Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Murine Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.AIDS-Related Complex: A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.Homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Pneumonia, Pneumocystis: A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Lymphoma, AIDS-Related: B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Deltaretrovirus: A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Sarcoma, Kaposi: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Cytomegalovirus Retinitis: Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Retroviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral: Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Retroviridae Proteins: Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.Lymphatic Diseases: Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.Didanosine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)HIV Seroprevalence: Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.HIV Long Terminal Repeat: Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.Pentamidine: Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.rev Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the REV GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.United StatesGene Products, tat: Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Hemophilia A: The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Zalcitabine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.Nephrotic Syndrome: A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection: A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Genes, env: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Histoplasmosis: Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins: Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Gene Products, nef: Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.vpr Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the VPR GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Mycobacterium avium Complex: A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.HIV Envelope Protein gp160: An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Job Syndrome: Primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent infections and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. Most cases are sporadic. Of the rare familial forms, the dominantly inherited subtype has additional connective tissue, dental and skeletal involvement that the recessive type does not share.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Genes, gag: DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Pneumocystis: A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Immunodeficiency Virus, Bovine: The type species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus bovine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, BOVINE), found in cattle and causing lymphadenopathy, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, central nervous system lesions, progressive weakness, and emaciation. It has immunological cross-reactivity with other lentiviruses including HIV.Foscarnet: An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lentivirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.HIV Wasting Syndrome: Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Candidiasis, Oral: Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)Turner Syndrome: A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Macaca nemestrina: A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.AIDS Arteritis, Central Nervous System: Inflammation of ARTERIES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that occurs in patients with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME or AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Gene Products, rev: Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.Retinitis: Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Inosine Pranobex: An alkylamino-alcohol complex of inosine used in the treatment of a variety of viral infections. Unlike other antiviral agents, it acts by modifying or stimulating cell-mediated immune processes rather than acting on the virus directly.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Retroviruses, Simian: Classes of retroviruses for which monkeys or apes are hosts. Those isolated from the West African green monkey and the Asian rhesus macaque monkey are of particular interest because of their similarities to viruses causing cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.vif Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the VIF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.San FranciscoInfant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Mycobacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Abnormalities, MultiplePregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Aortic Arch Syndromes: Conditions resulting from abnormalities in the arteries branching from the ASCENDING AORTA, the curved portion of the aorta. These syndromes are results of occlusion or abnormal blood flow to the head-neck or arm region leading to neurological defects and weakness in an arm. These syndromes are associated with vascular malformations; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; TRAUMA; and blood clots.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Monkey Diseases: Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Spermatocidal Agents: Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Mycobacterium avium: A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.Genes, nef: DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that down-regulates the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). nef is short for negative factor.Gene Products, vpr: Trans-acting proteins which accelerate retroviral virus replication. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.HIV Long-Term Survivors: Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ganciclovir: An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.Genes, tat: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the protein responsible for trans-activation of transcription (tat) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Sex Counseling: Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.New York CityGerstmann Syndrome: A disorder of cognition characterized by the tetrad of finger agnosia, dysgraphia, DYSCALCULIA, and right-left disorientation. The syndrome may be developmental or acquired. Acquired Gerstmann syndrome is associated with lesions in the dominant (usually left) PARIETAL LOBE which involve the angular gyrus or subjacent white matter. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p457)Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.DiGeorge Syndrome: Congenital syndrome characterized by a wide spectrum of characteristics including the absence of the THYMUS and PARATHYROID GLANDS resulting in T-cell immunodeficiency, HYPOCALCEMIA, defects in the outflow tract of the heart, and craniofacial anomalies.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Agammaglobulinemia: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.Dapsone: A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)Haiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Democratic Republic of the Congo: A republic in central Africa, east of the REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, south of the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and north of ANGOLA and ZAMBIA. The capital is Kinshasa.Acute Coronary Syndrome: An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode that ultimately may lead to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Giant Cells: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.Hypergammaglobulinemia: An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Hyper-IgM Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Type 1: An X-linked hyper-IgM immunodeficiency subtype resulting from mutation in the gene encoding CD40 LIGAND.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Genes, rev: DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). rev is short for regulator of virion.

*  EPO - T 0351/98 (HIV-I/CHIRON CORPORATION) of 15.1.2002

Recombinant proteins of viruses associated with lymphadenopathy syndrome and/or acquired immune deficiency syndrome. ... human immunodeficiency virus I) in the claims at issue the virus termed 'ARV-2' on page 13 of the application as filed in no ... in 'Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome', M.S. Gottlieb and J.E. Groopman Editors, Alan R. Liss Inc. New York, pages 47-58 ( ... The patent relates to recombinant proteins of viruses associated with lymphadenopathy syndrome and/or acquired immune ...
epo.org/law-practice/case-law-appeals/recent/t980351eu1.html

*  HONdossier : Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

AIDS (Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome) is a disease caused by a virus called HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). HIV ... Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Overview , Causes , Epidemiology , Prevention , Symptoms , Diagnosis , Treatment , Living ... Vaginal microbicides, substances inserted into the vagina to prevent women acquiring HIV and sexually transmitted infections ( ...
hon.ch/SR/C02.782.815.616.400.040_en.html

*  Red Ribbon Express Spreads AIDS Awareness in Jorhat

... the world's largest social mobilization campaign against Acquired Immuno Deficiency Disease (AIDS) is spreading awareness in ... The Red Ribbon Express, the world's largest social mobilization campaign against Acquired Immuno Deficiency Disease (AIDS) is ... a multi-media presentation on Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and an auditorium coach reached Assam a few days back. ... that over 15 million people are suffering from the disease and many more are harboring the dreaded Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...
medindia.net/news/Red-Ribbon-Express-Spreads-AIDS-Awareness-in-Jorhat-34391-1.htm

*  The basic nature of ethical problems experienced by persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: implications for nursing...

The participants were 25 persons with AIDS and 5 significant persons, not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, who ... of this research was to describe and examine the basic nature of ethical problems that are experienced by persons with acquired ... The basic nature of ethical problems experienced by persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: implications for nursing ... and examine the basic nature of ethical problems that are experienced by persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS ...
bdsp.ehesp.fr/Base/73792/

*  September 1, 2012 - Volume 61 - Issue 1 - Contributor Index : JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes

Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infection and Shedding of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Cervicovaginal Fluids: a Cross- ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.. ... JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 61(1):e8-e10, September 1, 2012. ... JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 61(1):e1-e3, September 1, 2012. ...
journals.lww.com/jaids/pages/contributorindex.aspx?year=2012&issue=09010

*  October 1, 2010 - Volume 55 - Issue 2 - Contributor Index : JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes

Biomarkers of Vascular Dysfunction in Children Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1. Miller, Tracie L; Somarriba, ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.. ... JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 55(2):e11-e12, October 1, 2010. ... JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 55(2):e11-e12, October 1, 2010. ...
journals.lww.com/jaids/pages/contributorindex.aspx?year=2010&issue=10010

*  International Notes Update: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome -- Europe

International Notes Update: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome -- Europe Ten countries provide the World Health Organization ( ... WHO) Collaborating Centre on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Paris, France, with regular data, making follow-up and ... Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) update. Wkly Epidem Rec 1983;58:351. ...
https://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00000427.htm

*  International Notes Update: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome -- Europe

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome -- Europe As of June 30, 1985, 1,226 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have ... Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Report of the situation in Europe as at 15 July 1984. Weekly Epidemiological Record ... Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Report on the situation as of 31 December 1984. Weekly Epidemiological Record 1985; ...
https://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00033081.htm

*  Search of: 'Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome' - Modify Search - ClinicalTrials.gov

Search of: 'Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome' - Modify Search. Fill in any or all of the fields below. Click on the label to ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results/refine?cond="Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome"

*  Medical Dictionary: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - CureResearch.com

Medical dictionary definition of Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as a medical term including diseases, symptoms, treatments ... Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Another name for HIV/AIDS. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (condition): HIV is a ... Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the result of an infection with the human ... Medical Dictionary: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Medical dictionaries: Medical dictionary, Medical malpractice dictionary ...
cureresearch.com/medical/acquired_immunodeficiency_syndrome.htm

*  Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

"Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Simian Acquired ... "Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome". ...
https://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

*  Disseminated Pneumocystis carinii infection in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

A case of disseminated pneumocystosis occurring in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is described. ... Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications*. Adrenal Glands / parasitology, pathology. Adult. Animals. Bone Marrow / ... A case of disseminated pneumocystosis occurring in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is described. ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Disseminated-Pneumocystis-carinii-infection-in/3257197.html

*  Fat Absorption and Exocrine Pancreatic Function in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome | Clinical Science

Fat Absorption and Exocrine Pancreatic Function in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. MS Kapembwa, SC Fleming, GE Grififn, K ... Fat Absorption and Exocrine Pancreatic Function in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. MS Kapembwa, SC Fleming, GE Grififn, K ... Fat Absorption and Exocrine Pancreatic Function in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded ...
clinsci.org/content/76/s20/20P.3

*  European Commission : CORDIS : Projects and Results : THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THE ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME IN SOMALIA AND...

THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THE ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME IN SOMALIA AND ETHIOPIA. Project ID: TS2*0007. Funded under: FP2-STD ... THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THE ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME IN SOMALIA AND ETHIOPIA. From 1988-01-01 to 1989-12-31 ...
cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/1119_en.html

*  Opportunistic Infections in Patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - G. S. Leoung; John Mills; | Foyles Bookstore

You are browsing: All Opportunistic Infections in Patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ...
foyles.co.uk/witem/medical-veterinary/opportunistic-infections-in-patients,gifford-s-leoung-john-mills-9780824780807

*  Guidelines for National Human Immunodeficiency Virus Case Surveillance, Including Monitoring for Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

... acquired immunodeficiency syndrome -- United States, 1989. MMWR 1990;39:81-6.. *CDC. Update: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ... Including Monitoring for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. The following CDC staff ... Revision of the case definition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome for national reporting -- United States. MMWR 1985;34:373 ... Revision of the CDC surveillance case definition for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. MMWR 1987;36(suppl 1):1-15. ...
https://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr4813a1.htm

*  Current Trends Revision of the Case Definition of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome for National Reporting - United States

Current Trends Revision of the Case Definition of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome for National Reporting--United States ... Current Trends Revision of the Case Definition of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome for National Reporting - United States. ... Patients with illnesses that, in retrospect, were manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were first ... Update: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)--United States. MMWR 1984;32:688-91. ...
https://wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/help/AIDS/MMWR-06-28-1985.html

*  Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome(AIDS) and Tuberculosis(Tb) Co-infection Treatment Strategies Study of China. - Full Text...

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome(AIDS) and Tuberculosis(Tb) Co-infection Treatment Strategies Study of China.. The ... To determine the best time to begin anti-HIV(Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) treatment in individuals who co-infected with ... Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV Infections. Coinfection. Mycobacterium Infections. Actinomycetales Infections. Gram- ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01344148?order=375

*  An Open Study of Foscarnet Treatment of Acyclovir-Resistant Herpes Simplex Virus in Patients With the Acquired Immunodeficiency...

Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Herpes Simplex. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae ... Acyclovir-Resistant Herpes Simplex Virus in Patients With the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and Other Immunodeficiencies. ... Acyclovir-Resistant Herpes Simplex Virus in Patients With the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and Other Immunodeficiencies. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00002021

*  The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in a Cohort of Homosexual MenA Six-Year Follow-up Study | Annals of Internal Medicine |...

The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in a Cohort of Homosexual Men: A Six-Year Follow-up Study HAROLD W. JAFFE, M.D.; WILLIAM ... The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in a Cohort of Homosexual Men: A Six-Year Follow-up Study. Ann Intern Med. 1985;103:210- ... The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Gay Men Annals of Internal Medicine; 103 (5): 662-664 ... Risk for the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Among Thrombocytopenic and Nonthrombocytopenic Homosexual Men Seropositive for ...
annals.org/aim/article/699843/acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome-cohort-homosexual-men-six-year-follow-up

*  Prevention of Relapse of Histoplasmosis with Itraconazole in Patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome | Annals of...

Prevention of Relapse of Histoplasmosis with Itraconazole in Patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Joseph Wheat ... Prevention of Relapse of Histoplasmosis with Itraconazole in Patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Ann Intern ... relapse of histoplasmosis after induction therapy with amphotericin B in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( ...
annals.org/aim/article/706281/prevention-relapse-histoplasmosis-itraconazole-patients-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome

*  The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Opportunistic Invasion of the Heart in Hispanic Patients with Acquired...

Abstract One hundred consecutive patients who died of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied with an ... Opportunistic Invasion of the Heart in Hispanic Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome * Authors: Pablo I. Altieri, ... One hundred consecutive patients who died of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied with an emphasis on the ...
ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1994.51.56

*  Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection from Blood Donors Who Later Developed the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome |...

Immunology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An Update Annals of Internal ... Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection from Blood Donors Who Later Developed the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ... Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection from Blood Donors Who Later Developed the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. ... the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Because serologic tests to identify HIV-infected persons ...
annals.org/aim/article/701573/risk-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-from-blood-donors-who-later

*  Osseous manifestations of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency...

Recent advances in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma. CA Cancer J Clin 2005;55:229-41. [ Links ]. ... Mutation and protein expression of p53 in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-related Lymphomas. Blood 1993:82:920-26. [ Links ] ... Osseous manifestations of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency ... Multiple genetic lesions in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-related non-Hodgkin's Lmphoma. Blood, 1993;81:166-76. [ Links ] ...
scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1681-150X2015000300002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

*  The Safety and Effectiveness of Zidovudine Plus Acyclovir in Patients With Early HIV Infection | AIDSinfo

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Zidovudine Acyclovir ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on October 16, 2017 This ... Therapy in Patients With Early Symptomatic Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection. ...
https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/clinical-trials/details/NCT00002290

Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome: Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome is a provisional name for a newly diagnosed immunodeficiency illness. The name is proposed in the first public study to identify the syndrome.Malformative syndrome: A malformative syndrome (or malformation syndrome) is a recognizable pattern of congenital anomalies that are known or thought to be causally related (VIIth International Congress on Human Genetics).Vpx: Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. It is similar in structure to the protein Vpr that is carried by SIV and HIV-2 as well as HIV-1.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Natural transfer: The natural transfer (hypothesis or theory), in reference to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, states that humans first received HIV by contact with primates, presumably from a fight with a Chimpanzee during hunting or consumption of primate meat, and became contaminated with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). According to the 'Hunter Theory', the virus was transmitted from a chimpanzee to a human when a bushmeat hunter was bitten or cut while hunting or butchering an animal.European Society for Primary Immunodeficiencies: The European Society for Primary Immunodeficiencies (ESID) is a Europe-wide medical association for healthcare professionals and researchers who deal with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID).Prescott Townsend: Prescott Townsend (June 24, 1894 – May 23, 1973) was an American gay rights activist.Reticular dysgenesisHIV-positive people: HIV-positive people are people who have the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, the agent of the currently incurable disease AIDS.Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections: The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is an annual scientific meeting devoted to the understanding, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and the opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Thousands of leading researchers and clinicians from around the world convene in a different location in North America each year for the Conference.AIDS-related lymphoma: AIDS-related lymphoma describes lymphomas occurring in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Coles PhillipsEnvelope glycoprotein GP120: Envelope glycoprotein GP120 (or gp120) is a glycoprotein exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope. The 120 in its name comes from its molecular weight of 120 kDa.Kaposi's sarcomaStatnamic load test: The Statnamic load test is a type of test for assessing the load carrying capacity of deep foundations which is faster and less expensive than the static load test. The Statnamic test was conceived in 1985, with the first prototype tests carried out in 1988 through collaboration between Berminghammer Foundation Equipment of Canada and TNO Building Research of the Netherlands (Middendorp et al.Cytomegalovirus retinitisNational Down Syndrome SocietyKeliximabNational Cholesterol Education Program: The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health. Its goal is to reduce increased cardiovascular disease rates due to hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) in the United States of America.Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors: Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NtRTIs) began in the 1980s when the AIDS epidemic hit Western societies. NRTIs inhibit the reverse transcriptase (RT), an enzyme that controls the replication of the genetic material of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.PMHC cellular microarray: PMHC cellular microarrays are a type of cellular microarray that has been spotted with pMHC complexes peptide-MHC class I or peptide-MHC class II.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Dermatopathic lymphadenopathyDidanosineAntiviral drug: Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses.Thermal cyclerCognitive effects of HIVCCR5 receptor antagonist: CCR5 receptor antagonists are a class of small molecules that antagonize the CCR5 receptor. The C-C motif chemokine receptor CCR5 is involved in the process by which HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, enters cells.Gross examinationProtease inhibitor (pharmacology): Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis caused by hepatitis C virus. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.HIV Vaccine Trials Network: The HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) is a non-profit organization which connects physicians and scientists with activists and community educators for the purpose of conducting clinical trials seeking a safe and effective HIV vaccine. Collaboratively, research professionals and laypeople review potential vaccines for safety, immune response, and efficacy.PentamidineList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.HaemophiliaZalcitabineCongenital nephrotic syndromeTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingPresumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome: Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS) is a syndrome affecting the eye, which is characterized by peripheral atrophic chorioretinal scars, atrophy or scarring adjacent to the optic disc and maculopathy.Plaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.Nef (protein): coordinates.Tumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.

(1/6107) Dysregulated production of interleukin-8 in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in vivo was monitored in four study groups: normal blood donors, patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and dually infected (HIV/TB) patients. We show that whereas there was evidence of detectable levels of cell-associated IL-8 (mRNA and protein) in peripheral cells of healthy individuals, this was largely lost in the disease states studied. Coupled with this finding was significantly increased circulating levels of IL-8 in HIV-1-infected individuals with or without concomitant pulmonary TB (P < 0.001). On the other hand, the capacity of peripheral mononuclear cells to produce IL-8 spontaneously ex vivo was enhanced in HIV-1 and TB patients (P < 0.05) and many of the HIV/TB group, but their corresponding capacities to respond to various stimuli, in particular phytohemagglutinin, were significantly diminished compared to those of normal donors (P < 0.05). Circulating levels of IL-8 in a group of HIV/TB patients were significantly positively correlated with the percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the peripheral circulation (r = 0.65; P = 0.01), the proportions of IL-8 receptor A (IL-8RA)-expressing (r = 0.86; P < 0.01) and IL-8RB-expressing (r = 0.77; P < 0.01) PMN, and the capacity of PMN to migrate in response to IL-8 as chemoattractant (r = 0.68; P < 0. 01). IL-8RB fluorescence intensity, however, was negatively correlated with plasma IL-8 levels (r = -0.73; P < 0.01). Our results suggest that altered regulation of IL-8 in HIV-1 may have important implications for antimicrobial defenses and for normal immune processes.  (+info)

(2/6107) Incidence and duration of hospitalizations among persons with AIDS: an event history approach.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze hospitalization patterns of persons with AIDS (PWAs) in a multi-state/multi-episode continuous time duration framework. DATA SOURCES: PWAs on Medicaid identified through a match between the state's AIDS Registry and Medicaid eligibility files; hospital admission and discharge dates identified through Medicaid claims. STUDY DESIGN: Using a Weibull event history framework, we model the hazard of transition between hospitalized and community spells, incorporating the competing risk of death in each of these states. Simulations are used to translate these parameters into readily interpretable estimates of length of stay, the probability that a hospitalization will end in death, and the probability that a nonhospitalized person will be hospitalized within 90 days. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In multivariate analyses, participation in a Medicaid waiver program offering case management and home care was associated with hospital stays 1.3 days shorter than for nonparticipants. African American race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with hospital stays 1.2 days and 1.0 day longer than for non-Hispanic whites; African Americans also experienced more frequent hospital admissions. Residents of the high-HIV-prevalence area of the state had more frequent admissions and stays two days longer than those residing elsewhere in the state. Older PWAs experienced less frequent hospital admissions but longer stays, with hospitalizations of 55-year-olds lasting 8.25 days longer than those of 25-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: Much socioeconomic and geographic variability exists both in the incidence and in the duration of hospitalization among persons with AIDS in New Jersey. Event history analysis provides a useful statistical framework for analysis of these variations, deals appropriately with data in which duration of observation varies from individual to individual, and permits the competing risk of death to be incorporated into the model. Transition models of this type have broad applicability in modeling the risk and duration of hospitalization in chronic illnesses.  (+info)

(3/6107) Relative rates of AIDS among racial/ethnic groups by exposure categories.

The relative rates of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were calculated among racial/ethnic populations using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)/Surveillance reports assuming that racial/ethnic distributions reflect that of the US Census Data from 1990. For comparison, a rate of 1 was assigned to whites in each calculation. The overall relative rates were whites--1, African Americans--4.7, Hispanics--3, Asian/Pacific Islanders--0.4, and Native Americans--0.5. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance data show higher rates of AIDS for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans. The relative rates for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites were highest for injecting drug users, heterosexual contact, and pediatric patients. These results led us to explore possible explanations for increased AIDS reporting in African Americans and Hispanics. We then explored available national datasets regarding those variables. The analyses indicate that variables such as access and receptivity to HIV prevention and treatment efforts, race/ethnicity, sexual behaviors, sexually transmitted diseases, socioeconomic status, and substance abuse interact in a complex fashion to influence HIV transmission and progression to AIDS in affected communities.  (+info)

(4/6107) Outcome and predictors of failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy: one-year follow-up of a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected persons.

The outcome and predictors of virologic treatment failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were determined for 271 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected protease inhibitor-naive persons. During a follow-up of 48 weeks after the initiation of HAART, 6.3% of patients experienced at least one new AIDS-defining event, and 3.0% died. Virologic treatment failure occurred in 40% (indinavir, 27%; ritonavir, 30%; saquinavir, 59%; ritonavir plus saquinavir, 32%; chi2, P=.001). Risk factors for treatment failure were baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA (odds ratio [OR], 1.70 per log10 copies increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA), baseline CD4 cell count (OR, 1. 35 per 100 CD4 cells/mm3 decrease), and use of saquinavir versus other protease inhibitors (OR, 3.21). During the first year of treatment, 53% of all patients changed (part of) their original HAART regimen at least once. This was significantly more frequent for regimens containing saquinavir (62%; 27% for virologic failure) or ritonavir (64%; 55% for intolerance) as single protease inhibitor.  (+info)

(5/6107) Characterization of viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy: relationships to host factors, cellular restoration, and virologic end points.

Biphasic plasma viral decays were modeled in 48 patients treated with ritonavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine. Estimated first- and second-phase decay rates were d1 as 0.47/day and d2 as 0.04/day. Interpatient differences in both decay rates were significant. The d1 was directly correlated with baseline CD4+, CD4+CD28+, and CD8+CD28+ T lymphocyte counts (P<.05) and inversely correlated with baseline virus load (P=.044) and the magnitude of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte recovery (P<.01). The d2 was directly correlated with baseline percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes (P=.023), the CD8+CD38+ cell number (P=.024), and the level of IgG that binds to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 gp120 (P=.02). Viral decay rates were not predictive of treatment failure or durability of viral suppression. These exploratory findings are consistent with a model in which immunologic factors contribute to elimination of HIV-infected cells and suggest a dynamic interplay between regulation of HIV expression and lymphocyte activation and recovery.  (+info)

(6/6107) Proliferative responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 peptides in HIV-1-infected individuals immunized with HIV-1 rgp120 or rgp160 compared with nonimmunized and uninfected controls.

The proliferative responses to a series of peptides constituting the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 sequence were evaluated in 19 HIV-1-infected rgp160 vaccine recipients, 17 HIV-1-infected rgp120 vaccine recipients, 15 HIV-1-infected placebo recipients, and 18 HIV-1-uninfected controls. Many regions of the gp120 molecule were found to contribute proliferative epitopes, although there were clearly regions of relative dominance and silence. Vaccine recipients tended to have broader, more robust, and more frequent peptide recognition than the placebo recipients. Despite the considerable variability in the pattern of peptide recognition among individuals, there was a striking similarity between the rgp160 and rgp120 vaccinee groups as a whole. Low-risk HIV-1-uninfected individuals may react to a few peptides within the gp120 sequence as well, despite a lack of significant response to the whole gp120 protein.  (+info)

(7/6107) No evidence for an effect of the CCR5 delta32/+ and CCR2b 64I/+ mutations on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 disease progression among HIV-1-infected injecting drug users.

The relationship between CCR5 and CCR2b genotypes and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 disease progression was studied among the 108 seroconverters of the Amsterdam cohort of injecting drug users (IDUs). In contrast to earlier studies among homosexual men, no effect on disease progression of the CCR5 Delta32/+ and the CCR2b 64I/+ genotypes was found, when progression to AIDS, death, or a CD4 cell count <200/microL was compared by a Cox proportional hazards model. Furthermore, CD4 cell decline (by a regression model for repeated measurements) and virus load in the first 3 years after seroconversion did not differ between the CCR5 and CCR2b wild type and heterozygous genotypes. A nested matched case-control study also revealed no significant effect of the CCR5 and CCR2b mutations. Immunologic differences between IDUs and homosexual men may account for the observed lack of effect. Alternatively, difference in transmission route or characteristics of the HIV-1 variants that circulate in IDUs could also explain this phenomenon.  (+info)

(8/6107) A randomized trial of high- versus low-dose subcutaneous interleukin-2 outpatient therapy for early human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

Forty-nine outpatients infected with human immunodeficiency virus with baseline CD4 cell counts >/=500/mm3, who were on stable antiretroviral therapy, were randomized to receive 5-day cycles of either low-dose (1.5 million IU [MIU] twice a day) or high-dose (7.5 MIU twice a day) subcutaneous (sc) interleukin (IL)-2 every 4 or every 8 weeks. High-dose recipients experienced mean slopes of +116.1 cells/month and +2.7 %/month in CD4 cells and percents, respectively, whereas low-dose recipients displayed mean slopes of +26.7 and +1.3% in the same parameters. At month 6, high-dose recipients achieved a 94.8% increase in mean CD4 cells over baseline compared with a 19.0% increase in low-dose recipients. While high-dose recipients encountered more constitutional side effects, these were generally not dose-limiting. High-dose scIL-2 therapy in outpatients with early HIV-1 infection was well tolerated and induced dramatic, sustained rises in CD4 cells.  (+info)



people


  • BACKGROUND: The risk of Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is increased in people infected with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) incidence and mortality rates have fallen markedly in association with the use of HAART, but its impact on the incidence of cancer in HIV-infected people is less clear. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In the United States, approximately 250,000 people are diagnosed with primary immunodeficiency diseases. (docplayer.net)

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  • Establishment of a feline T-lymphoblastoid cell line highly sensitive for replication of feline immunodeficiency virus. (jimdo.com)
  • Further characterization of a feline T-lymphoblastoid cell line (MYA-1 cells) highly sensitive for feline immunodeficiency virus. (jimdo.com)
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy and incidence of cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. (ox.ac.uk)