Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Lipocalins: A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Renal Replacement Therapy: Procedures which temporarily or permanently remedy insufficient cleansing of body fluids by the kidneys.CreatinineAcute-Phase Proteins: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.Azotemia: A biochemical abnormality referring to an elevation of BLOOD UREA NITROGEN and CREATININE. Azotemia can be produced by KIDNEY DISEASES or other extrarenal disorders. When azotemia becomes associated with a constellation of clinical signs, it is termed UREMIA.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute: Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of EPITHELIAL CELLS of the KIDNEY TUBULES. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ISCHEMIA following severe TRAUMA.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Rhabdomyolysis: Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Cystatin C: An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Oliguria: Decreased URINE output that is below the normal range. Oliguria can be defined as urine output of less than or equal to 0.5 or 1 ml/kg/hr depending on the age.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Crush Syndrome: Severe systemic manifestation of trauma and ischemia involving soft tissues, principally skeletal muscle, due to prolonged severe crushing. It leads to increased permeability of the cell membrane and to the release of potassium, enzymes, and myoglobin from within cells. Ischemic renal dysfunction secondary to hypotension and diminished renal perfusion results in acute tubular necrosis and uremia.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Nephrology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Interleukin-18: A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Anuria: Absence of urine formation. It is usually associated with complete bilateral ureteral (URETER) obstruction, complete lower urinary tract obstruction, or unilateral ureteral obstruction when a solitary kidney is present.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)Preoperative Period: The period before a surgical operation.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Thrombotic Microangiopathies: Diseases that result in THROMBOSIS in MICROVASCULATURE. The two most prominent diseases are PURPURA, THROMBOTIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC; and HEMOLYTIC-UREMIC SYNDROME. Multiple etiological factors include VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELL damage due to SHIGA TOXIN; FACTOR H deficiency; and aberrant VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR formation.Kidney Cortex Necrosis: Death of cells in the KIDNEY CORTEX, a common final result of various renal injuries including HYPOXIA; ISCHEMIA; and drug toxicity.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Hemofiltration: Extracorporeal ULTRAFILTRATION technique without HEMODIALYSIS for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Mice, Inbred C57BLMultiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Uromodulin: A glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) - anchored membrane protein found on the thick ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. The cleaved form of the protein is found abundantly in URINE.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Cardio-Renal Syndrome: Condition where a primary dysfunction of either heart or kidney results in failure of the other organ (e.g., HEART FAILURE with worsening RENAL INSUFFICIENCY).Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Nephritis: Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.Renal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.Immune System Processes: Mechanisms of action and interactions of the components of the IMMUNE SYSTEM.Hemodiafiltration: The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.APACHE: An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.Iothalamate Meglumine: A radiopaque medium used for urography, angiography, venography, and myelography. It is highly viscous and binds to plasma proteins.Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Nephritis, Interstitial: Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Iodine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain iodine as an integral part of the molecule.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Patient Outcome AssessmentInjury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Snake Bites: Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)Delayed Graft Function: General dysfunction of an organ occurring immediately following its transplantation. The term most frequently refers to renal dysfunction following KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Tertiary Care Centers: A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Russell's Viper: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. It is distributed in West Pakistan, most of India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, southeast China, Taiwan, and a few islands of Indonesia. It hisses loudly when disturbed and strikes with great force and speed. Very prolific, it gives birth to 20-60 young. This viper is the leading cause of snakebite in India and Burma. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p127)Acetylglucosaminidase: A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Iopamidol: A non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiological procedures.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Mice, 129 Strain: Strains of mice arising from a parental inbred stock that was subsequently used to produce substrains of knockout and other mutant mice with targeted mutations.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.MyoglobinuriaNephrogenic Fibrosing Dermopathy: A chronic, acquired, idiopathic, progressive eruption of the skin that occurs in the context of RENAL FAILURE. It is sometimes accompanied by systemic fibrosis. The pathogenesis seems to be multifactorial, with postulated involvement of circulating fibrocytes. There is a strong association between this disorder and the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Thoracic Surgery: A surgical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the heart, lungs, and esophagus. Two major types of thoracic surgery are classified as pulmonary and cardiovascular.Bleaching Agents: Chemicals that are used to oxidize pigments and thus effect whitening.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Iatrogenic Disease: Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.Water-Electrolyte Imbalance: Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Sesame Oil: The refined fixed oil obtained from the seed of one or more cultivated varieties of Sesamum indicum. It is used as a solvent and oleaginous vehicle for drugs and has been used internally as a laxative and externally as a skin softener. It is used also in the manufacture of margarine, soap, and cosmetics. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Hyperuricemia: Excessive URIC ACID or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees C; greater than 0.42mmol per liter (7.0mg/dL) in men or 0.36mmol per liter (6.0mg/dL) in women. This condition is caused by overproduction of uric acid or impaired renal clearance. Hyperuricemia can be acquired, drug-induced or genetically determined (LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME). It is associated with HYPERTENSION and GOUT.Endotoxemia: A condition characterized by the presence of ENDOTOXINS in the blood. On lysis, the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria enters the systemic circulation and initiates a pathophysiologic cascade of pro-inflammatory mediators.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Triiodobenzoic Acids: Triiodo-substituted derivatives of BENZOIC ACID.Abortion, Septic: Any type of abortion, induced or spontaneous, that is associated with infection of the UTERUS and its appendages. It is characterized by FEVER, uterine tenderness, and foul discharge.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Intensive Care Units, Pediatric: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill infants and children. Neonates are excluded since INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, NEONATAL is available.Earthquakes: Sudden slips on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slips, or by volcanic or magmatic activity, or other sudden stress changes in the earth. Faults are fractures along which the blocks of EARTH crust on either side have moved relative to one another parallel to the fracture.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Bioartificial Organs: Artificial organs that are composites of biomaterials and cells. The biomaterial can act as a membrane (container) as in BIOARTIFICIAL LIVER or a scaffold as in bioartificial skin.Urodynamics: The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.

*  Acute Kidney Injury Risk Could be Predicted by a Gene Variant

... an abrupt decline in kidney function, is an increasingly prevalent and potentially serious condition following major surgery. ... Acute kidney injury (AKI), an abrupt decline in kidney function, is an increasingly prevalent and potentially serious condition ... is highly associated with development of acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery.' ... Breathing Dirty Air may Lead to Kidney Failure. Breathing in unclean air due to increasing air pollution could cause kidney ...

*  JCI - Cellular pathophysiology of ischemic acute kidney injury

Acute Kidney Injury Network: report of an initiative to improve outcomes in acute kidney injury. Crit Care. 2007;11(2):R31. ... The endothelial cell in ischemic acute kidney injury: implications for acute and chronic function. Kidney Int. 2007;72(2):151- ... Compartmentalization of neutrophils in the kidney and lung following acute ischemic kidney injury. Kidney Int. 2009;75(7):689- ... Acute kidney injury: a springboard for progression in chronic kidney disease. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;298(5):F1078- ...

*  Histone lysine crotonylation during acute kidney injury in mice

A) Western blot of murine healthy control kidneys and animals subjected to acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by a folic acid ... Histone crotonylation is increased in kidney tubular cells during acute kidney injury. The histone crotonylation pattern during ... IL-34 mediates acute kidney injury and worsens subsequent chronic kidney disease. J. Clin. Invest. 125, 3198-3214. 10.1172/ ... The inflammatory cytokine TWEAK decreases PGC-1α expression and mitochondrial function in acute kidney injury. Kidney Int .[ ...

*  Reduced kidney lipoprotein lipase and renal tubule triglyceride accumulation in cisplatin-mediated acute kidney injury

... Li, ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR alpha) activation attenuates cisplatin (CP)-mediated acute kidney injury ... CP also reduced kidney LPL expression and activity. Angptl4 mRNA levels were increased by ninefold in liver and kidney tissue ... Here, we investigated the effects of PPAR alpha and CP on expression and enzyme activity of kidney lipoprotein lipase (LPL) as ...

*  A Safety and Efficacy Trial of Multiple Dosing Regimens of ABT-719 for the Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury in Subjects...

A Safety and Efficacy Trial of Multiple Dosing Regimens of ABT-719 for the Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury in Subjects ... Proportion of subjects that develop the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) scoring criteria [ Time Frame: Day 7 ]. *Proportion ... Safety and Efficacy Trial of Multiple Dosing Regimens of ABT-719 for the Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury in Subjects ... Safety and Efficacy Trial of Multiple Dosing Regimens of ABT-719 for the Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury in Subjects ...

*  Evolution of chronic renal impairment and long-term mortality after de novo acute kidney injury in the critically ill; a...

Introduction: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is common in critical ill populations and its association with high short-term ... Evolution of chronic renal impairment and long-term mortality after de novo acute kidney injury in the critically ill; a ... We aimed to compare the long-term risk of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and mortality in ...

*  Evaluation of determinants of acute kidney injury and mortality among patients attending intensive care unit: A retrospective...

Evaluation of determinants of acute kidney injury and mortality among patients attending intensive care unit: A retrospective ... Acute kidney Injury, Glomerular filtration rate.. Introduction. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI), previously known as acute renal ... University of Toronto Acute Kidney Injury Research Group. Chronic dialysis and death among survivors of acute kidney injury ... Acute Kidney Injury Network: report of an initiative to improve outcomes in acute kidney injury. Crit Care 2007; 11: R31. ...

*  Bone morphogenetic protein-5 and early endothelial outgrowth cells (eEOCs) in acute ischemic kidney injury (AKI) and 5/6...

... reproducibly have been shown to act protectively in acute ischemic kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney injury. Bone ... in acute ischemic kidney injury (AKI) and 5/6-chronic kidney disease. Daniel Patschan, Katrin Schwarze, Andrea Lange, Nyree ... in acute ischemic kidney injury (AKI) and 5/6-chronic kidney disease ... in acute ischemic kidney injury (AKI) and 5/6-chronic kidney disease ...

*  BJCVS, Vol.: 32 Ed.: 6 - 481/486 - 2017, Validation of Four Prediction Scores for Cardiac Surgery-Associated Acute Kidney...

... acute kidneyinjury work group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for acute kidney injury.Kidney Inter. 2012;2(suppl):1-138.. 11 ... Predictive models for kidney disease: improving global outcomes (KDIGO)defined acute kidney injury in UK cardiac surgery. Crit ... Acute kidney injury based on KDIGO(Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes) criteria in patients with elevatedbaseline serum ... Fang Y, Teng J, Ding X. Acute kidney injury in China. Hemodial Int.2015;19(1):2-10. [MedLine]. 12. Fang Y, Ding X, Zhong Y, Zou ...

*  Best Practice Advocacy Centre New Zealand

Proton pump inhibitors and the risk of acute kidney injury. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most prescribed... ... Statins and the risk of acute kidney injury. THERE HAVE BEEN RECENT REPORTS in the literature associating... ... CARM reports: Acute Renal Failure. In the five years from 2002 to 2006 CARM (Centre for Adverse... ...

*  Acute Renal Failure Trial Network (ATN) Study - Full Text View -

Intensity of renal replacement therapy in acute kidney injury: perspective from within the Acute Renal Failure Trial Network ... Predictors of health utility among 60-day survivors of acute kidney injury in the Veterans Affairs/National Institutes of ... Intensity of renal support in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jul 3;359(1):7-20. doi: ... Acute renal failure clinically believed to be due to an etiology other than acute tubular necrosis ...

*  Influence of Perioperative Kidney Function on Postoperative Outcome - Full Text View -

Renal Insufficiency Acute Kidney Injury Study Type:. Observational Study Design:. Observational Model: Cohort. Time Perspective ... Influence of Perioperative Kidney Function on Postoperative Outcome (NEPHRANEST). This study has been completed. ... Retrospective Data Analysis of the Impact of Perioperative Kidney Function on Postoperative Outcome. ...

*  Dr. Craig Shapiro, MD - Jacksonville, FL - Nephrology |

Traumatic Acute Kidney Injury. *Ureteral Stones. *Vascular Disease. *Vasculitis. *Vitamin D Deficiency ... Chronic Kidney Diseases. Chronic Kidney Diseases. includes other areas of care:. - Hypertensive Heart and Chronic Kidney ...

*  Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis of Tritiated Digoxin | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians

Acute Kidney Injury Annals of Internal Medicine; 167 (9): ITC66-ITC80 View MoreView Less ... Comparing the Risk for Death with Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis in a National Cohort of Patients with Chronic Kidney ... Assessing the hydration status of children with chronic kidney disease and on dialysis: a comparison of techniques. ...

*  Nephrologist News, Research

Most patients hospitalized with acute kidney injury not receiving follow-up care, study shows A new study indicates that after ... Each year, thousands of infants in the United States end up in neonatal intensive care units with acute kidney injury (AKI), a ... hospitalization with acute kidney injury (AKI), most patients are not receiving the follow-up care that kidney specialists ... Researchers work toward developing better definition of neonatal acute kidney injury ...

*  Patent US4493697 - Method and apparatus for pumping blood within a vessel - Google Patents

Acute kidney injury treatment systems and methods. US20080249456 *. 26 Mar 2008. 9 Oct 2008. Syuuji Inamori. Pulsation-type ... In spite of return to normal systemic blood pressure, regional blood flow to the kidney remains low. The decreased kidney ... Apparatus and method for perfusing the kidney with venous blood. WO2002060413A1 *. 12 Dec 2001. 8 Aug 2002. Biodepo, Inc.. ... The method and apparatus of the invention may also be used for a shocked a kidney which is a pathophysiological state in which ...

*  Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging - 1st Edition

Autophagy-Suppressing Drug and Acute Kidney Injury. *Conclusion. *References. *Chapter 12. ULK1 Can Suppress or Promote Tumor ...

*  Pulitzer Prize Archives - BioWorld Perspectives | BioWorld Perspectives

acute kidney injury (1) *adcom (4) *Addyi (1) *aging (3) *AIDS (1) ...

*  Columbia University Archives - BioWorld Perspectives | BioWorld Perspectives

acute kidney injury (1) *adcom (4) *Addyi (1) *aging (3) *AIDS (1) ...

*  Adam Feuerstein Archives - BioWorld Perspectives | BioWorld Perspectives

acute kidney injury (1) *adcom (4) *Addyi (1) *aging (3) *AIDS (1) ...

*  Comment on FDA's Confusing Action Against Burzynski - What Does it Really Mean?

acute kidney injury (1) *adcom (4) *Addyi (1) *aging (3) *AIDS (1) ...

*  Signal Transduction > Yale Cancer Center | Yale School of...

Acute Kidney Injury; Catecholamines; Diabetes Mellitus; Forestry; Hypertension; Internal Medicine; Obesity *Office 203.785.4119 ...

*  February 2011 (East Campus) | Einstein/Montefiore Department of Medicine | Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Anjali Acharya - "Acute Kidney Injury". 12:30 p.m. Housestaff Conference, 7NW, Weiler:. 2:30 p.m.. Stem Cell Institute Seminar ...

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

... acute kidney injury (AKI) ... Since adult zebrafish kidneys undergo both nephron epithelial ... Thus, these methods are widely applicable to the future phenotypic characterization of adult zebrafish kidney injury paradigms ... Further, these methods could be used to study genetic perturbations in adult kidney formation and could also be applied to ... Analysis of Nephron Composition and Function in the Adult Zebrafish Kidney. Authors: Kristen K. McCampbell, Kristin N. Springer ...

*  NewYork-Presbyterian/Queens - Glossary - Women's Center

Cervicitis is generally classified as either acute or chronic.. cervix - the lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb) located ... adrenal glands - two glands, one on top of each kidney, which produce a variety of hormones that affect nearly every body ... This is not a condition but rather a symptom that results from a host of diseases, infections, injuries, allergies, and other ... Scars may be formed for many different reasons, including as a result of infections, surgery, injuries, or inflammation of ...

Siderocalin: Siderocalin (Scn), lipocalin-2, NGAL, 24p3 is a mammalian lipocalin-type protein that can prevent iron acquisition by pathogenic bacteria by binding siderophores, which are iron-binding chelators made by microorganisms.Kidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.Renal replacement therapy: Renal replacement therapy is a term used to encompass life-supporting treatments for renal failure.CreatinineAcute-phase protein: Acute-phase proteins are a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute-phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute-phase proteins) in response to inflammation. This response is called the acute-phase reaction (also called acute-phase response).AzotemiaBiomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.RhabdomyolysisNational Center for Injury Prevention and Control: The U.S.OliguriaFiltration fraction: In renal physiology, the filtration fraction is the ratio of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to the renal plasma flow (RPF).Sepsis Alliance: Sepsis Alliance is a voluntary health organization dedicated to raising awareness of sepsis by educating patients, families, and healthcare professionals to treat sepsis as a medical emergency.http://www.Proximal convoluted tubule: The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the kidney which leads from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle.Hybrid cardiac surgery: A hybrid cardiac surgical procedure in a narrow sense is defined as a procedure that combines a conventional surgical part (including a skin incision) with an interventional part, using some sort of catheter-based procedure guided by fluoroscopy (or other, e.g.Renal functionUrinalysisDialysis adequacy: In nephrology, dialysis adequacy is the measurement of renal dialysis for the purpose of determining dialysis treatment regime and to better understand the pathophysiology of renal dialysis. It is an area of considerable controversy in nephrology.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingCrush syndromeDilip Mahalanabis: Dilip Mahalanabis (born November 12, 1934Cardiopulmonary bypassChronic allograft nephropathy: Chronic allograft nephropathy, abbreviated CAN and also known as sclerosing/chronic allograft nephropathy, is the leading cause of kidney transplant failure and happens month to years after the transplant.Brain injury: A brain injury is any injury occurring in the brain of a living organism. Brain injuries can be classified along several dimensions.Schering AGNathan W. LevinNephrology: Nephrology (from Greek [nephros "kidney]", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a [[Specialty (medicine)|specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). Systemic conditions that affect the kidneys (such as diabetes and autoimmune disease) and systemic problems that occur as a result of kidney problems (such as renal osteodystrophy and hypertension) are also studied in nephrology.AnuriaGross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Acute limb ischaemiaCerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cystsGlobal Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.HemofiltrationChao Yao-dong: Chao Yao-dong (died August 20, 2008) was a Taiwanese politician, economist and former Minister of Economic Affairs (1981–84).Rehabilitation in spinal cord injury: When treating a person with a spinal cord injury, repairing the damage created by injury is the ultimate goal. By using a variety of treatments, greater improvements are achieved, and, therefore, treatment should not be limited to one method.Charles Horsfall: Charles Horsfall (21 June 1776 – 18 June 1846) was Bailiff and then Lord Mayor of Liverpool from 1832–1833.Cardiorenal syndrome: In medicine, cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is an umbrella term that defines disorders of the heart and kidneys whereby “acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other”. The heart and the kidneys are involved in maintaining hemodynamic stability and organ perfusion through an intricate network.Renal cortexFocal proliferative nephritis: Focal proliferative nephritis is a type of glomerulonephritis seen in 20% to 35% of cases of lupus nephritis, classified as type III. As the name suggests, lesions are seen in less than half of the glomeruli.Apache AvroPodocin: Podocin is a protein component of the filtration slits of podocytes. Glomerular capillary endothelial cells, the glomerular basement membrane and the filtration slits function as the filtration barrier of the kidney glomerulus.ProteinuriaIntravenous sodium bicarbonateNephrectomyNephrotoxicity: Nephrotoxicity (from Greek: nephros, "kidney") is a poisonous effect of some substances, both toxic chemicals and medication, on the kidneys. There are various forms of toxicity.Undecoylium chloride iodineBurnEpidemiology of snakebites: Most snakebites are caused by non-venomous snakes. Of the roughly 3,000 known species of snake found worldwide, only 15% are considered dangerous to humans.Lipoplatin: Lipoplatin (Liposomal cisplatin) is a nanoparticle of 110 nm average diameter composed of lipids and cisplatin. This new drug has successfully finished Phase I, Phase II and Phase III human clinical trials (2,3).Millennium PeopleRenal medullaLoop diureticCancer survival rates: Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others.

(1/3360) Acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins.

Renal micropuncture studies have greatly changed our views on the pathophysiology of acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. Formerly, this type of renal insufficiency was attributed to a direct effect of the nephrotoxins on tubule epithelial permeability. According to that theory, glomerular filtration was not greatly diminished, the filtrate formed being absorbed almost quantitatively and nonselectively across damaged tubule epithelium. Studies in a wide variety of rat models have now shown glomerular filtration to be reduced to a level which will inevitably cause renal failure in and of itself. Passive backflow of filtrate across tubular epithelium is either of minor degree or nonexistent even in models where frank tubular necrosis has occurred. This failure of filtration cannot be attributed to tubular obstruction since proximal tubule pressure is distinctly subnormal in most models studied. Instead, filtration failure appears best attributed to intrarenal hemodynamic alterations. While certain facts tend to incriminate the renin-angiotensin system as the cause of the hemodynamic aberrations, others argue to the contrary. The issue is underactive investigation.  (+info)

(2/3360) Sodium reabsorption and distribution of Na+/K+-ATPase during postischemic injury to the renal allograft.

BACKGROUND: A loss of proximal tubule cell polarity is thought to activate tubuloglomerular feedback, thereby contributing to glomerular filtration rate depression in postischemic acute renal failure (ARF). METHODS: We used immunomicroscopy to evaluate the segmental distribution of Na+/K+-ATPase in tubules of recipients of cadaveric renal allografts. Fractional excretion (FE) of sodium and lithium was determined simultaneously. Observations were made on two occasions: one to three hours after graft reperfusion (day 0) and again on post-transplant day 7. An inulin clearance below or above 25 ml/min on day 7 was used to divide subjects into groups with sustained (N = 15) or recovering (N = 16) ARF, respectively. RESULTS: In sustained ARF, the fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) was 40 +/- 6% and 11 +/- 5%, and the fractional excretion of lithium (FELi) was 76 +/- 5% and 70 +/- 2% on days 0 and 7, respectively. Corresponding findings in recovering ARF were 28 +/- 2% and 6 +/- 2% for the FENa and 77 +/- 4% and 55 +/- 3% (P < 0.05 vs. sustained) for FELi. Na+/K+-ATPase distribution in both groups was mainly basolateral in distal straight and convoluted tubule segments and collecting ducts. However, Na+/K+-ATPase was poorly retained in the basolateral membrane of proximal convoluted and straight tubule segments in sustained and recovering ARF on both days 0 and 7. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that loss of proximal tubule cell polarity for Na+/K+-ATPase distribution is associated with enhanced delivery of filtered Na+ to the macula densa for seven days after allograft reperfusion. Whether an ensuing activation of tubuloglomerular feedback is an important cause of glomerular filtration rate depression in this form of ARF remains to be determined.  (+info)

(3/3360) Endothelin up-regulation and localization following renal ischemia and reperfusion.

BACKGROUND: Endothelin (ET), a potent vasoconstrictor, is known to play a role in ischemic acute renal failure. Although preproET-1 (ppET-1) mRNA is known to be up-regulated following ischemia/reperfusion injury, it has not been determined which component of the injury (ischemia or reperfusion) leads to initial gene up-regulation. Likewise, although ET-1 peptide expression has been localized in the normal kidney, its expression pattern in the ischemic kidney has not been determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine whether ischemia alone or ischemia plus reperfusion is required for the up-regulation of ppET-1 mRNA to occur, and (b) to localize ET-1 peptide expression following ischemia in the rat kidney to clarify better the role of ET in the pathophysiology of ischemia-induced acute renal failure. METHODS: Male Lewis rats underwent clamping of the right renal vascular pedicle for either 30 minutes of ischemia (group 1), 60 minutes of ischemia (group 2), 30 minutes of ischemia followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion (group 3), or 60 minutes of ischemia followed by three hours of reperfusion (group 4). The contralateral kidney acted as a control. ppET-1 mRNA up-regulation and ET-1 peptide expression were examined using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. RESULTS: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction yielded a control (nonischemic) value of 0.6 +/- 0.2 densitometric units (DU) of ppET-1 mRNA in the kidney. Group 1 levels (30 min of ischemia alone) were 1.8 +/- 0.4 DU, a threefold increase (P < 0.05). Group 2 levels (60 min of ischemia alone) increased almost six times above baseline, 3.5 +/- 0.2 DU (P < 0.01), whereas both group 3 and group 4 (ischemia plus reperfusion) did not experience any further significant increases in mRNA levels (1.9 +/- 0.4 DU and 2.8 +/- 0.6 DU, respectively) beyond levels in group 1 or 2 animals subjected to similar ischemic periods. ET-1 peptide expression in the ischemic kidneys was significantly increased over controls and was clearly localized to the endothelium of the peritubular capillary network of the kidney. CONCLUSIONS: Initial ET-1 gene up-regulation in the kidney occurs secondary to ischemia, but reperfusion most likely contributes to sustaining this up-regulation. The marked increase of ET-1 in the peritubular capillary network suggests that ET-induced vasoconstriction may have a pathophysiological role in ischemic acute tubular necrosis.  (+info)

(4/3360) Ex vivo evaluation of a Taylor-Couette flow, immobilized heparinase I device for clinical application.

Efficient and safe heparin anticoagulation has remained a problem for continuous renal replacement therapies and intermittent hemodialysis for patients with acute renal failure. To make heparin therapy safer for the patient with acute renal failure at high risk of bleeding, we have proposed regional heparinization of the circuit via an immobilized heparinase I filter. This study tested a device based on Taylor-Couette flow and simultaneous separation/reaction for efficacy and safety of heparin removal in a sheep model. Heparinase I was immobilized onto agarose beads via cyanogen bromide activation. The device, referred to as a vortex flow plasmapheretic reactor, consisted of two concentric cylinders, a priming volume of 45 ml, a microporous membrane for plasma separation, and an outer compartment where the immobilized heparinase I was fluidized separately from the blood cells. Manual white cell and platelet counts, hematocrit, total protein, and fibrinogen assays were performed. Heparin levels were indirectly measured via whole-blood recalcification times (WBRTs). The vortex flow plasmapheretic reactor maintained significantly higher heparin levels in the extracorporeal circuit than in the sheep (device inlet WBRTs were 1. 5 times the device outlet WBRTs) with no hemolysis. The reactor treatment did not effect any physiologically significant changes in complete blood cell counts, platelets, and protein levels for up to 2 hr of operation. Furthermore, gross necropsy and histopathology did not show any significant abnormalities in the kidney, liver, heart, brain, and spleen.  (+info)

(5/3360) Abysmal prognosis of patients with type 2 diabetes entering dialysis.

INTRODUCTION: The importance of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type II diabetes) as a leading cause of end-stage renal disease is now widely recognized. The purpose of this study was to assess life-prognosis and its predictors in a cohort of patients newly entering dialysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-four consecutive type II diabetes patients (40% of all patients) starting dialysis between 01/01/95 and 31/12/96 were studied retrospectively, focusing on clinical data at inception and life-prognosis after a mean follow-up of 211 days. Patients were divided into three groups, according to onset of renal failure: acute 11% (9/84), chronic 61% (51/84) and acutely aggravated chronic renal failure 28% (25/84). RESULTS: Patients (mean age 67 years) had long-standing diabetes (mean duration approximately 15 years), heavy proteinuria (approximately 3 g/24h) and diabetic retinopathy (67%). The average creatinine clearance (Cockcroft's formula) was 13 ml/min. Cardiovascular diseases were highly prevalent at the start of dialysis: history of myocardial infarction (26%), angina (36%) and acute left ventricular dysfunction (67%). More than 80% of the patients underwent the first session dialysis under emergency conditions, a situation in part related to late referral to the nephrology division (63% for chronic patients). A great majority of the patients were overhydrated when starting dialysis, as evidenced by the average weight loss of 6 kg, during the first month of dialysis, required to reach dry weight. Nearly 64% of the patients presented high blood pressure (> 140/90 mmHg) when starting dialysis despite antihypertensive therapy (mean: 2.3 drugs). The outcome of this type II diabetes population was dramatic: 32% (27/84) died after a mean follow-up of 211 days, mostly from cardiovascular diseases. The rate of recovery of renal function was low in both the acute and the acutely aggravated renal failure group (30% and 24%, respectively). Of note, iatrogenic nephrotoxic agents accounted for renal function impairment in nearly 30% of patients. CONCLUSION: Our observational study illustrates the high burden of cardiovascular diseases contrasting with sub-optimal cardiovascular therapeutic interventions in type II diabetes patients entering dialysis. Factors aggravating renal failure were mainly iatrogenic, and therefore largely avoidable. Late referral generally implied a poor clinical condition at the start of dialysis.  (+info)

(6/3360) Treatment of malarial acute renal failure by hemodialysis.

We studied 112 patients with malarial acute renal failure (ARF) during the period 1991-1997 at Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases (Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand). Hemodialysis was performed in 101 (90.2%) of these patients. The mean number of times the patients were hemodialyzed was 6.5 (range = 1-27). Ninety-three (83.0%) patients were oliguric and the remainder were nonoliguric. Patients who had oliguric renal failure required more hemodialyses and had more complications than the nonoliguric patients. The oliguric patients had an eight-fold higher risk of requiring six or more hemodialyses (95% confidence interval = 1.2-53.9, P = 0.0008). The overall mortality rate was 10.7% (12 of 112). Eleven of the patients who died were jaundiced and eight of them had cerebral malaria with a Glasgow Coma Score < or = 8. We conclude that hemodialysis is a useful treatment for oliguric and nonoliguric ARF from severe malaria, particularly when initiated early in the course of the illness.  (+info)

(7/3360) Intranephron distribution and regulation of endothelin-converting enzyme-1 in cyclosporin A-induced acute renal failure in rats.

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is thought to play a significant role in acute renal failure induced by cyclosporin A (CsA). The cDNA sequence encoding endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1), which produces the active form of ET-1 from big ET-1, was recently reported. To elicit the role of ECE-1 in the glomerular and tubular dysfunction induced by CsA, the effects of CsA on mRNA and protein expression of ECE-1 in rat kidney and on mRNA expression of prepro-ET-1 and ET A- and B-type receptors in glomeruli were studied. ECE-1 mRNA was detected in glomeruli and in whole nephron segments. ECE-1 mRNA expression was downregulated in all nephron segments at 24 h after CsA injection. Protein levels were also downregulated in glomeruli and in the outer and inner medulla. CsA rapidly increased prepro-ET-1 mRNA expression in glomeruli at 30 to 60 min after injection; this rapid increase was followed by an increase in plasma ET-1 levels. These increases were followed by decreased expression of ECE-1, ET A-type receptor, and ET B-type receptor mRNA at 6 h after injection, and serum creatinine levels were increased at 24 h after CsA injection. It is suggested that downregulation of glomerular and tubular ECE-1 expression may be caused by increased ET-1 synthesis in CsA-induced acute renal failure.  (+info)

(8/3360) Prevalence and clinical outcome associated with preexisting malnutrition in acute renal failure: a prospective cohort study.

Malnutrition is a frequent finding in hospitalized patients and is associated with an increased risk of subsequent in-hospital morbidity and mortality. Both prevalence and prognostic relevance of preexisting malnutrition in patients referred to nephrology wards for acute renal failure (ARF) are still unknown. This study tests the hypothesis that malnutrition is frequent in such clinical setting, and is associated with excess in-hospital morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort of 309 patients admitted to a renal intermediate care unit during a 42-mo period with ARF diagnosis was studied. Patients with malnutrition were identified at admission by the Subjective Global Assessment of nutritional status method (SGA); nutritional status was also evaluated by anthropometric, biochemical, and immunologic parameters. Outcome measures included in-hospital mortality and morbidity, and use of health care resources. In-hospital mortality was 39% (120 of 309); renal replacement therapies (hemodialysis or continuous hemofiltration) were performed in 67% of patients (206 of 309); APACHE II score was 23.1+/-8.2 (range, 10 to 52). Severe malnutrition by SGA was found in 42% of patients with ARF; anthropometric, biochemical, and immunologic nutritional indexes were significantly reduced in this group compared with patients with normal nutritional status. Severely malnourished patients, as compared to patients with normal nutritional status, had significantly increased morbidity for sepsis (odds ratio [OR] 2.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53 to 5.42, P < 0.001), septic shock (OR 4.05; 95% CI, 1.46 to 11.28, P < 0.01), hemorrhage (OR 2.98; 95% CI, 1.45 to 6.13, P < 0.01), intestinal occlusion (OR 5.57; 95% CI, 1.57 to 19.74, P < 0.01), cardiac dysrhythmia (OR 2.29; 95% CI, 1.36 to 3.85, P < 0.01), cardiogenic shock (OR 4.39; 95% CI, 1.83 to 10.55, P < .001), and acute respiratory failure with mechanical ventilation need (OR 3.35; 95% CI, 3.35 to 8.74, P < 0.05). Hospital length of stay was significantly increased (P < 0.01), and the presence of severe malnutrition was associated with a significant increase of in-hospital mortality (OR 7.21; 95% CI, 4.08 to 12.73, P < 0.001). Preexisting malnutrition was a statistically significant, independent predictor of in-hospital mortality at multivariable logistic regression analysis both with comorbidities (OR 2.02; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.71, P < 0.001), and with comorbidities and complications (OR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.61 to 2.89, P < 0.001). Malnutrition is highly prevalent among ARF patients and increases the likelihood of in-hospital death, complications, and use of health care resources.  (+info)


  • Histone crotonylation was studied in cultured murine proximal tubular cells and in kidneys from mice with AKI induced by folic acid or cisplatin. (
  • Histone lysine crotonylation was observed in tubular cells from healthy murine and human kidney tissue. (
  • Specifically, ChIP-seq revealed enrichment of histone crotonylation at the genes encoding the mitochondrial biogenesis regulator PGC-1α and the sirtuin-3 decrotonylase in both TWEAK-stimulated tubular cells and in AKI kidney tissue. (
  • To assess the role of crotonylation in kidney injury, crotonate was used to increase histone crotonylation in cultured tubular cells or in the kidneys in vivo . (
  • Crotonate increased the expression of PGC-1α and sirtuin-3, and decreased CCL2 expression in cultured tubular cells and healthy kidneys. (
  • This is a multi-center, prospective, randomized, parallel-group trial of an intensive strategy vs conventional strategy of renal replacement therapy for the treatment of acute renal failure secondary to acute tubular necrosis in critically ill patients. (
  • Acute tubular injury and acute tubular necrosis. (

Improving Global Outcomes

  • Based on 2012 KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) AKI definition, the incidence of AKI and RRT-AKI was 37.4% (594/1587) and 1.1% (18/1587), respectively. (
  • However, with the new 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) AKI definition being popularized [ 10 ] , the predictive value for predicting CSA-AKI, RRT-AKI become doubtful due to the updated definition, with which some "subclinical AKI" can be defined. (

renal function

  • Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potentially lethal condition for which no therapy is available beyond replacement of renal function. (
  • Systemic crotonate administration protected from experimental AKI, preventing the decrease in renal function and in kidney PGC-1α and sirtuin-3 levels as well as the increase in CCL2 expression. (
  • Acute Kidney Injury (AKI), previously known as acute renal failure (ARF), is described as sudden decline in renal function and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that may cause wide range of clinical manifestations due to accumulation of nitrogenous metabolites and water/electrolyte disturbances [ 1 ]. (

critically ill

  • We aimed to compare the long-term risk of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and mortality in critically ill patients with and without severe de novo AKI. (


  • People who have undergone cardiac surgery may be at an increased risk for kidney damage. (
  • A common genetic variant in the HO-1 gene, which is present in approximately 40% of Caucasian individuals, is highly associated with development of acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery. (
  • To assess the clinical value of four models for the prediction of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) and severe AKI which renal replacement therapy was needed (RRT-AKI) in Chinese patients. (
  • Since early identifying the patients who are at high risk of developing into cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) may improve prognosis, in the last two decades various predictive models have been developed to forecast CSA-AKI or renal replacement therapy (RRT)-AKI required after cardiac surgery. (
  • Scientists, nephrologists and cardiac surgeons from The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research and Northwell Health's Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiology and Cardio-Thoracic Surgery examined the impact of a popular pre-heart transplant therapy on the kidney in a study published today by The Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. (


  • Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in intensive care unit (ICU) portends worse outcomes and attendant with high mortality. (


  • A study in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (JASN) suggests that testing for a common genetic variant may help reveal which patients face an increased risk of developing kidney damage and help investigators develop therapeutic strategies to mitigate this damage. (
  • More recently, it has been proposed that the patients who survived an episode of AKI have significant risk for progression to advanced stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that may further increase global burden of CKD [ 10 ]. (
  • Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) may benefit from a new collaboration between the University of Michigan and AstraZeneca who have partnered to develop a new therapeutic strategy for treatment. (
  • A new study indicates that after hospitalization with acute kidney injury (AKI), most patients are not receiving the follow-up care that kidney specialists recommend. (


  • High protein diets may lead to long-term kidney damage among those suffering from chronic kidney disease, according to research led by nephrologist Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, MD, MPH, PhD, of the University of California, Irvine. (


  • Proton pump medication reduce gastric acid production but, long term even after required increases risk of kidney failure. (


  • The success of kidney transplant is dependent on the age and sex of both the donor and the recipient, according to research published today in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. (


  • Medullary cystic kidney disease type 1 (MCKD1) is a rare genetic kidney disease. (


  • Introduction: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is common in critical ill populations and its association with high short-term mortality is well established. (


  • On the contrary kidney stones are very common in children living in hot climates. (


  • Each year, thousands of infants in the United States end up in neonatal intensive care units with acute kidney injury (AKI), a condition in which the kidneys falter in performing the critical role of filtering waste products and excess fluid from the blood to produce urine. (


  • Sometimes AKI arises after heart surgery because the kidneys are deprived of normal blood flow during the procedure. (



  • Acute kidney injury (AKI), an abrupt decline in kidney function, is an increasingly prevalent and potentially serious condition following major surgery. (


  • High levels of a protein known as suPAR, which has been shown to be a marker and likely cause of kidney damage, is as reliably predictive in children as in adults, according to results of a study published online today in JAMA Pediatrics, a clinical publication of the American Medical Association. (



  • High risk for renal scarring with first UTI in kids and teens with abnormal kidney ultrasonography finding or with fever of at least 102 degrees and infected with organism other than E.Coli. (


  • The National Institutes of Health has awarded two five-year grants to Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center worth more than $5 million to prospectively study the effects of a genetic variation in organ donors that appears to contribute to survival of kidneys after transplantation. (



  • Ultrasound scan reveals multiple cysts and there is no function on that kidney when tested on DMSA scan. (
  • There is as yet very little knowledge about the regulation and function of histone crotonylation during tissue injury. (


  • DaVita Kidney Care, a division of DaVita Inc., a leading provider of kidney care services in the United States, today announced results of the first performance year in the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Comprehensive ESRD Care Model as an ESRD Seamless Care Organization. (