Abbreviations as Topic: Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Abbreviations: Works consisting of lists of shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity. Acronyms are included here.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Unified Medical Language System: A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Subject Headings: Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Biological Ontologies: Structured vocabularies describing concepts from the fields of biology and relationships between concepts.

*  Biology-Online • View topic - Antibiotic Disk abbreviations

Antibiotic Disk abbreviations. About microscopic forms of life, including Bacteria, Archea, protozoans, algae and fungi. Topics ... Weird abbreviations. But you can work it out, you got those two right. Since cephlaexin has a C and L in it is safe to say that ... Now as you know the disks used for this test have an abbreviation on them which were:. Amp, CL, W, NA.. Can anyone confirm ... Re: Antibiotic Disk abbreviations. by Darwin420 » Wed Nov 26, 2008 9:01 pm ...
biology-online.org/biology-forum/about14849.html?hilit=disks

*  Druchii.net - View topic - mouseover abbreviations/initialisms

On the topic, though, the bottom of the FAQ/Rules of the site has a list of common abbreviations. I'm not sure how current it ... You cannot post new topics in this forum. You cannot reply to topics in this forum. You cannot edit your posts in this forum. ... Re: mouseover abbreviations/initialisms. On a serious note - I've seen auto correct for abbreviations used on other forums ... mouseover abbreviations/initialisms. I've seen forums which have this feature. Basically, anytime somebody uses an abbreviation ...
druchii.net/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=67729

*  Victorian Wars Forum • View topic - Abbreviations & terms that crop up in service records

Slightly off topic in that this not a query regarding a service record, rather it concerns an entry in the Army Births and ... Slightly off topic in that this not a query regarding a service record, rather it concerns an entry in the Army Births and ... My query is the abbreviations A. H. & M. Cps. under the father's unit. I have his service papers from TNA, Kew and know that he ... My query is the abbreviations A. H. & M. Cps. under the father's unit. I have his service papers from TNA, Kew and know that he ...
victorianwars.com/viewtopic.php?f=82&t=1779&p=61014

*  A List Apart Articles about Accessibility

Topic: Accessibility. * Accessible Data Visualization with Web Standards. by Wilson Miner · April 08, 2008. ... The Accessibility Hat Trick: Getting Abbreviations Right. by Colin Lieberman · January 17, 2006. ...
https://alistapart.com/topic/accessibility/P20

*  Accounting Roundup - February 2017

The request for comments asks for feedback on the following topics:. *"Existing disclosure guidance for bank holding companies ... Appendix D: Abbreviations. Please see Appendix D in the attached PDF.. Download ...
https://iasplus.com/en-us/publications/us/accounting-roundup/2017/02

*  Accounting Roundup - April 2017

Topics covered include the definition of a lease, lease payments, and presentation and disclosure. ... Appendix D: Abbreviations. Please see Appendix D in the attached PDF.. Download ... The working drafts address the following topics:. *Passenger ticket breakage, ancillary fees, interline transactions, brand ... Topics covered in the guide include requirements of Rules 147 and 147A, restrictions on resales, filing requirements and ...
https://iasplus.com/en-us/publications/us/accounting-roundup/2017/04

*  DONE: abbreviations importer - DonationCoder.com

Author Topic: DONE: abbreviations importer (Read 53735 times). Harrie *Charter Member. *Joined in 2006 ... Anyway, I and others I know have had a large interest in AHK for a long time, and the issue of importing so many abbreviations ... Many of us have thousands of word and phrase abbreviations in the expanders we use. Example: hthym = hypothyroidism. tpptth = ... Re: IDEA: an 'importer' for abbreviations into AHK « Reply #6 on: March 01, 2006, 12:25 PM » ...
donationcoder.com/forum/index.php?topic=2598.msg17922

*  Tymczyńska article

Topic. * The NHS. Hospital organisation. Ward equipment. Types of drugs. Common abbreviations. Irregular plurals. ... appropriateness and relevance of online resources to a specific topic in relation to the time and effort needed to integrate it ...
jostrans.org/issue12/art_tymczynska.php

*  Answers - The Most Trusted Place for Answering Life's Questions

In Acronyms & Abbreviations What does 5c stand for? The Iphone 5C is Iphone 5Colorful 5c can also stand for the number 500 ("c ...
answers.com/topic/boxing-day

*  Shop Abbreviation Aprons online | Spreadshirt

Abbreviation Aprons from Spreadshirt ✓ Unique designs ✓ Easy 30 day return policy ✓ Shop Abbreviation Aprons now! ...
https://spreadshirt.com/abbreviation aprons

*  ABBREVIATIONS, version 0.81

This is Version 0.81 of our list of medical abbreviations used in discussions on the Breast-Cancer Discussion List.. A very few omputer abbreviations are listed separately from medical abbreviations, and at the end. No need for many of these here.. Another new feature is abbreviations for well-known hospitals and cancer centers that people use a lot. A few jokes have crept in over several versions. Actually, the more times I do this list, the weirder my mind gets, and some of the definitions are getting weird with it.. I have omitted much in the way of explanations. This is, after all, supposed to be just an abbreviation list, so it should be somewhat abbreviated as well.. John. --- B-C List ABBREVIATIONS, v. 0.81 ---. ABMT - Autologous Bone Marrow ...
darkwing.uoregon.edu/~jbonine/abbrevs.html

*  Medical abbreviations. Ab antibody Antikörper. AF atrial fibrillation atriale Arrhythmie. AFB acid-fast bacilli säurefeste...

Medical abbreviations The following list contains the most common medical abbreviations. Word of warning: Take notice that medical abbreviations are not standardised in any way. The can differ from one
docplayer.org/2128409-Medical-abbreviations-ab-antibody-antikoerper-af-atrial-fibrillation-atriale-arrhythmie-afb-acid-fast-bacilli-saeurefeste-staebchen.html

*  Frequently Seen Space/Astronomy Acronyms

NOTE: Due to the high level of spam I receive, you must include the text "tla" in the Subject header of your e-mail, or I will never see your message. Note that this list just tells what the acronyms stand for -- you're on your own for figuring out what they mean. Note also that the total number of acronyms in use far exceeds what I can list; special-purpose acronyms that are essentially always explained as they're introduced are omitted. Further, some acronyms stand for more than one thing; these acronyms appear on multiple lines. Thanks to everybody who's sent suggestions since the first version of the list! PS: Strictly speaking, most of these are "initialisms" or "abbreviations" rather than "acronyms"; pedantically, it's only an "acronym" if you make a word out of it, like "laser" or "radar." In practice, though, everybody calls 'em acronyms. ...
tla.surly.org

*  What does JAALAS mean? - Definition of JAALAS - JAALAS stands for Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal...

Hop on to get the meaning of JAALAS acronym / slang / Abbreviation. The Medical & Science Acronym / Slang JAALAS means... AcronymsAndSlang. The JAALAS acronym/abbreviation definition. The JAALAS meaning is Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. The definition of JAALAS by AcronymAndSlang.com
acronymsandslang.com/definition/113474/JAALAS-meaning.html

*  PCD Full Form Name

PCD Full Form is Kodak Photo- Cd Image Format Bitmap Graphics. Check PCD Abbreviation, PCD meaning, PCD Acronyms, and full name. this is best website to find all expanded names.
fullformsof.com/pcd-full-form-name/

*  Constellation names and abbreviations | aavso.org

The list below shows the International Astronomical Union (IAU) conventions for constellation names. Given for each constellation is the Latin name, nominative and genitive, as well as the approved three-letter abbreviation.. ...
aavso.org/constellation-names-and-abbreviations

*  Lipid nomenclature Lip-1 & Lip-2

C. Symbols and Abbreviations. Lip-1.14. The term 'fatty acids' (cf. Lip-1.1) should not be abbreviated. The use of abbreviations like 'FFA' for 'free fatty acids' or 'NEFA' for 'non-esterified fatty acids' is strongly discouraged.. Comment. The words 'acids' and 'esters' serve to distinguish the 'free' (nonesterified) and 'bound' (esterified) fatty acids and are as short or shorter than the abbreviations themselves.. Lip-1.15. In tables and discussions where various fatty acids are involved, the notation giving the number of carbon atoms and of double bonds (separated by a colon) is acceptable, e.g. 16:0 for palmitic acid, 18:1 for oleic acid. Also, terms such as '(18:0)acyl' may be used to symbolize radicals of fatty acids. (See Appendix A).. Comment. This system is already widely used. It should, however, be kept in mind that it sometimes does not completely specify the fatty acid. For example, a-linolenic acid and g-linolenic acid are both 18:3 acids; the ...
chem.qmul.ac.uk/iupac/lipid/lip1n2.html

*  Full Form of ACTS - Governmental | Full Form Book

ACTS Stands For : Advanced Catalytic Technologies for Sustainability | A Call To Serve | Acquisition Control and Tracking System | Advance Communications Technology Satellite | Air Combat Training System | Army Criteria Tracking System | Automated Control of Trainees Sys | Advanced Communications Technology Satellite | Advanced Computational Testing And Simulation | American Coalition for Traffic Safety | Area Comprehensive Transportation Study
fullformbook.com/Governmental/acts

*  Full Form of AAMP - Governmental | Full Form Book

AAMP Stands For : Arkansas Amphibian Monitoring Program | Advanced Aircraft Maneuvering Program | Army Aviation Modernization Plan
fullformbook.com/Governmental/aamp

*  WormFlux: mechanistic analysis of C. elegans metabolism

Sequence labels indicate KO, taxonomy or model organism, organism name (if taxonomic group), and gene name, respectively. CEL, C. elegans; HSA, H. sapiens; DME, D. melanogaster; ATH, A. thaliana; SCE, S. cerevisiae; BAC, bacteria; ARC, archaea; PRO, protists; FUN, fungi; PLA, plants; INV, invertebrates; NEM, nematodes; ART, arthropods; VER, vertebrates; MAM, mammals. Parenthetical information for organisms other than CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as best matches (B) or reciprocal best hits (R) to the query gene. Parenthetical information for CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as paralogues (P) of the query gene or as reciprocal best matches to one of the other organisms in the tree (B). Organism abbreviations are from KEGG ...
wormflux.umassmed.edu/Genes/WBGene00001156.php

*  WormFlux: mechanistic analysis of C. elegans metabolism

Sequence labels indicate KO, taxonomy or model organism, organism name (if taxonomic group), and gene name, respectively. CEL, C. elegans; HSA, H. sapiens; DME, D. melanogaster; ATH, A. thaliana; SCE, S. cerevisiae; BAC, bacteria; ARC, archaea; PRO, protists; FUN, fungi; PLA, plants; INV, invertebrates; NEM, nematodes; ART, arthropods; VER, vertebrates; MAM, mammals. Parenthetical information for organisms other than CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as best matches (B) or reciprocal best hits (R) to the query gene. Parenthetical information for CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as paralogues (P) of the query gene or as reciprocal best matches to one of the other organisms in the tree (B). Organism abbreviations are from KEGG ...
wormflux.umassmed.edu/Genes/WBGene00001684.php

*  WormFlux: mechanistic analysis of C. elegans metabolism

Sequence labels indicate KO, taxonomy or model organism, organism name (if taxonomic group), and gene name, respectively. CEL, C. elegans; HSA, H. sapiens; DME, D. melanogaster; ATH, A. thaliana; SCE, S. cerevisiae; BAC, bacteria; ARC, archaea; PRO, protists; FUN, fungi; PLA, plants; INV, invertebrates; NEM, nematodes; ART, arthropods; VER, vertebrates; MAM, mammals. Parenthetical information for organisms other than CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as best matches (B) or reciprocal best hits (R) to the query gene. Parenthetical information for CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as paralogues (P) of the query gene or as reciprocal best matches to one of the other organisms in the tree (B). Organism abbreviations are from KEGG ...
wormflux.umassmed.edu/Genes/WBGene00009440.php

*  WormFlux: mechanistic analysis of C. elegans metabolism

Sequence labels indicate KO, taxonomy or model organism, organism name (if taxonomic group), and gene name, respectively. CEL, C. elegans; HSA, H. sapiens; DME, D. melanogaster; ATH, A. thaliana; SCE, S. cerevisiae; BAC, bacteria; ARC, archaea; PRO, protists; FUN, fungi; PLA, plants; INV, invertebrates; NEM, nematodes; ART, arthropods; VER, vertebrates; MAM, mammals. Parenthetical information for organisms other than CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as best matches (B) or reciprocal best hits (R) to the query gene. Parenthetical information for CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as paralogues (P) of the query gene or as reciprocal best matches to one of the other organisms in the tree (B). Organism abbreviations are from KEGG ...
wormflux.umassmed.edu/Genes/WBGene00009812.php

*  WormFlux: mechanistic analysis of C. elegans metabolism

Sequence labels indicate KO, taxonomy or model organism, organism name (if taxonomic group), and gene name, respectively. CEL, C. elegans; HSA, H. sapiens; DME, D. melanogaster; ATH, A. thaliana; SCE, S. cerevisiae; BAC, bacteria; ARC, archaea; PRO, protists; FUN, fungi; PLA, plants; INV, invertebrates; NEM, nematodes; ART, arthropods; VER, vertebrates; MAM, mammals. Parenthetical information for organisms other than CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as best matches (B) or reciprocal best hits (R) to the query gene. Parenthetical information for CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as paralogues (P) of the query gene or as reciprocal best matches to one of the other organisms in the tree (B). Organism abbreviations are from KEGG ...
wormflux.umassmed.edu/Genes/WBGene00010035.php

*  WormFlux: mechanistic analysis of C. elegans metabolism

Sequence labels indicate KO, taxonomy or model organism, organism name (if taxonomic group), and gene name, respectively. CEL, C. elegans; HSA, H. sapiens; DME, D. melanogaster; ATH, A. thaliana; SCE, S. cerevisiae; BAC, bacteria; ARC, archaea; PRO, protists; FUN, fungi; PLA, plants; INV, invertebrates; NEM, nematodes; ART, arthropods; VER, vertebrates; MAM, mammals. Parenthetical information for organisms other than CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as best matches (B) or reciprocal best hits (R) to the query gene. Parenthetical information for CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as paralogues (P) of the query gene or as reciprocal best matches to one of the other organisms in the tree (B). Organism abbreviations are from KEGG ...
wormflux.umassmed.edu/Genes/WBGene00015101.php

*  WormFlux: mechanistic analysis of C. elegans metabolism

Sequence labels indicate KO, taxonomy or model organism, organism name (if taxonomic group), and gene name, respectively. CEL, C. elegans; HSA, H. sapiens; DME, D. melanogaster; ATH, A. thaliana; SCE, S. cerevisiae; BAC, bacteria; ARC, archaea; PRO, protists; FUN, fungi; PLA, plants; INV, invertebrates; NEM, nematodes; ART, arthropods; VER, vertebrates; MAM, mammals. Parenthetical information for organisms other than CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as best matches (B) or reciprocal best hits (R) to the query gene. Parenthetical information for CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as paralogues (P) of the query gene or as reciprocal best matches to one of the other organisms in the tree (B). Organism abbreviations are from KEGG ...
wormflux.umassmed.edu/Genes/WBGene00016266.php

*  WormFlux: mechanistic analysis of C. elegans metabolism

Sequence labels indicate KO, taxonomy or model organism, organism name (if taxonomic group), and gene name, respectively. CEL, C. elegans; HSA, H. sapiens; DME, D. melanogaster; ATH, A. thaliana; SCE, S. cerevisiae; BAC, bacteria; ARC, archaea; PRO, protists; FUN, fungi; PLA, plants; INV, invertebrates; NEM, nematodes; ART, arthropods; VER, vertebrates; MAM, mammals. Parenthetical information for organisms other than CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as best matches (B) or reciprocal best hits (R) to the query gene. Parenthetical information for CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as paralogues (P) of the query gene or as reciprocal best matches to one of the other organisms in the tree (B). Organism abbreviations are from KEGG ...
wormflux.umassmed.edu/Genes/WBGene00019151.php

*  WormFlux: mechanistic analysis of C. elegans metabolism

Sequence labels indicate KO, taxonomy or model organism, organism name (if taxonomic group), and gene name, respectively. CEL, C. elegans; HSA, H. sapiens; DME, D. melanogaster; ATH, A. thaliana; SCE, S. cerevisiae; BAC, bacteria; ARC, archaea; PRO, protists; FUN, fungi; PLA, plants; INV, invertebrates; NEM, nematodes; ART, arthropods; VER, vertebrates; MAM, mammals. Parenthetical information for organisms other than CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as best matches (B) or reciprocal best hits (R) to the query gene. Parenthetical information for CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as paralogues (P) of the query gene or as reciprocal best matches to one of the other organisms in the tree (B). Organism abbreviations are from KEGG ...
wormflux.umassmed.edu/Genes/WBGene00019890.php

*  WormFlux: mechanistic analysis of C. elegans metabolism

Sequence labels indicate KO, taxonomy or model organism, organism name (if taxonomic group), and gene name, respectively. CEL, C. elegans; HSA, H. sapiens; DME, D. melanogaster; ATH, A. thaliana; SCE, S. cerevisiae; BAC, bacteria; ARC, archaea; PRO, protists; FUN, fungi; PLA, plants; INV, invertebrates; NEM, nematodes; ART, arthropods; VER, vertebrates; MAM, mammals. Parenthetical information for organisms other than CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as best matches (B) or reciprocal best hits (R) to the query gene. Parenthetical information for CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as paralogues (P) of the query gene or as reciprocal best matches to one of the other organisms in the tree (B). Organism abbreviations are from KEGG ...
wormflux.umassmed.edu/Genes/WBGene00019978.php

*  WormFlux: mechanistic analysis of C. elegans metabolism

Sequence labels indicate KO, taxonomy or model organism, organism name (if taxonomic group), and gene name, respectively. CEL, C. elegans; HSA, H. sapiens; DME, D. melanogaster; ATH, A. thaliana; SCE, S. cerevisiae; BAC, bacteria; ARC, archaea; PRO, protists; FUN, fungi; PLA, plants; INV, invertebrates; NEM, nematodes; ART, arthropods; VER, vertebrates; MAM, mammals. Parenthetical information for organisms other than CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as best matches (B) or reciprocal best hits (R) to the query gene. Parenthetical information for CEL indicates whether the genes are introduced as paralogues (P) of the query gene or as reciprocal best matches to one of the other organisms in the tree (B). Organism abbreviations are from KEGG ...
wormflux.umassmed.edu/Genes/WBGene00022199.php

*  What does ABT stand for? | allnurses

Hi, I am a new graduate and just started working in LTC...I also just moved to a new state, and have noticed that different slang and abbreviations are used here.
allnurses.com/lpn-lvn-corner/what-does-abt-516935.html

*  What does SVCS stand for?

Looking for the definition of SVCS? Find out what is the full meaning of SVCS on Abbreviations.com! 'Superior Vena Cava Syndrome' is one option -- get in to view more @ The Web's largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
abbreviations.com/Svcs

*  What does TC stand for?

Looking for the definition of TC? Find out what is the full meaning of TC on Abbreviations.com! 'Türkiye Cumhuriyeti' is one option -- get in to view more @ The Web's largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
abbreviations.com/TC

*  What does TOPV stand for?

Looking for the definition of TOPV? Find out what is the full meaning of TOPV on Abbreviations.com! 'Trivalent oral polio vaccine' is one option -- get in to view more @ The Web's largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
abbreviations.com/TOPV

*  African Journal of Microbiology Research

Abstract. The abstract should be less than 300 words. Abstract may be presented either in unstructured or structured format. The keywords should be less than 10.. Abbreviations. Abbreviation should be used only for non standard and very long terms.. The Introduction. The statement of the problem should be stated in the introduction in a clear and concise manner.. Materials and methods. Materials and methods should be clearly presented to allow the reproduction of the experiments.. Results and discussion. Results and discussion maybe combined into a single section. Results and discussion may also be presented separately if necessary.. Disclosure of conflict of interest. Authors should disclose all financial/relevant interest that may have influenced the study.. Acknowledgments. Acknowledgement of people, funds etc should be brief.. Tables and figures. Tables should be kept to a minimum.. Tables should have a short descriptive title.. The unit of measurement used in a table should be ...
academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/authors


(1/68) Acronymophilia: an update.

The history, epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment of the epidemic infection, acronymophilia, a sinister scourge of modern medicine are described.  (+info)

(2/68) Spirituality in history taking.

Andrew Taylor Still, MD, DO, included in his founding postulates of osteopathy the concept that a patient's health includes the health of a patient's spirit. In the recent past, medicine as a whole, and osteopathic medicine specifically, has neglected this postulate. Recent research has confirmed the validity of Still's postulate, and many medical training institutions have received grants and established programs to incorporate spirituality into their curriculum. As with any patient evaluation, the history and physical examination is the starting platform. This article describes several tools that can be easily incorporated into the history and physical examination, along with some of the obstacles in evaluating the health of the patient's spirit.  (+info)

(3/68) A study of abbreviations in the UMLS.

Abbreviations are widely used in medicine. The understanding of abbreviations is important for medical language processing and information retrieval systems. The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains a large number of abbreviations. We hypothesized that extracting and studying the UMLS abbreviations can be helpful for understanding the characteristics of abbreviations in medicine. In this paper, we describe a method for extracting abbreviations from the UMLS. We evaluated the method and studied the ambiguous nature of the abbreviations. In addition, the coverage of the UMLS abbreviations in medical reports was studied. Using our method, we extracted 163,666 unique (abbreviation, full form) pairs from the UMLS with a precision of 97.5%, and a recall of 96%. The UMLS abbreviations were highly ambiguous: 33.1% of abbreviations with six characters or less had multiple meanings; the average number of different full forms for all abbreviations with six characters or less was 2.28. The coverage of the UMLS abbreviations in medical reports was over 66%.  (+info)

(4/68) Mapping abbreviations to full forms in biomedical articles.

OBJECTIVE: To develop methods that automatically map abbreviations to their full forms in biomedical articles. METHODS: The authors developed two methods of mapping defined and undefined abbreviations (defined abbreviations are paired with their full forms in the articles, whereas undefined ones are not). For defined abbreviations, they developed a set of pattern-matching rules to map an abbreviation to its full form and implemented the rules into a software program, AbbRE (for "abbreviation recognition and extraction"). Using the opinions of domain experts as a reference standard, they evaluated the recall and precision of AbbRE for defined abbreviations in ten biomedical articles randomly selected from the ten most frequently cited medical and biological journals. They also measured the percentage of undefined abbreviations in the same set of articles, and they investigated whether they could map undefined abbreviations to any of four public abbreviation databases (GenBank LocusLink, SWISSPROT, LRABR of the UMLS Specialist Lexicon, and BioABACUS). RESULTS: AbbRE had an average 0.70 recall and 0.95 precision for the defined abbreviations. The authors found that an average of 25 percent of abbreviations were defined in biomedical articles and that of a randomly selected subset of undefined abbreviations, 68 percent could be mapped to any of four abbreviation databases. They also found that many abbreviations are ambiguous (i.e., they map to more than one full form in abbreviation databases). CONCLUSION: AbbRE is efficient for mapping defined abbreviations. To couple AbbRE with abbreviation databases for the mapping of undefined abbreviations, not only exhaustive abbreviation databases but also a method to resolve the ambiguity of abbreviations in the databases are needed.  (+info)

(5/68) Tagging gene and protein names in biomedical text.

MOTIVATION: The MEDLINE database of biomedical abstracts contains scientific knowledge about thousands of interacting genes and proteins. Automated text processing can aid in the comprehension and synthesis of this valuable information. The fundamental task of identifying gene and protein names is a necessary first step towards making full use of the information encoded in biomedical text. This remains a challenging task due to the irregularities and ambiguities in gene and protein nomenclature. We propose to approach the detection of gene and protein names in scientific abstracts as part-of-speech tagging, the most basic form of linguistic corpus annotation. RESULTS: We present a method for tagging gene and protein names in biomedical text using a combination of statistical and knowledge-based strategies. This method incorporates automatically generated rules from a transformation-based part-of-speech tagger, and manually generated rules from morphological clues, low frequency trigrams, indicator terms, suffixes and part-of-speech information. Results of an experiment on a test corpus of 56K MEDLINE documents demonstrate that our method to extract gene and protein names can be applied to large sets of MEDLINE abstracts, without the need for special conditions or human experts to predetermine relevant subsets. AVAILABILITY: The programs are available on request from the authors.  (+info)

(6/68) Creating an online dictionary of abbreviations from MEDLINE.

OBJECTIVE: The growth of the biomedical literature presents special challenges for both human readers and automatic algorithms. One such challenge derives from the common and uncontrolled use of abbreviations in the literature. Each additional abbreviation increases the effective size of the vocabulary for a field. Therefore, to create an automatically generated and maintained lexicon of abbreviations, we have developed an algorithm to match abbreviations in text with their expansions. DESIGN: Our method uses a statistical learning algorithm, logistic regression, to score abbreviation expansions based on their resemblance to a training set of human-annotated abbreviations. We applied it to Medstract, a corpus of MEDLINE abstracts in which abbreviations and their expansions have been manually annotated. We then ran the algorithm on all abstracts in MEDLINE, creating a dictionary of biomedical abbreviations. To test the coverage of the database, we used an independently created list of abbreviations from the China Medical Tribune. MEASUREMENTS: We measured the recall and precision of the algorithm in identifying abbreviations from the Medstract corpus. We also measured the recall when searching for abbreviations from the China Medical Tribune against the database. RESULTS: On the Medstract corpus, our algorithm achieves up to 83% recall at 80% precision. Applying the algorithm to all of MEDLINE yielded a database of 781,632 high-scoring abbreviations. Of all the abbreviations in the list from the China Medical Tribune, 88% were in the database. CONCLUSION: We have developed an algorithm to identify abbreviations from text. We are making this available as a public abbreviation server at \url[http://abbreviation.stanford.edu/].  (+info)

(7/68) Automatic resolution of ambiguous terms based on machine learning and conceptual relations in the UMLS.

Motivation. The UMLS has been used in natural language processing applications such as information retrieval and information extraction systems. The mapping of free-text to UMLS concepts is important for these applications. To improve the mapping, we need a method to disambiguate terms that possess multiple UMLS concepts. In the general English domain, machine-learning techniques have been applied to sense-tagged corpora, in which senses (or concepts) of ambiguous terms have been annotated (mostly manually). Sense disambiguation classifiers are then derived to determine senses (or concepts) of those ambiguous terms automatically. However, manual annotation of a corpus is an expensive task. We propose an automatic method that constructs sense-tagged corpora for ambiguous terms in the UMLS using MEDLINE abstracts. METHODS: For a term W that represents multiple UMLS concepts, a collection of MEDLINE abstracts that contain W is extracted. For each abstract in the collection, occurrences of concepts that have relations with W as defined in the UMLS are automatically identified. A sense-tagged corpus, in which senses of W are annotated, is then derived based on those identified concepts. The method was evaluated on a set of 35 frequently occurring ambiguous biomedical abbreviations using a gold standard set that was automatically derived. The quality of the derived sense-tagged corpus was measured using precision and recall. RESULTS: The derived sense-tagged corpus had an overall precision of 92.9% and an overall recall of 47.4%. After removing rare senses and ignoring abbreviations with closely related senses, the overall precision was 96.8% and the overall recall was 50.6%. CONCLUSIONS: UMLS conceptual relations and MEDLINE abstracts can be used to automatically acquire knowledge needed for resolving ambiguity when mapping free-text to UMLS concepts.  (+info)

(8/68) A study of abbreviations in MEDLINE abstracts.

Abbreviations are widely used in writing, and the understanding of abbreviations is important for natural language processing applications. Abbreviations are not always defined in a document and they are highly ambiguous. A knowledge base that consists of abbreviations with their associated senses and a method to resolve the ambiguities are needed. In this paper, we studied the UMLS coverage, textual variants of senses, and the ambiguity of abbreviations in MEDLINE abstracts. We restricted our study to three-letter abbreviations which were defined using parenthetical expressions. When grouping similar expansions together and representing senses using groups, we found that after ignoring senses where the total number of occurrences within the corresponding group was less than 100, 82.8% of the senses matched the UMLS, covered over 93% of occurrences that were considered, and had an average of 7.74 expansions for each sense. Abbreviations are highly ambiguous: 81.2% of the abbreviations were ambiguous, and had an average of 16.6 senses. However, after ignoring senses with occurrences of less than 5, 64.6% of the abbreviations were ambiguous, and had an average of 4.91 senses.  (+info)



military


  • Bearing in mind that the record was probably compiled and annotated by a civilian clerk with often outdated military knowledge, there could often be some variation in abbreviations used. (victorianwars.com)
  • I have been in the T.A. for three years and do not have a military background,so when I am confronted with the many abbreviations that are used I ,more often than not ,nod sagely and then either ask what the hell was that all about ,or if time allows I have to Google. (arrse.co.uk)
  • Is there anywhere where all the military abbreviations are listed to help idiots like me. (arrse.co.uk)

Pages


  • The book 'A Soldiers Pocket Book' has about four pages of abbreviations at the back - not saying it's the definitive guide but might be a start. (arrse.co.uk)

word


  • Many of us have thousands of word and phrase abbreviations in the expanders we use. (donationcoder.com)