AccidentsAccidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Accident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.Chernobyl Nuclear Accident: April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.Accidents, HomeAccident Proneness: Tendency toward involvement in accidents. Implies certain personality characteristics which predispose to accidents.Fukushima Nuclear Accident: Nuclear power accident that occurred following the Tohoku-Kanto earthquake of March 11, 2011 in the northern region of Japan.Radioactive Hazard Release: Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.Accidents, AviationEmergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Insurance, Accident: Insurance providing coverage for physical injury suffered as a result of unavoidable circumstances.UkraineWounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Cesium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.Motorcycles: Two-wheeled, engine-driven vehicles.Radioactive Pollutants: Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.Radiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Radioactive Fallout: The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nuclear Reactors: Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.EnglandEmergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Nuclear Fission: Nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of a heavy atom such as uranium or plutonium is split into two approximately equal parts by a neutron, charged particle, or photon.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Nuclear Physics: The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Drowning: Death that occurs as a result of anoxia or heart arrest, associated with immersion in liquid.Food Contamination, RadioactiveMultiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Fast Neutrons: Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Great BritainInjury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Skull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.LondonPoisoning: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Triage: The sorting out and classification of patients or casualties to determine priority of need and proper place of treatment.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Head Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Maxillofacial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the face and jaw (either upper, lower, or both).Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Abdominal Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.Seat Belts: Restraining belts fastened to the frame of automobiles, aircraft, or other vehicles, and strapped around the person occupying the seat in the car or plane, intended to prevent the person from being thrown forward or out of the vehicle in case of sudden deceleration.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Insurance: Coverage by contract whereby one part indemnifies or guarantees another against loss by a specified contingency.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.ExplosionsBicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Railroads: Permanent roads having a line of rails fixed to ties and laid to gage, usually on a leveled or graded ballasted roadbed and providing a track for freight cars, passenger cars, and other rolling stock. Cars are designed to be drawn by locomotives or sometimes propelled by self-contained motors. (From Webster's 3d) The concept includes the organizational and administrative aspects of railroads as well.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Hand Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the hand.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Occupational Injuries: Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Air Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Ambulances: A vehicle equipped for transporting patients in need of emergency care.Emergency Treatment: First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.ScotlandReferral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Electric Injuries: Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Soft Tissue Injuries: Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".Back Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Northern IrelandTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Aviation: Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Needlestick Injuries: Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.Oil and Gas Fields: Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.Emergency Nursing: The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients admitted to the emergency department.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.BrazilAbbreviated Injury Scale: Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).Suicide: The act of killing oneself.WalesSuperstitions: A belief or practice which lacks adequate basis for proof; an embodiment of fear of the unknown, magic, and ignorance.Homicide: The killing of one person by another.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Snake Bites: Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Radiography: Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).JapanWorkload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Near Drowning: Non-fatal immersion or submersion in water. The subject is resuscitable.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Traumatology: The medical specialty which deals with WOUNDS and INJURIES as well as resulting disability and disorders from physical traumas.Construction Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of building.First Aid: Emergency care or treatment given to a person who suddenly becomes ill or injured before full medical services become available.Wounds, Gunshot: Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.Gas PoisoningSkiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced: Congenital changes in the morphology of organs produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Ipecac: A syrup made from the dried rhizomes of two different species, CEPHAELIS ipecacuanha and C. acuminata. They contain EMETINE, cephaeline, psychotrine and other ISOQUINOLINES. Ipecac syrup is used widely as an emetic acting both locally on the gastric mucosa and centrally on the chemoreceptor trigger zone.Tsunamis: Series of ocean waves produced by geologic events or underwater LANDSLIDES. These waves can travel at speeds averaging 450 (and up to 600) miles per hour in the open ocean.Causality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Wounds, Penetrating: Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.Air Bags: Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Laboratory Infection: Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.Baths: The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.Trauma Centers: Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Work Schedule Tolerance: Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Bothrops: A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)Mandibular Fractures: Fractures of the lower jaw.TurkeyTransportation of Patients: Conveying ill or injured individuals from one place to another.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Emergency Medical Service Communication Systems: The use of communication systems, such as telecommunication, to transmit emergency information to appropriate providers of health services.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Swimming PoolsDislocationsHazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Hospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.Zygomatic Fractures: Fractures of the zygoma.Health Services Misuse: Excessive, under or unnecessary utilization of health services by patients or physicians.Uranium: Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Mandibular Injuries: Injuries to the lower jaw bone.Contusions: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.Automobile Driver Examination: Government required written and driving test given to individuals prior to obtaining an operator's license.Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.Radiology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which is responsible for the administration and provision of x-ray diagnostic and therapeutic services.Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Seveso Accidental Release: 1976 accidental release of DIOXINS from a manufacturing facility in Seveso, ITALY following an equipment failure.Night Care: Institutional night care of patients.Jurisprudence: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Air Pollution, RadioactiveFinlandAntivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)FiresIndustry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Bites and StingsEmergency Medical Technicians: Paramedical personnel trained to provide basic emergency care and life support under the supervision of physicians and/or nurses. These services may be carried out at the site of the emergency, in the ambulance, or in a health care institution.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Hospitals, Urban: Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.Hospitals, District: Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.Skating: Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.Thorium: Thorium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol Th, atomic number 90, and atomic weight 232.04. It is used as fuel in nuclear reactors to produce fissionable uranium isotopes. Because of its radioopacity, various thorium compounds are used to facilitate visualization in roentgenography.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Engineering: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Decompression Sickness: A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Nursing: The field of nursing care concerned with the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health.Sports Equipment: Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).Holidays: Days commemorating events. Holidays also include vacation periods.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Consultants: Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Traction: The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
List of film accidents: This is intended to be a list of notable accidents which occurred during the shooting of films and television, such as cast or crew fatalities or serious accidents which plagued production. It is not intended to be a list of every minor injury an actor or stuntman suffered during filming.ISO 39001: The ISO 39001 "Road Traffic Safety Management" is an ISO standard for a management system (similar to ISO 9000) for road traffic safety. The implementation of the standard is supposed to put the organizations, that provide the system "road traffic", into the position to improve the traffic safety and to reduce by that the number of persons killed or severely injured in road traffic.Occupational fatality: An occupational fatality is a death that occurs while a person is at work or performing work related tasks. Occupational fatalities are also commonly called “occupational deaths” or “work-related deaths/fatalities” and can occur in any industry or occupation.Lake Wimico and St. Joseph Canal and Railroad Company: The Lake Wimico and St. Joseph Canal and Railroad was the first steam railroad in Florida and one of the first in the U.Investigation Committee on the Accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company: The Investigation Committee on the Accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company was formed June 7, 2011 by the Japanese government as an independent body to investigate the March Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.Ito, Masami, "Official probe begins into nuclear disaster", Japan Times, 8 June 2011, p.List of nuclear and radiation accidents by death toll: There have been more than 20 nuclear and radiation accidents involving fatalities. These involved nuclear power plant accidents, nuclear submarine accidents, radiotherapy accidents and other mishaps.Northwest Airlines Flight 85Senior Emergency Department: The senior emergency department is a recent hospital innovation to build separate geriatric emergency rooms for older adults akin to pediatric emergency rooms designed for children. The trend comes in response to the nation's rapidly growing population of older adults and overcrowding of emergency departments.Labor Standards Bureau: The is a bureau of the Ministry of Health, labour and Welfare responsible for maintaining work standards in Japan. It is tasked with securing and improving working conditions, ensuring the safety and health of workers, and is also responsible for managing Workers' Accident Compensation Insurance.Hinduism in Ukraine: Hinduism is a minority religion in Ukraine.National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: The U.S.Tema Motorway: The Tema Motorway is a highway that links Tema to Accra—capital of Ghana. It was the only motorway in Ghana.NS Motorcycle: The NS motorcycle, made by Narazo Shimazu in 1909, was the first motorcycle to be designed, built and sold in Japan. Shimazu created the Nihon Motorcycle Company (NMC) to manufacture the NS.Bataan Nuclear Power Plant: Bataan Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant, completed but never fueled, on Bataan Peninsula, west of Manila in the Philippines. It is located on a 3.List of nuclear weapons tests: Nuclear weapons testing according to the standard definition used in treaty language for the space/time requirement is:R4 nuclear reactor: R4 nuclear reactor was a nuclear reactor built at Marviken and the fourth nuclear reactor built in Sweden. It was heavy water moderated and intended for the dual role of 130MWe of power generation and also plutonium production.Miljacka Hydroelectric Power Plant: 230px|thumb|right|Miljacka Hydroelectric Power Plant.List of emergency medicine courses: This list of emergency medicine courses contains programs often required to be taken by emergency medical providers, including emergency medical technicians, paramedics, and emergency physicians.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Emergency: An emergency is a situation that poses an immediate risk to health, life, property, or environment. Most emergencies require urgent intervention to prevent a worsening of the situation, although in some situations, mitigation may not be possible and agencies may only be able to offer palliative care for the aftermath.Blunt splenic trauma: Blunt splenic trauma occurs when a significant impact to the spleen from some outside source (i.e.Arthur Wilson (Royal Navy officer)Natural nuclear fission reactorList of truck types: This List of truck types is intended to classify trucks and to provide links to articles on the various types. The three main classifications for road truck by weight are light trucks, medium trucks, and heavy trucks.List of shipwrecks in March 1918: The list of shipwrecks in March 1918 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during March 1918.Nuclear emulsion: In particle and nuclear physics, a nuclear emulsion plate is a photographic plate with a particularly thick emulsion layer and with a very uniform grain size. Like bubble chambers, cloud chambers, and wire chambers nuclear emulsion plates record the tracks of charged particles passing through.Fernando Montes de Oca Fencing Hall: The Fernando Montes de Oca Fencing Hall is an indoor sports venue located in the Magdalena Mixhuca Sports City area of Mexico City. It hosted the fencing competitions and the fencing part of the modern pentathlon competition of the 1968 Summer Olympics.List of nuclides: This table of nuclides shows the 896 observed nuclides that either are stable or, if radioactive, have half-lives longer than one hour.Fast neutron therapyNational Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Elias Rudolph Camerarius, Sr.: Elias Rudolph Camerarius, Sr. (1641–1695) was a professor of medicine who notably wrote books on the palpitations of the heart, pleurisy, skull fractures, and the use of medicinal plants.Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992: The Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 are set of regulations created under the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 which came into force in Great Britain on 1 January 1993.Royal London Hospital for Integrated MedicineList of poisonings: This is a list of poisonings in chronological order of victim. It also includes confirmed attempted and fictional poisonings.Paramedic: A paramedic is a healthcare professional, predominantly in the pre-hospital and out-of-hospital environment, and working mainly as part of emergency medical services (EMS), such as on an ambulance.Computer-aided simple triage: Computer-Aided Simple Triage (CAST) are computerized methods or systems that assist physicians in initial interpretation and classification of medical images. CAST is a sub-class of Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD).Eye injuryType 66 helmet: The Type 66 is a combat helmet that is used by the Japanese Self-Defense Forces. Other GSDF, MSDF and is also used.Moline Automobile Company: The Moline Automobile Company (1904 - 1919) was an American brass era automobile manufacturer in Moline, Illinois known for the Moline-Knight.Mahmood HaiderAbdominal traumaFold and thrust belt: A fold and thrust belt is a series of mountainous foothills adjacent to an orogenic belt, which forms due to contractional tectonics. Fold and thrust belts commonly form in the forelands adjacent to major orogens as deformation propagates outwards.Peripheral nerve injury classification: Classification of peripheral nerve injury assists in prognosis and determination of treatment strategy. Classification of nerve injury was described by Seddon in 1943 and by Sunderland in 1951.Project Longshot: Project Longshot was a conceptual design for an interstellar spacecraft, an unmanned probe, intended to fly to and enter orbit around Alpha Centauri B powered by nuclear pulse propulsion.Toronto propane explosionCadence (cycling): In cycling, cadence (or pedaling rate) is the number of revolutions of the crank per minute; roughly speaking, this is the rate at which a cyclist is pedalling/turning the pedals. Cadence is related to wheel speed, but is a distinct measurement.List of railway stations in Sardinia: This is the list of the railway stations in Sardinia.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Hand injury: The hand is a very complex organ with multiple joints, different types of ligament, tendons and nerves. With constant use, it is no wonder that hand disease injuries are common in society.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Chalkstick fracture: Chalkstick fractures are fractures, typically of long bones, in which the fracture is transverse to the long axis of the bone, like a broken stick of chalk. A healthy long bone typically breaks like a hard woody stick as the collagen in the matrix adds remarkable flexibility to the mineral and the energy can run up and down the growth rings of bone.Great Western Ambulance Service: The Great Western Ambulance Service NHS Trust (GWAS) was a UK National Health Service (NHS) trust providing emergency and nonemergency patient transport services to Bath and North East Somerset, Bristol, Gloucestershire, North Somerset, Swindon and Wiltshire in the South West England region. It was formed on 1 April 2006, from the merger of the Avon, Gloucestershire and Wiltshire ambulance services.Dundee Royal Infirmary: Dundee Royal Infirmary, often shortened to DRI, was a major teaching hospital in Dundee, Scotland. Until the opening of Ninewells Hospital in 1974, Dundee Royal Infirmary was Dundee’s main hospital.Referral (medicine): In medicine, referral is the transfer of care for a patient from one clinician to another.García Olmos L, Gervas Camacho J, Otero A, Pérez Fernández M.Chicago Electrical Trauma Research Institute: The Chicago Electrical Trauma Research Institute(CETRI) |url=http://www.cetri.Vessel safety survey: Vessel safety surveys are important during the life of a vessel for better safety and security. These controls are directed by the classification societies and are very different (safety equipment, security, hoist, dock survey).Spaceflight radiation carcinogenesisIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Soft tissue injuryStrike Bowling Bar: Strike Bowling Bar is an Australian-based company that owns and operates a portfolio of twelve bowling alleys along the Eastern Seaboard of Australia. Strike Bowling is currently Australia's largest privately owned bowling chain.Anti-abortion violence: Anti-abortion violence is violence committed against individuals and organizations that provide abortion. Incidents of violence have included destruction of property, in the form of vandalism; crimes against people, including kidnapping, stalking, assault, attempted murder, and murder; and crimes affecting both people and property, including arson and bombings.List of government departments, their agencies and their ministers in Northern Ireland: A list of Northern Ireland government departments, their agencies and their ministers and related organisations.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingCentral Cardiac Audit DatabaseAge adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.RAF Centre of Aviation Medicine: The RAF Centre of Aviation Medicine is a medical organisation run by the Royal Air Force at RAF Henlow in Bedfordshire. It is the main site of aviation medicine research in the UK.Mortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.Millennium PeopleStatute Law (Repeals) Act 1993: The Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1993 (c 50) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.Sharps containerHassi R'Mel gas field: The Hassi R'Mel Gas Field is the largest gas field in Algeria and one of the largest gas fields in the world. It is located in the vicinity of Hassi R'Mel village, south of Algiers.Automatic exposure control: Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) is an X-ray exposure termination device. A medical radiography x-ray exposure is always initiated by a human operator.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.
(1/1061) Understanding adverse events: human factors.
(1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with forgetting. States of mind contributing to error are thus extremely difficult to manage; they can happen to the best of people at any time. (7) People do not act in isolation. Their behaviour is shaped by circumstances. The same is true for errors and violations. The likelihood of an unsafe act being committed is heavily influenced by the nature of the task and by the local workplace conditions. These, in turn, are the product of "upstream" organisational factors. Great gains in safety can ve achieved through relatively small modifications of equipment and workplaces. (8) Automation and increasing advanced equipment do not cure human factors problems, they merely relocate them. In contrast, training people to work effectively in teams costs little, but has achieved significant enhancements of human performance in aviation. (9) Effective risk management depends critically on a confidential and preferable anonymous incident monitoring system that records the individual, task, situational, and organisational factors associated with incidents and near misses. (10) Effective risk management means the simultaneous and targeted deployment of limited remedial resources at different levels of the system: the individual or team, the task, the situation, and the organisation as a whole. (+info)
(2/1061) Mortality and cancer morbidity in a group of Swedish VCM and PCV production workers.
The cohort of workers employed in a Swedish vinyl chloride/poly(vinyl chloride) plant since its start in the early 1940's has been followed for mortality and cancer morbidity patterns. Only 21 of the 771 persons could not be traced. Difficulties in establishing exposure levels at different work areas in the past makes an evaluation of dose-effect relationships impossible. A four- to fivefold excess of pancreas/liver tumors was found, including two cases later classified as angiosarcomas of the liver. The number of brain tumors and suicide do not deviate significantly from expected. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, on the other hand, differ significantly from the expected. The discrepancies between previous reports on VCM/PVC workers and this report are discussed. The possible etiology of the cardiovascular deaths is also discussed. (+info)
(3/1061) Occupational health psychology: an emerging discipline.
There is growing concern that rapidly changing patterns of work organization and employment pose risk for occupational illness and injury. In the present article, we assert that these changes create new needs and opportunities for research and practice by psychologists in the area of work organization and health. We begin with an historical overview of the contribution of psychologists to the occupational safety and health field, and to the study of work organization and health. We then describe new initiatives by the American Psychological Association and national health organizations in the United States and Europe to frame a new field of study--called "occupational health psychology"--that focuses on the topic of work organization and health. We conclude with a discussion of emerging research needs and trends within this field. (+info)
(4/1061) Pressure gun injection injuries of the hand.
Pressure gun injection injuries are becoming increasingly common. Their effect on the fingers and hands, especially when improperly managed, can be devastating. Therefore it is important to review features, clinical course, anatomic distribution and operative management of such injuries. If a useful hand and fingers are to be attained, rapid and thorough decompression and debridement of these injuries are essential. (+info)
(5/1061) Two cases of Chromobacterium violaceum infection after injury in a subtropical region.
Chromobacterium violaceum is a gram-negative rod and is isolated from soil and water in tropical and subtropical regions. The species have pigmented and nonpigmented colony types. Infections caused by nonpigmented strains are rare. We report on two cases of infection caused by both pigmented and nonpigmented strains of C. violaceum. Two 24-year-old Korea Airline stewardesses were admitted to Inha University Hospital, Inchon, South Korea, on 9 August 1997, 3 days after an airplane accident in Guam. Both had multiple lacerations on exposed parts of their bodies. There was swelling, tenderness, and pus discharge. The wounds contained many small fragments of stones and weeds. A pigmented strain was isolated from the left hand and a nonpigmented strain was isolated from the left knee of one patient. For the other patient only a nonpigmented strain was isolated from a foot wound. The nonpigmented colonies from the left-knee and the left-foot wounds did not produce any pigment even after an extended period of incubation. The biochemical characteristics were the same for each strain except for oxidase and indole reactions. The pigmented strain was oxidase negative and indole positive, whereas the nonpigmented strains were oxidase positive and indole negative. The patients were successfully treated by debridement and with appropriate antibiotics. (+info)
(6/1061) Prognosis of accidental low back pain at work.
Accidental low back pain at the workplace was classified into two groups; 177 cases of the organic type and 176 cases of the non-specific type. Concerning the recuperation period, the length of leave, and the amount of compensation for recuperation, medical cost and leave of absence, a comparison was made between two groups. Regarding age, sex, and the type of work, no difference was found between the organic and the non-specific groups. However, the non-specific group showed lower values than the organic one for the duration of recuperation and leave and the amount of compensation for medical cost and leave of absence. Multiple regression analysis showed that the difference in the type of low back pain had more influence on the duration and cost than that in sex and age. The prognosis of non-specific low back pain is better than that of organic one in terms of cost and duration. (+info)
(7/1061) Needlestick and sharps injuries among health-care workers in Taiwan.
Sharps injuries are a major cause of transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses and human immunodeficiency virus in health-care workers. To determine the yearly incidence and causes of sharps injuries in health-care workers in Taiwan, we conducted a questionnaire survey in a total of 8645 health care workers, including physicians, nurses, laboratory technicians, and cleaners, from teaching hospitals of various sizes. The reported incidence of needlestick and other sharps injuries was 1.30 and 1.21 per person in the past 12 months, respectively. Of most recent episodes of needlestick/sharps injury, 52.0% were caused by ordinary syringe needles, usually in the patient units. The most frequently reported circumstances of needlestick were recapping of needles, and those of sharps injuries were opening of ampoules/vials. Of needles which stuck the health-care workers, 54.8% had been used in patients, 8.2% of whom were known to have hepatitis B or C, syphilis, or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sharps injuries in health-care workers in Taiwan occur more frequently than generally thought and risks of contracting blood-borne infectious diseases as a result are very high. (+info)
(8/1061) Childhood work-related agricultural fatalities--Minnesota, 1994-1997.
Agriculture is one of the most hazardous industries in the United States, with the second highest work-related fatality rate during 1992-1996 (21.9 deaths per 100,000 workers). During 1992-1995, 155 deaths were reported among agricultural workers aged < or =19 years; 64 (41%) of these youths were working in their family's business . In Minnesota during 1992-1996, agriculture had the highest fatality rate of any industry (21.3 per 100,000 workers). To characterize agriculture work-related deaths among youths in Minnesota during 1994-1997, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) analyzed data from the state's Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program. This report presents five cases of agriculture work-related fatalities among youths in Minnesota. (+info)