Actinomycosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOMYCES.Actinomycosis, Cervicofacial: A form of ACTINOMYCOSIS characterized by slow-growing inflammatory lesions of the lymph nodes that drain the mouth (lumpy jaw), reddening of the overlying skin, and intraperitoneal abscesses.Actinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Intrauterine Devices: Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.Bronchial DiseasesOophoritis: Inflammation of the OVARY, generally caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix.Pelvic Infection: Infection involving the tissues or organs in the PELVIS.Actinomyces viscosus: A species of ACTINOMYCES found in the oral cavity of man and hamsters. It has been isolated from actinomycotic lesions in swine, cats, and dogs and has been identified as a causative agent of animal diseases.Skin Diseases, Bacterial: Skin diseases caused by bacteria.Colon, Ascending: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the TRANSVERSE COLON. It passes cephalad from the cecum to the caudal surface of the right lobe of the LIVER where it bends sharply to the left, forming the right colic flexure.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
ActinomycosisActinomyces israelii: Actinomyces israelii is a species of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria within the Actinomyces. Known to live commensally on and within humans, A.Intrauterine deviceFitz-Hugh–Curtis syndromeSkin and skin structure infection: A skin and skin structure infection (SSSI), also referred to as skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) or acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI), is an infection of skin and associated soft tissues (such as loose connective tissue and mucous membranes). The pathogen involved is usually a bacterial species.Ascending colonChronic lung diseaseExtended-spectrum penicillin: The extended-spectrum penicillins are a group of antibiotics that have the widest antibacterial spectrum of all penicillins.Comprehensive Pharmacy Review, Leon Shargel, 6th edition, p917 Some sources identify them with antipseudomonal penicillins,Elsevier's Integrated Review Pharmacology, By Mark Kester, Kelly Dowhower Karpa, Kent E.
(1/212) Actinomyces and nocardia infections in immunocompromised and nonimmunocompromised patients.
A retrospective survey of nocardia and actinomyces infections in five local hospitals was conducted over a 3-year period in El Paso, Texas, a border city, in the southwestern United States. The medical records of 42 patients with suspected nocardiosis or actinomycosis were reviewed. One patient was diagnosed with actinomyces and 12 patients with nocardia. Microbiological data included morphologic characteristics, biochemical profile, and susceptibility testing. Predisposing factors included leukemia, renal insufficiency, renal transplant, and lymphoma. No predisposing factors were found in 67% (n = 8) of patients (including the patient with actinomycosis). Twenty-three percent (n = 3) of patients had disseminated disease without evidence of underlying disease or immunosuppression. The mortality and morbidity of these infections appeared to be low. (+info)
(2/212) Pathogenesis of cancrum oris (noma): confounding interactions of malnutrition with infection.
This study showed that impoverished Nigerian children at risk for cancrum oris (noma) had significantly reduced plasma concentrations of zinc (< 10.8 micromol/L), retinol (< 1.05 micromol/L), ascorbate (< 11 micromol/L), and the essential amino acids, with prominently increased plasma and saliva levels of free cortisol, compared with their healthy counterparts. The nutrient deficiencies, in concert with previously reported widespread viral infections (measles, herpesviruses) in the children, would impair oral mucosal immunity. We postulate, subject to additional studies, that evolution of the oral mucosal ulcers including acute necrotizing gingivitis to noma is triggered by a consortium of microorganisms of which Fusobacterium necrophorum is a key component. Fusobacterium necrophorum elaborates several dermonecrotic toxic metabolites and is acquired by the impoverished children via fecal contamination resulting from shared residential facilities with animals and very poor environmental sanitation. (+info)
(3/212) Childhood actinomycosis. Report of 3 recent cases.
Three cases of childhood actinomycosis are reported, 2 with the commonest presentation of cervicofacial abscess and the third with a rarely reported superficial chest wall abscess. The importance of prompt bacteriological diagnosis and adequate treatment with surgical drainage and chemotherapy is stressed. Though in adults males are affected more frequently than females, the sexes are probably equally affected in childhood. (+info)
(4/212) Endobronchial actinomycosis simulating endobronchial tuberculosis: a case report.
We report a case of a 70-year-old woman who presented with mild exertional dyspnea and cough. Fiberoptic bronchoscopic findings revealed an endobronchial polypoid lesion with stenotic bronchus. The lesion was very similar to endobronchial tuberculosis. Histologic examination of the biopsy specimen demonstrated Actinomyces infection. There was a clinical response to intravenous penicillin therapy. Primary endobronchial actinomycosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of an endobronchial lesion, especially endobronchial tuberculosis in Korea. (+info)
(5/212) Actinomyces bowdenii sp. nov., isolated from canine and feline clinical specimens.
Four strains of a previously undescribed Actinomyces-like bacterium were isolated from canine and feline clinical specimens. Phenotypic studies indicated the strains were members of the genus Actinomyces, and most closely resembled Actinomyces viscosus serotype I and Actinomyces slackii. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies demonstrated the unknown bacterium constitutes a new subline within a group of Actinomyces species, which includes Actinomyces bovis, the type species of the genus. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be classified as Actinomyces bowdenii sp. nov. The type strain of Actinomyces bowdenii is CCUG 37421T. (+info)
(6/212) Infection of a hip prosthesis by Actinomyces naeslundii.
We present the case of a 77-year-old woman who developed an Actinomyces naeslundii infection of a hip prosthesis. The isolate grew well aerobically with 5% CO(2). Possible diagnostic problems may arise in the microbiological laboratory because aerobic growth is not sufficiently accounted for in some of the traditional identification schemes and commercial test kits. Therefore, besides presenting an unusual pathogen in this setting, this report focuses on possible diagnostic problems in the microbiological laboratory. (+info)
(7/212) Molecular and genetic analyses of Actinomyces spp.
Members of the genus Actinomyces are predominant primary colonizers of the oral cavity and play an important role in initiating plaque development. These bacteria have evolved unique mechanisms that favor colonization and persistence in this micro-environment. The expression of cell-surface fimbriae is correlated with the ability of these bacteria to adhere to specific receptors on the tooth and mucosal surfaces, and to interact with other plaque bacteria. The elaboration of sialidase is thought to enhance fimbriae-mediated adherence by unmasking the fimbrial receptors on mammalian cells. The presence of certain cell-associated or extracellular enzymes, including those involved in sucrose or urea metabolism, may provide the means for these bacteria to thrive under conditions when other growth nutrients are not available. Moreover, these enzyme activities may influence the distribution of other plaque bacteria and promote selection for Actinomyces spp. in certain ecological niches. The recent development of a genetic transfer system for Actinomyces spp. has allowed for studies the results of which demonstrate the existence of multiple genes involved in fimbriae synthesis and function, and facilitated the construction of allelic replacement mutants at each gene locus. Analyses of these mutants have revealed a direct correlation between the synthesis of assembled fimbriae and the observed adherence properties. Further genetic analysis of the various enzyme activities detected from strains of Actinomyces should allow for an assessment of the role of these components in microbial ecology, and their contribution to the overall success of Actinomyces spp. as a primary colonizer and a key player in oral health and disease. (+info)
(8/212) Actinomyces canis sp. nov., isolated from dogs.
Three strains of a previously undescribed catalase-positive Actinomyces-like bacterium were isolated from dogs. Biochemical testing and PAGE analysis of whole-cell proteins indicated that the strains were phenotypically highly related to each other but different from previously described Actinomyces and Arcanobacterium species. Sequencing of 16S rRNA showed that the unknown bacterium represents a new subline within a cluster of species which includes Actinomyces hyovaginalis, Actinomyces georgiae, Actinomyces meyeri, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Actinomyces radingae and Actinomyces turicensis. On the basis of phenotypic evidence and 16S rRNA sequence divergence levels (greater than 5% with recognized Actinomyces species) it is proposed that the unknown strains from canine sources be classified as a new species with the name Actinomyces canis sp. nov. The type strain of Actinomyces canis is CCUG 41706T (= CIP 106351T). (+info)