AccidentsAccidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Accident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.Chernobyl Nuclear Accident: April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.Accidents, HomeAccident Proneness: Tendency toward involvement in accidents. Implies certain personality characteristics which predispose to accidents.Fukushima Nuclear Accident: Nuclear power accident that occurred following the Tohoku-Kanto earthquake of March 11, 2011 in the northern region of Japan.Radioactive Hazard Release: Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.Accidents, AviationEmergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Insurance, Accident: Insurance providing coverage for physical injury suffered as a result of unavoidable circumstances.UkraineWounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Cesium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.Motorcycles: Two-wheeled, engine-driven vehicles.Radioactive Pollutants: Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.Radiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Radioactive Fallout: The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nuclear Reactors: Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.EnglandEmergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Nuclear Fission: Nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of a heavy atom such as uranium or plutonium is split into two approximately equal parts by a neutron, charged particle, or photon.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Nuclear Physics: The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Drowning: Death that occurs as a result of anoxia or heart arrest, associated with immersion in liquid.Food Contamination, RadioactiveMultiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Fast Neutrons: Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Great BritainInjury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Skull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.LondonPoisoning: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Triage: The sorting out and classification of patients or casualties to determine priority of need and proper place of treatment.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Head Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Maxillofacial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the face and jaw (either upper, lower, or both).Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Abdominal Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.Seat Belts: Restraining belts fastened to the frame of automobiles, aircraft, or other vehicles, and strapped around the person occupying the seat in the car or plane, intended to prevent the person from being thrown forward or out of the vehicle in case of sudden deceleration.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Insurance: Coverage by contract whereby one part indemnifies or guarantees another against loss by a specified contingency.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.ExplosionsBicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Railroads: Permanent roads having a line of rails fixed to ties and laid to gage, usually on a leveled or graded ballasted roadbed and providing a track for freight cars, passenger cars, and other rolling stock. Cars are designed to be drawn by locomotives or sometimes propelled by self-contained motors. (From Webster's 3d) The concept includes the organizational and administrative aspects of railroads as well.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Hand Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the hand.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Occupational Injuries: Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Air Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.Zellweger Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder due to defects in PEROXISOME biogenesis which involves more than 13 genes encoding peroxin proteins of the peroxisomal membrane and matrix. Zellweger syndrome is typically seen in the neonatal period with features such as dysmorphic skull; MUSCLE HYPOTONIA; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; visual compromise; SEIZURES; progressive degeneration of the KIDNEYS and the LIVER. Zellweger-like syndrome refers to phenotypes resembling the neonatal Zellweger syndrome but seen in children or adults with apparently intact peroxisome biogenesis.Ambulances: A vehicle equipped for transporting patients in need of emergency care.Emergency Treatment: First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.ScotlandReferral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Electric Injuries: Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Soft Tissue Injuries: Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".Back Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Northern IrelandTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Aviation: Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Needlestick Injuries: Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.Oil and Gas Fields: Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.Emergency Nursing: The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients admitted to the emergency department.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.BrazilAbbreviated Injury Scale: Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).Suicide: The act of killing oneself.WalesSuperstitions: A belief or practice which lacks adequate basis for proof; an embodiment of fear of the unknown, magic, and ignorance.Homicide: The killing of one person by another.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Snake Bites: Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Radiography: Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).JapanWorkload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Near Drowning: Non-fatal immersion or submersion in water. The subject is resuscitable.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Traumatology: The medical specialty which deals with WOUNDS and INJURIES as well as resulting disability and disorders from physical traumas.
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First Aid: Emergency care or treatment given to a person who suddenly becomes ill or injured before full medical services become available.Wounds, Gunshot: Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.Gas PoisoningSkiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced: Congenital changes in the morphology of organs produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Ipecac: A syrup made from the dried rhizomes of two different species, CEPHAELIS ipecacuanha and C. acuminata. They contain EMETINE, cephaeline, psychotrine and other ISOQUINOLINES. Ipecac syrup is used widely as an emetic acting both locally on the gastric mucosa and centrally on the chemoreceptor trigger zone.Tsunamis: Series of ocean waves produced by geologic events or underwater LANDSLIDES. These waves can travel at speeds averaging 450 (and up to 600) miles per hour in the open ocean.Causality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Wounds, Penetrating: Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.Air Bags: Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Laboratory Infection: Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.Baths: The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.Trauma Centers: Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Work Schedule Tolerance: Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Bothrops: A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)Mandibular Fractures: Fractures of the lower jaw.TurkeyTransportation of Patients: Conveying ill or injured individuals from one place to another.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Emergency Medical Service Communication Systems: The use of communication systems, such as telecommunication, to transmit emergency information to appropriate providers of health services.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Swimming PoolsDislocationsHazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Hospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.Zygomatic Fractures: Fractures of the zygoma.Health Services Misuse: Excessive, under or unnecessary utilization of health services by patients or physicians.Uranium: Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Mandibular Injuries: Injuries to the lower jaw bone.Contusions: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.Automobile Driver Examination: Government required written and driving test given to individuals prior to obtaining an operator's license.Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.Radiology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which is responsible for the administration and provision of x-ray diagnostic and therapeutic services.Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Seveso Accidental Release: 1976 accidental release of DIOXINS from a manufacturing facility in Seveso, ITALY following an equipment failure.Night Care: Institutional night care of patients.Jurisprudence: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Air Pollution, RadioactiveFinlandAntivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)FiresIndustry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Bites and StingsEmergency Medical Technicians: Paramedical personnel trained to provide basic emergency care and life support under the supervision of physicians and/or nurses. These services may be carried out at the site of the emergency, in the ambulance, or in a health care institution.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Hospitals, Urban: Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.Hospitals, District: Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.Skating: Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.Thorium: Thorium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol Th, atomic number 90, and atomic weight 232.04. It is used as fuel in nuclear reactors to produce fissionable uranium isotopes. Because of its radioopacity, various thorium compounds are used to facilitate visualization in roentgenography.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Engineering: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Decompression Sickness: A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Nursing: The field of nursing care concerned with the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health.Sports Equipment: Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).Holidays: Days commemorating events. Holidays also include vacation periods.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Consultants: Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Traction: The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.

*  US: Your brain is to blame for the uptick in accidental deaths - PressFrom - US
One in 20 people died of an accident in 1918, according to Steve Casner, a NASA psychologist who studies safety. That death ... There are several reasons why accidents may be on the rise, Casner writes, from distracting technology to the rise of risky ... One in 20 people died of an accident in 1918, according to Steve Casner, a NASA psychologist who studies safety. That death ... There are several reasons why accidents may be on the rise, Casner writes, from distracting technology to the rise of risky ...
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*  Life Wouldn't Be The Same If These 25 Accidents Didn't Turn Out Brilliantly. Wow. - FunBrag.club
Every day, you probably use a few items that were originally invented by complete accident. It's much more common than you ... Life Wouldn't Be The Same If These 25 Accidents Didn't Turn Out Brilliantly. Wow.. ... realize for modern inventions to be discovered by accident. Experiments can go awry, leading researchers to discover that ...
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*  Articles about Railroad Accidents Ventura County - latimes
Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Railroad Accidents Ventura County From The latimes ... The Amtrak collision that killed a 24-year-old Saticoy woman last weekend is the third accident this year between a train and a ... 3 Killed, 1 Hurt When Amtrak Train Plows Into Van : Accident: Vehicle sitting on tracks is hit at an unguarded crossing near ... the latest and most serious in a series of train accidents at unprotected rural railroad crossings in Ventura County. "The ...
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*  Policy - Page 2
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*  What To Tell the Children - Healing the Spirit
The distinction between any accident and a tragic accident may not be comprehended. Attention to the child's questions, with ... It's better to tell them simply that the person died in the accident because she was so badly hurt that her body does not work ...
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*  General Trauma Care and Related Aspects | SpringerLink
This holds true for a range of injuries, including accidents among the elderly, sports injuries, and trauma due to traffic ... accidents. The increase in the number of injuries is accompanied by rising expectations among patients, who anticipate good ...
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  http://universalsompo.com/products/health/26-products/health/27-loan-secure-insurance.html?start=1
*  accidents - New York Magazine
See an archive of all accidents stories published on the New York Media network, which includes NYMag, The Cut, Vulture, and ... But the MTA still doesn't seem to know what caused the accident. ...
  http://nymag.com/tags/accidents/4/
*  Category:Accidents - Wikimedia Commons
Railway and other accidents with relation to injury and disease of the nervous system - a book for court use (1904) ( ... Railway and other accidents with relation to injury and disease of the nervous system - a book for court use (1904) ( ... Railway and other accidents with relation to injury and disease of the nervous system - a book for court use (1904) ( ... Railway and other accidents with relation to injury and disease of the nervous system - a book for court use (1904) ( ...
  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Accidents
*  accidents - Channel NewsAsia
Fall in drink-driving related accidents and arrests: Traffic police Related contents' playtime 01:26minutes Toggle share menu. ... Four Singaporeans killed in Port Dickson accident Toggle share menu. * Share on Facebook. Share on Facebook ...
  https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/topic/accidents
*  Nuclear accidents | Greenpeace India
INES 7: major accident. The world's worst nuclear disaster after Chernobyl, and the only other accident to be given the top ... INES 6: serious accident. Another failure-of-coolant accident, this time in the Mayak complex that formed the dark heart of the ... INES 5: accident with wider consequences. Britain's most severe nuclear accident was at a nuclear reactor then known as ... Levels one to three are incidents; four to seven are accidents.. These are some of the most serious nuclear accidents to date: ...
  http://www.greenpeace.org/india/en/What-We-Do/Nuclear-Unsafe/Safety/Nuclear-accidents/?page=173
*  Alcohol And Accidents - latimes
Alcohol And Accidents. August 04, 1988,Clipboard researched by Susan Greene, Dallas Jamison and Henry Rivero / Los Angeles ... ALCOHOL-RELATED ACCIDENTS 1ST QUARTER,1988 Los Angeles: 2,228 (7%) Orange: 745 (6%) Riverside: 389 (8%) San Bernardino: 490 (8 ... Total Percent Total Alcohol- Alcohol- City Accidents Related Related Anaheim 1,315 78 6 Brea 149 7 5 Buena Park 319 17 5 Costa ... Total Percent Total Alcohol- Alcohol- Accidents Related Related 1987 City Totals 11,520 784 7 State Highways 311 45 14 County ...
  http://articles.latimes.com/1988-08-04/news/li-10384_1_county-totals
*  Previous Metrolink accidents - LA Times
A Los Angeles judge says he is not convinced that Juan Manuel Alvarez was trying to harm himself on 2005 when he triggered a train crash and killed 11 people. ...
  http://www.latimes.com/local/la-me-metrolink2005-sg-storygallery.html
*  AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS. - The New York Times
Yesterday's papers, as usual on Monday, contained a long list of automobile "accidents," and, again as usual, practically every ... Therefore, strictly speaking, they were not accidents at all. View Full Article in Timesmachine » ... AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS. Order Reprints, Today's Paper,Subscribe ... AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS.. JULY 21, 1914. Continue reading the main ...
  http://www.nytimes.com/1914/07/21/archives/automobile-accidents.html
*  Car Accidents. - The New York Times
A version of this archives appears in print on June 1, 1869, on Page 5 of the New York edition with the headline: Car Accidents ...
  https://www.nytimes.com/1869/06/01/archives/car-accidents.html
*  Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents
Accidents That Can Happen at Home. Common causes of home-injury deaths are fire and burns, suffocation, drowning, choking, ... However, accidents will still happen, so it's important to be prepared. If you're expecting a baby or have kids, it's wise to: ...
  http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/childproof.html?WT.ac=ctg
*  Recent Accidents
The accident happened while the helicopter was approaching to land at a staging area. The pilot and crew of 3 were all killed. ... The accident was reported to be caused by an improperly secured external bag coming loose and striking the tail rotor of the ... There were strong winds in the area at the time of the accident.. ...
  http://planecrashinfo.com/recent.htm
*  Nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents - Wikipedia
... radiotherapy accident in Zaragoza,[14] radiation accident in Morocco,[15] Goiania accident,[16] radiation accident in Mexico ... a b The Radiological Accident in Goiania p. 2.. *^ a b c d Pallava Bagla. "Radiation Accident a 'Wake-Up Call' For India's ... Three Mile Island accident (1979), and the SL-1 accident (1961).[9] Nuclear power accidents can involve loss of life and large ... Accident categories[edit]. Nuclear meltdown[edit]. Main articles: Nuclear meltdown and Design basis accident ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_accidents
*  Articles about Railroad Accidents Kentucky - latimes
Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Railroad Accidents Kentucky From The latimes ...
  http://articles.latimes.com/keyword/railroad-accidents-kentucky
*  Legal News Articles - Accidents
Home Page ,, Legal News Articles ,, Accidents. Legal News Articles - Accidents. Nissan Recalls 2.1 Million Vehicles Over Engine ... Oil on Road Causes Kansas City Car Accident. October 19, 2010. By Charles Benson.. Kansas City, MO. Oil on the road reportedly ... Man Killed in Springfield Accident After Car Hits Deer. October 26, 2010. By Charles Benson.. Springfield, MO. A man was ... Two Motorcyclists Killed In Separate Kansas City Accidents. October 19, 2010. By Charles Benson.. Kansas City, MO. Two ...
  https://www.lawyersandsettlements.com/legal-news-articles/accidents-news-articles/?page=7
*  Railroad Accidents-The Remedy - Scientific American
This accident could not have taken place on a double track. Our railroad system is bad, and many of the lines are mismanaged ... Such accidents as those mentioned we expect, will' take place until our railroad system is eformed. The people can do this by ... The evidence went to prove that the accident was caused by a difference of 2J minutes time in the watches of the engineers and ... Our people should awake to a true sense of their duty ; the remedy for railroad accidents is merely a performance of duty. ...
  https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/railroad-accidentsthe-remedy/
*  Known mining accidents | GRID-Arendal
Known mining accidents. An indication of the number and location of tailings dam failures since 1985. An analysis of tailings ... Mine Tailings Storage: Safety Is No Accident. The report was prompted by tailings dams disasters and rising global concerns ...
  http://www.grida.no/resources/11421
*  Happy Accidents - lawypop · Lomography
35mm accident labscan supersampler_mod xpro. Camera:. Lomography Supersampler (available in our shop) Film:. Kodak Elitechrome ... Happy Accidents. Was really sad when the Lab guy told me their machine broke down and my two rolls were stuck. They managed to ... www.lomography.com/homes/lawypop/blog/2291-happy-accidents. BTW this roll was shot with my modified Supersampler with its inner ... Lomography Photos Happy Accidents Previous Overview Next .detail { margin: 0 auto; max-width: 1000px; } @supports(max-width: ...
  https://www.lomography.com/photos/12893788

List of film accidents: This is intended to be a list of notable accidents which occurred during the shooting of films and television, such as cast or crew fatalities or serious accidents which plagued production. It is not intended to be a list of every minor injury an actor or stuntman suffered during filming.ISO 39001: The ISO 39001 "Road Traffic Safety Management" is an ISO standard for a management system (similar to ISO 9000) for road traffic safety. The implementation of the standard is supposed to put the organizations, that provide the system "road traffic", into the position to improve the traffic safety and to reduce by that the number of persons killed or severely injured in road traffic.Occupational fatality: An occupational fatality is a death that occurs while a person is at work or performing work related tasks. Occupational fatalities are also commonly called “occupational deaths” or “work-related deaths/fatalities” and can occur in any industry or occupation.Lake Wimico and St. Joseph Canal and Railroad Company: The Lake Wimico and St. Joseph Canal and Railroad was the first steam railroad in Florida and one of the first in the U.Investigation Committee on the Accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company: The Investigation Committee on the Accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company was formed June 7, 2011 by the Japanese government as an independent body to investigate the March Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.Ito, Masami, "Official probe begins into nuclear disaster", Japan Times, 8 June 2011, p.List of nuclear and radiation accidents by death toll: There have been more than 20 nuclear and radiation accidents involving fatalities. These involved nuclear power plant accidents, nuclear submarine accidents, radiotherapy accidents and other mishaps.Northwest Airlines Flight 85Senior Emergency Department: The senior emergency department is a recent hospital innovation to build separate geriatric emergency rooms for older adults akin to pediatric emergency rooms designed for children. The trend comes in response to the nation's rapidly growing population of older adults and overcrowding of emergency departments.Labor Standards Bureau: The is a bureau of the Ministry of Health, labour and Welfare responsible for maintaining work standards in Japan. It is tasked with securing and improving working conditions, ensuring the safety and health of workers, and is also responsible for managing Workers' Accident Compensation Insurance.Hinduism in Ukraine: Hinduism is a minority religion in Ukraine.National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: The U.S.Tema Motorway: The Tema Motorway is a highway that links Tema to Accra—capital of Ghana. It was the only motorway in Ghana.NS Motorcycle: The NS motorcycle, made by Narazo Shimazu in 1909, was the first motorcycle to be designed, built and sold in Japan. Shimazu created the Nihon Motorcycle Company (NMC) to manufacture the NS.Bataan Nuclear Power Plant: Bataan Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant, completed but never fueled, on Bataan Peninsula, west of Manila in the Philippines. It is located on a 3.List of nuclear weapons tests: Nuclear weapons testing according to the standard definition used in treaty language for the space/time requirement is:R4 nuclear reactor: R4 nuclear reactor was a nuclear reactor built at Marviken and the fourth nuclear reactor built in Sweden. It was heavy water moderated and intended for the dual role of 130MWe of power generation and also plutonium production.Miljacka Hydroelectric Power Plant: 230px|thumb|right|Miljacka Hydroelectric Power Plant.List of emergency medicine courses: This list of emergency medicine courses contains programs often required to be taken by emergency medical providers, including emergency medical technicians, paramedics, and emergency physicians.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Emergency: An emergency is a situation that poses an immediate risk to health, life, property, or environment. Most emergencies require urgent intervention to prevent a worsening of the situation, although in some situations, mitigation may not be possible and agencies may only be able to offer palliative care for the aftermath.Blunt splenic trauma: Blunt splenic trauma occurs when a significant impact to the spleen from some outside source (i.e.Arthur Wilson (Royal Navy officer)Natural nuclear fission reactorList of truck types: This List of truck types is intended to classify trucks and to provide links to articles on the various types. The three main classifications for road truck by weight are light trucks, medium trucks, and heavy trucks.List of shipwrecks in March 1918: The list of shipwrecks in March 1918 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during March 1918.Nuclear emulsion: In particle and nuclear physics, a nuclear emulsion plate is a photographic plate with a particularly thick emulsion layer and with a very uniform grain size. Like bubble chambers, cloud chambers, and wire chambers nuclear emulsion plates record the tracks of charged particles passing through.Fernando Montes de Oca Fencing Hall: The Fernando Montes de Oca Fencing Hall is an indoor sports venue located in the Magdalena Mixhuca Sports City area of Mexico City. It hosted the fencing competitions and the fencing part of the modern pentathlon competition of the 1968 Summer Olympics.List of nuclides: This table of nuclides shows the 896 observed nuclides that either are stable or, if radioactive, have half-lives longer than one hour.Fast neutron therapyNational Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Elias Rudolph Camerarius, Sr.: Elias Rudolph Camerarius, Sr. (1641–1695) was a professor of medicine who notably wrote books on the palpitations of the heart, pleurisy, skull fractures, and the use of medicinal plants.Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992: The Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 are set of regulations created under the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 which came into force in Great Britain on 1 January 1993.Royal London Hospital for Integrated MedicineList of poisonings: This is a list of poisonings in chronological order of victim. It also includes confirmed attempted and fictional poisonings.Paramedic: A paramedic is a healthcare professional, predominantly in the pre-hospital and out-of-hospital environment, and working mainly as part of emergency medical services (EMS), such as on an ambulance.Computer-aided simple triage: Computer-Aided Simple Triage (CAST) are computerized methods or systems that assist physicians in initial interpretation and classification of medical images. CAST is a sub-class of Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD).Eye injuryType 66 helmet: The Type 66 is a combat helmet that is used by the Japanese Self-Defense Forces. Other GSDF, MSDF and is also used.Moline Automobile Company: The Moline Automobile Company (1904 - 1919) was an American brass era automobile manufacturer in Moline, Illinois known for the Moline-Knight.Mahmood HaiderAbdominal traumaFold and thrust belt: A fold and thrust belt is a series of mountainous foothills adjacent to an orogenic belt, which forms due to contractional tectonics. Fold and thrust belts commonly form in the forelands adjacent to major orogens as deformation propagates outwards.Peripheral nerve injury classification: Classification of peripheral nerve injury assists in prognosis and determination of treatment strategy. Classification of nerve injury was described by Seddon in 1943 and by Sunderland in 1951.Project Longshot: Project Longshot was a conceptual design for an interstellar spacecraft, an unmanned probe, intended to fly to and enter orbit around Alpha Centauri B powered by nuclear pulse propulsion.Toronto propane explosionCadence (cycling): In cycling, cadence (or pedaling rate) is the number of revolutions of the crank per minute; roughly speaking, this is the rate at which a cyclist is pedalling/turning the pedals. Cadence is related to wheel speed, but is a distinct measurement.List of railway stations in Sardinia: This is the list of the railway stations in Sardinia.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Hand injury: The hand is a very complex organ with multiple joints, different types of ligament, tendons and nerves. With constant use, it is no wonder that hand disease injuries are common in society.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Chalkstick fracture: Chalkstick fractures are fractures, typically of long bones, in which the fracture is transverse to the long axis of the bone, like a broken stick of chalk. A healthy long bone typically breaks like a hard woody stick as the collagen in the matrix adds remarkable flexibility to the mineral and the energy can run up and down the growth rings of bone.ZellwegerGreat Western Ambulance Service: The Great Western Ambulance Service NHS Trust (GWAS) was a UK National Health Service (NHS) trust providing emergency and nonemergency patient transport services to Bath and North East Somerset, Bristol, Gloucestershire, North Somerset, Swindon and Wiltshire in the South West England region. It was formed on 1 April 2006, from the merger of the Avon, Gloucestershire and Wiltshire ambulance services.Dundee Royal Infirmary: Dundee Royal Infirmary, often shortened to DRI, was a major teaching hospital in Dundee, Scotland. Until the opening of Ninewells Hospital in 1974, Dundee Royal Infirmary was Dundee’s main hospital.Referral (medicine): In medicine, referral is the transfer of care for a patient from one clinician to another.García Olmos L, Gervas Camacho J, Otero A, Pérez Fernández M.Chicago Electrical Trauma Research Institute: The Chicago Electrical Trauma Research Institute(CETRI) |url=http://www.cetri.Vessel safety survey: Vessel safety surveys are important during the life of a vessel for better safety and security. These controls are directed by the classification societies and are very different (safety equipment, security, hoist, dock survey).Spaceflight radiation carcinogenesisIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Soft tissue injuryStrike Bowling Bar: Strike Bowling Bar is an Australian-based company that owns and operates a portfolio of twelve bowling alleys along the Eastern Seaboard of Australia. Strike Bowling is currently Australia's largest privately owned bowling chain.Anti-abortion violence: Anti-abortion violence is violence committed against individuals and organizations that provide abortion. Incidents of violence have included destruction of property, in the form of vandalism; crimes against people, including kidnapping, stalking, assault, attempted murder, and murder; and crimes affecting both people and property, including arson and bombings.List of government departments, their agencies and their ministers in Northern Ireland: A list of Northern Ireland government departments, their agencies and their ministers and related organisations.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingCentral Cardiac Audit DatabaseAge adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.RAF Centre of Aviation Medicine: The RAF Centre of Aviation Medicine is a medical organisation run by the Royal Air Force at RAF Henlow in Bedfordshire. It is the main site of aviation medicine research in the UK.Mortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.Millennium PeopleStatute Law (Repeals) Act 1993: The Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1993 (c 50) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.Sharps containerHassi R'Mel gas field: The Hassi R'Mel Gas Field is the largest gas field in Algeria and one of the largest gas fields in the world. It is located in the vicinity of Hassi R'Mel village, south of Algiers.Automatic exposure control: Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) is an X-ray exposure termination device. A medical radiography x-ray exposure is always initiated by a human operator.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.

(1/709) Water traffic accidents, drowning and alcohol in Finland, 1969-1995.

OBJECTIVE: To examine age- and sex-specific mortality rates and trends in water traffic accidents (WTA), and their association with alcohol, in Finland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: National mortality and population data from Finland, 1969-1995, are used to analyse rates and trends. The mortality rates are calculated on the basis of population, per 100000 inhabitants in each age group (<1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-44, 45-64, > or = 65), and analysed by sex and age. The Poisson regression model and chi2 test for trend (EGRET and StatXact softwares) are used to analyse time trends. RESULTS: From 1969 through 1995 there were 3473 (2.7/100000/year; M:F= 20.4:1) WTA-related deaths among Finns of all ages. In 94.7% of the cases the cause of death was drowning. Alcohol intoxication was a contributing cause of death in 63.0% of the fatalities. During the study period the overall WTA mortality rates declined significantly (-4% per year; P < 0.001). This decline was observed in all age groups except > or = 65 year olds. The overall mortality rates in WTA associated with alcohol intoxication (1987-1995) also declined significantly (-6%; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In Finland, mortality rates in WTA are exceptionally high. Despite a marked decline in most age groups, the high mortality in WTA nevertheless remains a preventable cause of death. Preventive countermeasures targeted specifically to adult males, to the reduction of alcohol consumption in aquatic settings and to the use of personal safety devices should receive priority.  (+info)

(2/709) The prevalence and distribution of bruising in babies.

AIM: To obtain a prevalence rate and determine the distribution of accidental bruising in babies. METHODS: 177 babies aged 6-12 months were examined naked to look for bruises. They were seen in health visitor hearing test clinics and child health surveillance clinics. The site, size, shape, and colour of bruises were recorded on a skin map, and the parent's explanation noted. Any other injury was recorded. Data collection included the baby's age, mobility and weight, demographic details, and health visitor concerns. RESULTS: Twenty two babies had bruises, giving a prevalence rate of 12%. There was a total of 32 bruises, 15 babies had one bruise. All bruises were found on the front of the body and were located over bony prominences. Twenty five of the bruises were on the face and head, and seven were on the shin. The babies with bruises on the shin were mobile. There was a highly significant increase in bruises with increase in mobility. CONCLUSIONS: The study has produced a prevalence and distribution of bruising in babies and sets a baseline from which to work when assessing bruises. It also tested out the methodology, which could be used in further research, particularly of younger babies. Clinicians need to assess a baby's level of development when considering whether a bruise is accidental.  (+info)

(3/709) Patients' experience of surgical accidents.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the psychological impact of surgical accidents and assess the adequacy of explanations given to the patients involved. DESIGN: Postal questionnaire survey. SETTING: Subjects were selected from files held Action for Victims of Medical Accidents. PATIENTS: 154 surgical patients who had been injured by their treatment, who considered that their treatment had fallen below acceptable standards. MAIN MEASURES: Adequacy of explanations given to patients and responses to standard questionnaires assessing pain, distress, psychiatric morbidity, and psychosocial adjustment (general health questionnaire, impact of events scale, McGill pain questionnaire, and psychosocial adjustment to illness scale). RESULTS: 101 patients completed the questionnaires (69 women, 32 men; mean age 44 (median 41.5) years. Mean scores on the questionnaires indicated that these injured patients were more distressed than people who had suffered serious accidents or bereavements; their levels of pain were comparable, over a year after surgery, to untreated postoperative pain; and their psychosocial adjustment was considerably worse than in patients with serious illnesses. They were extremely unsatisfied with the explanations given about their accident, which they perceived as lacking in information, unclear, inaccurate, and given unsympathetically. Poor explanations were associated with higher levels of disturbing memories and poorer adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical accidents have a major adverse psychological impact on patients, and poor communication after the accident may increase patients' distress. IMPLICATIONS: Communication skills in dealing with such patients should be improved to ensure the clear and comprehensive explanations that they need. Many patients will also require psychological treatment to help their recovery.  (+info)

(4/709) Injuries caused by falling soccer goalposts in Denmark.

OBJECTIVE: A falling soccer goalpost is associated with the potential risk of serious injury that can sometimes even be fatal. The aim of the study was to analyse the extent of the problem in Denmark and focus on the mechanism of injury and prevention. METHODS: Data were analysed for the period 1989-1997 from the European Home and Leisure Accident Surveillance System, which is an electronic register of the injuries seen in the casualty departments of the hospitals of five selected cities in Denmark representing 14% of the Danish population; in addition, fatal accidents in the whole of Denmark since 1981 were examined. Forty two injured persons were interviewed about the circumstances of the accident. Attempts were made to estimate the proportion of goalposts secured by counterweight in the five different regions, compared with the proportion secured with ground stakes and those that were unsecured, by analysing data from the largest producers of goalposts in Denmark. RESULTS: In the period 1981-1988, two fatal accidents were recorded. In the period 1989-1997, 117 people were injured by a falling goalpost; six of the injuries required hospitalisation. Some 88% of the injured were under the age of 15. In a telephone interview with 42 of the injured, 50% stated that the goalpost fell because someone was hanging on the crossbar. Comparing the five different regions with respect to the proportion of goalposts secured by counterweight and the number of accidents, the following relation was found. Areas in which a high percentage of the goalposts were secured by a counterweight correlated inversely with a high number of accidents (r = -0.9; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Soccer is a widely played sport and it is important to be aware that accidents caused by falling goalposts can occur and that they presumably can be prevented by proper use of goalposts, by using secure goalposts, and by securing old goalposts with a counterweight.  (+info)

(5/709) Child health statistics review, 1998.

There is a broad spectrum of data that can be used to describe the health of young people in the UK. These data are of varying quality, reflecting in part the methods used to collect them. However, it is often frustrating trying to locate information relevant to young people: so many of the apparently obvious sources of data, such as routine surveillance data, are either not collated centrally, or are not related to a defined population. Perhaps, with the recently introduced changes in commissioning health services within England and Wales, local pressure will bring about an improvement in this.  (+info)

(6/709) What problems do patients present with outside normal general practice surgery hours? A prospective study of the use of general practice and accident and emergency services.

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to address some current issues concerning the use of general practice and accident and emergency (A & E) services outside normal surgery hours. METHOD: Six general practices in Nottingham (with a combined population of 46,698 patients) were recruited to take part in the study. Over a six month period, data were collected on patient contacts with general practice services and the local A & E department outside normal surgery hours. RESULTS: General practice services dealt with 63 per cent of first contacts over the course of the study. There were 3181 (136 per 1000 patients per year) contacts with general practitioners and deputizing service doctors (of which 1009 (31.7 per cent) were dealt with by telephone alone) and 1876 (80 per 1000 patients per year) attendances at the A & E department. There were marked differences in the distribution of problems that patients presented to the two types of service. The proportion of presentations dealt with by telephone alone by general practice services varied with the type of presentation. However, the use of the telephone was not particularly high, even for problems such as a sore throat. CONCLUSIONS: Given the differences in presentations to both general practice and A & E services there may be limited scope for altering patients' consulting patterns without making significant changes to service provision. However, there may be scope for increasing the proportion of general practice contacts dealt with by telephone alone.  (+info)

(7/709) How members of the public interpret the word accident.

OBJECTIVE: To explore what the word accident means to the lay public. This interpretation is of interest because it has been raised by injury control professionals as one justification for discouraging use of that word. METHODS: A national telephone survey of 943 adults in the United States was conducted. Respondents were selected at random from households whose phone numbers were generated using random digit dialing techniques. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine if respondent characteristics predicted their interpretations of the word accident. RESULTS: Eighty three per cent of respondents associated preventability with the word accident, and only 26% felt that accidents were controlled by fate. However, 71% thought that accidents could not be predicted, and 4% felt that accidents were done on purpose. Age, education, income, and race emerged as independent predictors of various accident interpretations. CONCLUSIONS: Only in the case of "unpredictability" does the public's interpretation of the word accident match many experts' expectations. The concept of "unintentionality" is what seems to be communicated most strongly by use of the word accident. Persistent attempts on the part of injury control professionals to eliminate this word from social discourse may result in unintended consequences, which are discussed.  (+info)

(8/709) Open water scuba diving accidents at Leicester: five years' experience.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, type, outcome, and possible risk factors of diving accidents in each year of a five year period presenting from one dive centre to a large teaching hospital accident and emergency (A&E) department. METHODS: All patients included in this study presented to the A&E department at a local teaching hospital in close proximity to the largest inland diving centre in the UK. Our main outcome measures were: presenting symptoms, administration of recompression treatment, mortality, and postmortem examination report where applicable. RESULTS: Overall, 25 patients experienced a serious open water diving accident at the centre between 1992 and 1996 inclusive. The percentage of survivors (n = 18) with symptoms of decompression sickness receiving recompression treatment was 52%. All surviving patients received medical treatment for at least 24 hours before discharge. The median depth of diving accidents was 24 metres (m) (range 7-36 m). During the study period, 1992-96, the number of accidents increased from one to 10 and the incidence of diving accidents increased from four per 100,000 to 15.4 per 100,000. Over the same time period the number of deaths increased threefold. CONCLUSIONS: The aetiology of the increase in the incidence of accidents is multifactorial. Important risk factors were thought to be: rapid ascent (in 48% of patients), cold water, poor visibility, the number of dives per diver, and the experience of the diver. It is concluded that there needs to be an increased awareness of the management of diving injuries in an A&E department in close proximity to an inland diving centre.  (+info)



  • reports
  • Although most reports are still in their preliminary stages, probable cause has so far been determined in five of the accidents, and another five have reached the factual stage. (mcmc-law.com)
  • Preliminary reports may contain errors and are subject to change as they progress to the probable cause and factual stages of accident investigation. (mcmc-law.com)