Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal: Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.TriglyceridesCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Puberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Pediatric Obesity: BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Mice, Inbred C57BLRegression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Western World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Republic of BelarusBlood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Adipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.Waist-to-height ratio: A person's waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), also called waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), is defined as their waist circumference divided by their height, both measured in the same units. The WHtR is a measure of the distribution of body fat.LeptinAbdominal obesityOverweight PoochInsulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Adiponectin: Adiponectin (also referred to as GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene. It is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Animal fatQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Dietmar Wittmann: Dietmar H. Wittmann, M.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.TriglycerideWaterladder pumpAdipokine: The adipokines, or adipocytokines (Greek adipo-, fat; cytos-, cell; and -kinos, movement) are cytokines (cell signaling proteins) secreted by adipose tissue. The first adipokine to be discovered was leptin in 1994.Outline of diabetes: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to diabetes:Spermaturia: Spermaturia is a human disease characterized by the presence of sperm in the urine.Pedersen, J.National Cholesterol Education Program: The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health. Its goal is to reduce increased cardiovascular disease rates due to hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) in the United States of America.Restricted isometry property: In linear algebra, the restricted isometry property characterizes matrices which are nearly orthonormal, at least when operating on sparse vectors. The concept was introduced by Emmanuel Candès and Terence TaoE.Lipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.HeartScore: HeartScore is a cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management tool developed by the European Society of Cardiology, aimed at supporting clinicians in optimising individual cardiovascular risk reduction.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Annual Fitness Test: In the British Army, the Annual Fitness Test is designed to assess soldiers' lower and upper body strength and endurance. The test was formally known as the Combat Fitness Test - and is still colloquially known by soldiers as the CFT.High-intensity interval training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is an enhanced form of interval training, an exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods. HIIT is a form of cardiovascular exercise.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Management of obesity: The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. Diet programs may produce weight loss over the short term, but maintaining this weight loss is frequently difficult and often requires making exercise and a lower calorie diet a permanent part of an individual's lifestyle.Adipogenesis: Adipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation by which preadipocytes become adipocytes. Adipogenesis has been one of the most intensively studied models of cellular differentiation.Glucose transporterBiomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Jakob SegalHinduism in Belarus: Hinduism in Belarus has a very small following. There are three main Hindu groups in country.Aortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.Agouti-related peptide: A:87-122 A:87-120 A:80-128Birth weight: Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth.Definitions from Georgia Department of Public Health.Fatty liverCALERIE: CALERIE (Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy) is a trial currently underway in the U.S.Glyceroneogenesis: Glyceroneogenesis is a metabolic pathway which synthesizes glycerol 3-phosphate or triglyceride from precursors other than glucose.Myokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Inflammation: Inflammation (Latin, [is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogen]s, damaged cells, or irritants.
(1/2014) Changes in weight and lean body mass during highly active antiretroviral therapy.
BACKGROUND: Few studies have prospectively evaluated the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on body weight and lean body mass (LBM) or explored the impact of baseline immunologic or virological changes on these parameters. METHODS: Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) protocol 892 was a prospective, 48-week, multisite observational study of body composition conducted during 1997-2000 among 224 antiretroviral-naive and antiretroviral-experienced subjects coenrolled into various adult ACTG antiretroviral studies. Assessments included human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA load (by polymerase chain reaction); T lymphocyte subset analysis; Karnofsky score; height (baseline only); weight, LBM, and fat (by bioelectrical impedance analysis); and functional performance (by questionnaire). RESULTS: Overall, only modest median increases in body weight (1.9 kg) and LBM (0.6 kg) occurred after 16 weeks of therapy. Significantly greater median increases in body weight (2.1 vs. 0.5 kg; P=.045) occurred in subjects who achieved virological suppression (HIV-1 RNA load, <500 copies/mL) at week 16 than in subjects who did not. Subjects who were antiretroviral naive at baseline gained more weight (median increase in body weight, 2.6 vs. 0.0 kg; P<.001) and LBM (1.0 vs. 0.1 kg; P=.002) after 16 weeks of treatment than did subjects who were antiretroviral experienced. Subjects with lower baseline CD4 cell counts (<200 cells/mm3) and subjects with higher baseline HIV-1 RNA loads (> or =100,000 copies/mL) were more likely to show increases in LBM of >1.5 kg (P=.013 and P=.005, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: HAART had modestly favorable effects on body composition, particularly in patients with greater pretreatment immunocompromise and virological compromise. The difference between antiretroviral-naive and antiretroviral-experienced subjects with regard to the ability to achieve increased body weight and LBM requires more study. (+info)
(2/2014) Elevated soluble ICAM-1 levels induce immune deficiency and increase adiposity in mice.
Elevated soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) levels have been found in many pathological conditions, including obesity. To determine the effects of elevated sICAM-1 on immune responses and metabolism, we generated a transgenic mouse model overexpressing the extracellular domain of mouse ICAM-1 in the liver. The mice, showing 10-fold higher sICAM-1 levels than wild-type mice, presented elevated neutrophil count. Despite this, after intraperitoneal injection of thioglycollate, neutrophil recruitment into the peritoneal cavity was reduced, and the delayed macrophage recruitment was also affected in the transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. Inhibition of contact hypersensitivity response in the sICAM-1 transgenic mice was comparable to ICAM-1-deficient mice and characterized by significantly less ear swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration than in wild-type mice. sICAM-1transgenic mice were more susceptible to weight gain on a Western-type diet than wild-type mice, and older animals showed excessive fat accumulation, again reminiscent of ICAM-1-deficient mice. Together, these data indicate that sICAM-1 interferes with ICAM-1-mediated cell-cell interactions, which could produce immune-suppressant effects and alteration of metabolism in persons with high levels of this soluble adhesion receptor. (+info)
(3/2014) Rise in insulin resistance is associated with escalated telomere attrition.
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance predisposes to cardiovascular disease and shortens human lifespan. We therefore tested the hypothesis that a rise in insulin resistance in concert with gain in body mass is associated with accelerated white blood cell telomere attrition. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured white blood cell telomere dynamics and age-related changes in insulin resistance and body mass index in young adults of the Bogalusa Heart Study. Over 10.1 to 12.8 years, the relative changes in telomere length were correlated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r=-0.531, P<0.001) and changes in the body mass index (r=-0.423, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide the first tangible nexus of telomere biology with insulin resistance and adiposity in humans. (+info)
(4/2014) Genetic modifiers interact with Cpe(fat) to affect body weight, adiposity, and hyperglycemia.
Obesity and Type II diabetes are complex diseases in the human population. The existence of a large number of contributing loci and gene-gene as well as gene-environment interactions make it difficult to identify the disease genes underlying these complex traits. In mouse models of obesity and Type II diabetes such as the murine fat mutation, genetic crosses can be used to dissect the genetic complexity influencing the observed phenotypes. The underlying defect in the fat mutant is a Ser202Pro change in carboxypeptidase E (CPE), an enzyme responsible for the final proteolytic processing step of prohormone intermediates. On the HRS/J (HRS) inbred strain background, mice homozygous for the fat mutation exhibit early onset hyperinsulinemia followed by postpubertal moderate obesity without hyperglycemia. In contrast, on the C57BLKS/J (BKS) genetic background, fat/fat mice become severely obese, hyperinsulinemic, and hyperglycemic. Therefore, in the Cpe(fat) genetic model, the fat mutation is necessary but not sufficient for the development of obesity, Type II diabetes, and related metabolic disorders. To dissect the susceptibility loci responsible for modifying obesity- and diabetes-associated traits, we characterized, both genetically and phenotypically, fat/fat male progeny from a large intercross between BKS. HRS-fat/fat and HRS-+/+ mice. Four major loci were mapped, including a locus for body weight (body weight 1) on chromosome 14; a locus for hyperglycemia (fat-induced diabetes 1) on chromosome 19; a locus for hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypercholesterolemia (fat-induced diabetes 2) on chromosome 5; and a locus for adiposity and body weight (fat-induced adiposity 1) on chromosome 11. The identification of these interacting genetic determinants for obesity and Type II diabetes may allow better definition of the obesity/diabetes-related hormone signaling pathways and ultimately may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of these complex diseases. (+info)
(5/2014) Body mass index in relation to ovarian cancer survival.
Evidence for an association between indicators of adiposity and survival after ovarian cancer has been inconsistent. A prospective cohort study was conducted in China to examine the relationship between ovarian cancer survival and body mass index (BMI). From the 214 patients recruited in 1999 to 2000 with histopathologically confirmed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, 207 patients or their close relatives (96.7% of cases) were traced and followed to 2003. Deaths were recorded and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from multivariate models. Reduced survival was observed among patients with BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2) at 5 years before diagnosis (P = 0.001). There were 98 (59.8%) of 164 patients with BMI <25 kg/m(2) survived to the time of interview compared with only 15 women (34.9%) among the 43 patients whose BMI was > or =25 kg/m(2). The HRs significantly increased with higher BMI at 5 years before diagnosis but not at diagnosis nor at age 21 years. The adjusted HR was 2.33 (95% CI, 1.12-4.87) for BMI of > or =25 versus <20 kg/m(2), with a significant dose-response relationship. The HR was 3.31 (95% CI, 1.26-8.73) among patients who had been overweight or obese at age 21 years, but a linear dose-response was not found. We conclude that premorbid BMI may have independent prognostic significance in ovarian cancer. (+info)
(6/2014) Recombinant leptin promotes atherosclerosis and thrombosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.
OBJECTIVE: The direct role of leptin in vascular disease remains controversial. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of leptin treatment on atherosclerosis and thrombosis in atherosclerotic-prone mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen-week-old, male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were treated with injections of recombinant leptin (125 microg per day IP; n=10) or vehicle (n=10) for 4 weeks. Leptin treatment resulted in reduced epididymal fat (352+/-30.7 versus 621+/-61.5 mg; P=0.005) and fasting insulin (0.57+/-0.25 versus 1.7+/-0.22 ng/mL; P=0.014). Despite these metabolic benefits, leptin treatment resulted in an increase in atherosclerosis (8.0+/-0.95% versus 5.4+/-0.59% lesion surface coverage; P<0.05). Leptin treatment also resulted in a shortened time to occlusive thrombosis after vascular injury (21+/-2.1 versus 34.6+/-5.4 minutes; P=0.045). CONCLUSIONS: These studies indicate that exogenous leptin promotes atherosclerosis and thrombosis and support the concept that elevations of leptin may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. (+info)
(7/2014) Cathepsin S, a novel biomarker of adiposity: relevance to atherogenesis.
The molecular mechanisms by which obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate biomarkers overexpressed in adipose tissue of obese subjects that could link expanded fat mass to atherosclerosis. We compared gene expression profile in subcutaneous adipose tissue (scWAT) of 28 obese and 11 lean subjects using microarray technology. This analysis identified 240 genes significantly overexpressed in scWAT of obese subjects. The genes were then ranked according to the correlation between gene expression and body mass index (BMI). In this list, the elastolytic cysteine protease cathepsin S was among the highly correlated genes. RT-PCR and Western blotting confirmed the increase in cathepsin S mRNA (P=0.006) and protein (P<0.05) in obese scWAT. The circulating concentrations of cathepsin S were also significantly higher in obese than in nonobese subjects (P<0.0001). Both cathepsin S mRNA in scWAT and circulating levels were positively correlated with BMI, body fat, and plasma triglyceride levels. In addition, we show that the proinflammatory factors, lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increase cathepsin S secretion in human scWAT explants. This study identifies cathepsin S as a novel marker of adiposity. Since this enzyme has been implicated in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, we propose that cathepsin S represents a molecular link between obesity and atherosclerosis. (+info)
(8/2014) Body fatness during childhood and adolescence and incidence of breast cancer in premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study.
INTRODUCTION: Body mass index (BMI) during adulthood is inversely related to the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer, but the role of body fatness earlier in life is less clear. We examined prospectively the relation between body fatness during childhood and adolescence and the incidence of breast cancer in premenopausal women. METHODS: Participants were 109,267 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II who recalled their body fatness at ages 5, 10 and 20 years using a validated 9-level figure drawing. Over 12 years of follow up, 1318 incident cases of breast cancer were identified. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for body fatness at each age and for average childhood (ages 5-10 years) and adolescent (ages 10-20 years) fatness. RESULTS: Body fatness at each age was inversely associated with premenopausal breast cancer incidence; the multivariate RRs were 0.48 (95% CI 0.35-0.55) and 0.57 (95% CI 0.39-0.83) for the most overweight compared with the most lean in childhood and adolescence, respectively (P for trend < 0.0001). The association for childhood body fatness was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for later BMI, with a multivariate RR of 0.52 (95% CI 0.38-0.71) for the most overweight compared with the most lean (P for trend = 0.001). Adjustment for menstrual cycle characteristics had little impact on the association. CONCLUSION: Greater body fatness during childhood and adolescence is associated with reduced incidence of premenopausal breast cancer, independent of adult BMI and menstrual cycle characteristics. (+info)