demographic, clinical, autoantibody, organ involvement and survival information for 203 African-American and 2945 Caucasian scleroderma patients seen at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between 1972 and 2007. (
  • Anti-topoisomerase auto-antibodies in scleroderma are associated with a higher incidence of pulmonary fibrosis (scarring of the lungs) and greater disease severity, and in this study, African-American patients with this antibody had more frequent and more severe fibrosis than the Caucasians with this antibody. (
  • Pulmonary fibrosis was also more severe in African American patients with anti-U1 RNP auto-antibodies compared to Caucasian patients with this antibody but a difference in survival between the races was not apparent. (
  • Pulmonary disease is the most common cause of scleroderma related deaths, and African-American race was independently associated with pulmonary fibrosis and African Americans are at greater risk for severe lung disease, which the authors suggest may be due to genetics or environmental factors. (
  • For African-American systemic sclerosis patients with severe lung disease, more aggressive treatment early on could improve their outcome. (


  • TWO Conceptualizing the Foreign Affairs Participation of African Americans STRATEGIES AND EFFECTS OF THE CONGRESSIONAL BLACK CAUCUS AND TRANSAFRICA Michael L. Clemons The general exclusion of African Americans from the formal arena of foreign policymaking has historically been a prominent reflection of the significance of race in global politics. (


  • There is no epidemiological or clinical evidence that suggests that African Americans are more susceptible to either 2009 H1N1 or seasonal influenza, or to poorer health outcomes by virtue of their race alone. (


  • Interestingly, the rise of African Americans to prominent institutional roles within the foreign policy establishment starkly contrasts with the muting of race, ethnicity, and culture as important analytical constructs in international and domestic politics, and consequently is sidelined in favor of a complementary multicultural perspective. (


  • Even if they participate in 401(k)s and other retirement accounts, African-Americans have a median savings of $9,000 in their employer-sponsored plans, compared with $20,000 among the general population, the Prudential study found. (
  • It takes a close look at how attitudes about homosexuality among African Americans are evolving. (
  • John F. Kerry accused President Bush of hanging a "do not enter" sign on the White House doors for many African Americans, as the Democratic nominee stepped up his campaign yesterday to maximize turnout among minority voters. (


  • Our findings confirm that more serious complications affect African Americans with system sclerosis than Caucasians," concludes Dr. Steen. (


  • A study released Tuesday by Prudential finds African-Americans retire earlier than the general population on average, despite significantly lower retirement savings. (
  • According to the study, which was released Feb. 9, African Americans make up 12 percent of the total population of the United States, but they are underrepresented in the nation's fastest-growing, highest-paying jobs, which may be linked back to a student's choice of major. (
  • According to the study, African Americans who choose majors that correlate with well-paying, growing industries are likely to find themselves with greater access to high-paying jobs and less trouble paying off their student loans. (


  • The report said access to high-paying jobs is especially important for African Americans. (


  • For example, TransAfrica Forum, a U.S.-based social justice group that lobbies for African and African Diaspora issues, sent a delegation to Venezuela in January 2004. (
  • The low-paying majors that African Americans are concentrated in are of high social value but low economic value," Carnevale wrote. (


  • This site is for the bringing together of African-Americans and Asians. (


  • Some African-Americans may also face barriers to accessing health care, such as lack of insurance or transportation. (


  • CEW Director and co-author of the report Anthony P. Carnevale said in a press release that African Americans are concentrated in majors that may reward them in other, noneconomic ways. (


  • Nearly three-quarters of African-Americans surveyed have savings accounts, but they are half as likely to invest in IRAs and less likely to invest in 401(k)s than the general population. (


  • Of course, black Americans, even before the opportunity for institutional roles, were involved in foreign affairs activity. (
  • PB Gale, a part of Cengage Learning PP Farmington Hills, Mich. YR 1920 AB Contains reproductions of hundreds of FBI files documenting the federal scrutiny, harassment, and prosecution to which black Americans of all political persuasions were subjected. (


  • Medical evidence has confirmed that African Americans have an increased incidence and worse prognosis with systemic sclerosis than Caucasians. (


  • About 25 percent of African-Americans surveyed expect to retire before age 60, compared to 20 percent of the general population. (


  • Fewer than half of all African Americans (44%) now say they think life for blacks will get better in the future, down from the 57% who said so in a 1986 survey. (


  • As the Supreme Court prepares to rule on two cases involving same-sex marriage, a new documentary takes a look at what same-sex marriage means for African-Americans. (


  • Kerry said one group in particular has been shut out -- both from "compassionate conservatism" and the president's time: African Americans. (