AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Lymphoma, AIDS-Related: B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.AIDS-Related Complex: A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Sarcoma, Kaposi: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Pneumonia, Pneumocystis: A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral: Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)Homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection: A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: Exuberant inflammatory response towards previously undiagnosed or incubating opportunistic pathogens. It is frequently seen in AIDS patients following HAART.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Cytomegalovirus Retinitis: Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.T-Lymphocytopenia, Idiopathic CD4-Positive: Reproducible depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes below 300 per cubic millimeter in the absence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. This is a rare, heterogeneous syndrome and does not appear to be caused by a transmissible agent.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Christianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Immunoblastic: Malignant lymphoma characterized by the presence of immunoblasts with uniformly round-to-oval nuclei, one or more prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm. This class may be subdivided into plasmacytoid and clear-cell types based on cytoplasmic characteristics. A third category, pleomorphous, may be analogous to some of the peripheral T-cell lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, PERIPHERAL) recorded in both the United States and Japan.MycosesHerpesvirus 8, Human: A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.Microsporida: An order of parasitic FUNGI found mostly in ARTHROPODS; FISHES; and in some VERTEBRATES including humans. It comprises two suborders: Pansporoblastina and APANSPOROBLASTINA.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Microsporidiosis: Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.Pneumocystis jirovecii: A species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting humans and causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA. It also occasionally causes extrapulmonary disease in immunocompromised patients. Its former name was Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Histoplasmosis: Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Asthenia: Clinical sign or symptom manifested as debility, or lack or loss of strength and energy.Nocardia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus NOCARDIA.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Pneumocystis Infections: Infections with species in the genus PNEUMOCYSTIS, a fungus causing interstitial plasma cell pneumonia (PNEUMONIA, PNEUMOCYSTIS) and other infections in humans and other MAMMALS. Immunocompromised patients, especially those with AIDS, are particularly susceptible to these infections. Extrapulmonary sites are rare but seen occasionally.Lymphopenia: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.Lymphatic Diseases: Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Deltaretrovirus: A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Lung Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Candidiasis, Oral: Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)Herpesviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Pneumocystis: A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Hemophilia A: The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal: An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6: A DNA-binding protein that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target genes by recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Aberrant Blc-6 expression is associated with certain types of human B-CELL LYMPHOMA.Herpes Zoster: An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Trichosanthin: Plant-derived ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) purified from the Chinese medicinal herb tian-hua-fen which is obtained from the root tubers of Trichosanthes kirilowii. It has been used as an abortifacient and in the treatment of trophoblastic tumors. GLQ223 (Compound Q), a highly purified form of trichosanthin, has been proposed as antiviral treatment for AIDS.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Pneumocystis carinii: The prototype species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus (RATS). It was formerly called Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Other species of Pneumocystis can also infect rats.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Retroviruses, Simian: Classes of retroviruses for which monkeys or apes are hosts. Those isolated from the West African green monkey and the Asian rhesus macaque monkey are of particular interest because of their similarities to viruses causing cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Mycobacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Thymic Factor, Circulating: A thymus-dependent nonapeptide found in normal blood. Stimulates the formation of E rosettes and is believed to be involved in T-cell differentiation.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Mycobacterium avium Complex: A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.Mucormycosis: Infection in humans and animals caused by any fungus in the order Mucorales (e.g., Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus etc.) There are many clinical types associated with infection of the central nervous system, lung, gastrointestinal tract, skin, orbit and paranasal sinuses. In humans, it usually occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with a chronic debilitating disease, particularly uncontrolled diabetes, or who are receiving immunosuppressive agents. (From Dorland, 28th ed)T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Coccidioidomycosis: Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.HIV Wasting Syndrome: Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).Encephalitozoon cuniculi: A species of parasitic FUNGI. This intracellular parasite is found in the BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEYS of several MAMMALS. Transmission is probably by ingestion of the spores (SPORES, FUNGAL).United StatesBrazilT-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Dermatomyositis: A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Encephalitozoonosis: Infection with FUNGI of the genus ENCEPHALITOZOON. Lesions commonly occur in the BRAIN and KIDNEY tubules. Other sites of infection in MAMMALS are the LIVER; ADRENAL GLANDS; OPTIC NERVES; RETINA; and MYOCARDIUM.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Polymyositis: Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)Chemoprevention: The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cladribine: An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Tetracyclines: Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse: Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Retroviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous: Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.IndiaAntibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Adrenal Cortex HormonesPneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Herpes Simplex: A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Communicable DiseasesHematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.

*  AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections (Topic) - Deakin University Library - Geelong Waterfront Campus

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections Focus of. * AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections * AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections The Resource AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections Label AIDS-Related Opportunistic ... Data Citation of the Topic AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Copy and paste the following RDF/HTML data fragment to cite ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections,/a,,/span, - ,span property='offers' typeOf='Offer',,span property='offeredBy' typeof=' ...
link.library.deakin.edu.au/resource/JpYMgH67Z_4/

*  The Safety and Effectiveness of Zidovudine Plus Acyclovir in Patients With Early HIV Infection - Full Text View -...

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Drug Therapy, Combination. Acyclovir. AIDS-Related Complex. Zidovudine. ... HIV Infections. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus ... AIDS-defining indicator disease as outlined by the CDC surveillance definition for AIDS which includes opportunistic infections ... and time of development of opportunistic infections and other manifestations of advanced symptomatic HIV infection. The effects ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00002290

*  The Safety and Effectiveness of Pentamidine in the Prevention of Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP) in Patients With AIDS Who...

Keywords provided by NIH AIDS Clinical Trials Information Service: AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Pneumonia, ... HIV Infections. Pneumonia. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus ... Requiring ongoing active therapy for an opportunistic infection (O.I.) at time of entry or those with either of the following ... Requiring ongoing active therapy for an opportunistic infection (O.I.) at time of entry or those with either of the following ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00002291?order=116

*  A Study to Evaluate the Effects of Giving Proleukin (rIL-2) to HIV-Positive Patients With CD4 Counts Greater Than 300 Cells/mm3...

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Interleukin-2. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Adolescent Behavior. CD4 Lymphocyte ... Infection. HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually ... Whether or not rIL-2 delays progression to AIDS and extends survival is currently unknown, such clinical benefits of rIL-2 can ... There is strong evidence that rIL-2 increases CD4 cell counts (cells of the immune system that fight infection). This study ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000949?order=666

*  A Pilot Study of Methodology to Rapidly Evaluate Drugs for Bactericidal Activity, Tolerance, and Pharmacokinetics in the...

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Drug Evaluation. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Sputum. Colony Count, Microbial. ... Mycobacterium Infections. Actinomycetales Infections. Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections. Bacterial Infections. Lung Diseases. ... HIV Infections. Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. ... MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS Tuberculosis Drug Information available for: Isoniazid Ofloxacin Levofloxacin Ofloxacin ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000778?order=14

*  A Phase II Dose-Ranging, Open-Labelled Trial of Foscarnet Salvage Therapy for AIDS Patients With Sight-Threatening CMV...

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Ganciclovir. Drug Evaluation. Foscarnet. Cytomegalovirus Infections. Acquired ... Cytomegalovirus Infections. Herpesviridae Infections. DNA Virus Infections. Eye Infections, Viral. Eye Infections. Ganciclovir ... Infection. HIV Infections. Retinitis. Cytomegalovirus Retinitis. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus ... Survival of patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus disease treated with ganciclovir or foscarnet. AIDS. 1991 Aug;5(8):959-65. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000691?order=25

*  A Randomized Prospective Study of Pyrimethamine Therapy for Prevention of Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in HIV-Infected Individuals...

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Pyrimethamine. Drug Evaluation. Encephalitis. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. ... Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral. ... Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections. Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections. Central Nervous System Infections. ... Must be HIV positive or have an AIDS-defining illness OR be at known risk for HIV infection and have a CD4 cell count , 200/mm3 ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00000666?view=record

*  Interleukin-12 in Treating Patients With AIDS-Related Kaposi's Sarcoma - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Opportunistic Infections. Infection. HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. ... AIDS-related malignancies. Kaposi's sarcoma. adult solid tumor. body system/site cancer. cancer. epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma. ... PURPOSE: Phase I/II trial to study the effectiveness of interleukin-12 in treating patients with AIDS -related Kaposi's sarcoma ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00019188?order=241

*  A Pilot Study of 566C80 for the Salvage Treatment of Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in Patients Infected With the Human...

Keywords provided by NIH AIDS Clinical Trials Information Service: Toxoplasmosis. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. ... Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral. ... Infection. Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections. Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections. Central Nervous System ... MedlinePlus related topics: Encephalitis HIV/AIDS Toxoplasmosis Drug Information available for: Pyrimethamine Sulfadiazine ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00001994?order=29

*  Safety and Effectiveness of an Experimental Drug, IM862, in Treating Kaposi's Sarcoma in AIDS Patients - Full Text View -...

Keywords provided by NIH AIDS Clinical Trials Information Service: AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Placebos. Sarcoma, ... Have an AIDS-related opportunistic infection (except for genital herpes) within 2 weeks of study entry. ... HIV Infections. Sarcoma. Sarcoma, Kaposi. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases ... MedlinePlus related topics: Kaposi's Sarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcoma Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00002445?order=170

*  The Safety and Effectiveness of Cidofovir in the Treatment of Venereal Warts in HIV-Infected Patients - Full Text View -...

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. AIDS-Related Complex. Antiviral Agents. Condylomata ... HIV Infections. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus ... Keywords provided by NIH AIDS Clinical Trials Information Service: ... A phase I/II study of cidofovir topical gel for refractory condyloma acuminatum in patients with HIV infection. Conf ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00002327?view=record

*  The Safety and Efficacy of Clindamycin and Primaquine in the Treatment of Mild - Moderate Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in...

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis carinii. Primaquine. Infusions, Intravenous. Drug Evaluation. ... HIV Infections. Pneumonia. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus ... MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS Pneumonia Drug Information available for: Primaquine phosphate Primaquine Clindamycin ... Respiratory Tract Infections. Lung Diseases, Fungal. Mycoses. Pneumocystis Infections. Clindamycin. Clindamycin palmitate. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000717?order=114

*  The Effects of Illnesses on HIV Levels in the Body - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. HIV-1. Antiviral Agents. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Viral. ... HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted ... Repeated episodes of intercurrent infections have been postulated to be an important stimulus for progression of HIV infection ... HIV-1 infection documented by any licensed ELISA test kit and confirmed by either Western blot, HIV-1 culture, HIV-1 antigen, ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000900

*  A Prospective Study of Multidrug Resistance and a Pilot Study of the Safety of and Clinical and Microbiologic Response to...

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Drug Therapy, Combination. Ethambutol. Clofazimine. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. ... Mycobacterium Infections. Actinomycetales Infections. Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections. Bacterial Infections. Lung Diseases. ... HIV Infections. Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. ... Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA) and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG), National ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000796?order=200

*  A Phase I Pharmacokinetic and Tolerance Study of 28-Day Regimens of Oral Ganciclovir - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Ganciclovir. Cytomegalovirus Infections. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Additional ... Cytomegalovirus Infections. Herpesviridae Infections. DNA Virus Infections. Eye Infections, Viral. Eye Infections. Ganciclovir ... Infection. HIV Infections. Retinitis. Cytomegalovirus Retinitis. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus ... retinitis is an important sight-threatening opportunistic infection which affects about 10 to 15 percent of people with AIDS. A ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000668?order=54

*  A Multi-Center Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study To Investigate the Effect of Isoprinosine in Patients With AIDS...

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Inosine Pranobex. Homosexuality. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. AIDS-Related ... HIV Infections. AIDS-Related Complex. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. ... in homosexual male patients with AIDS related complex (ARC) in delaying the onset of AIDS. Secondly, to determine the effect of ... AIDS.. *Presenting with chronic candida infection-colo/rectal, oral/pharyngeal, cutaneous (finger/toenails) - for = or , 3 ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00002060?order=115

*  A Pilot, Open-Label, Phase II, Randomized Study to Determine the Effects of Viracept on the Outcome of Cutaneous and Mucosal KS...

Keywords provided by NIH AIDS Clinical Trials Information Service: Skin Neoplasms. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. ... HIV Infections. Sarcoma. Sarcoma, Kaposi. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases ... MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS Kaposi's Sarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcoma ... Herpesviridae Infections. DNA Virus Infections. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue. Nelfinavir. HIV Protease Inhibitors. Protease ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00002185?order=119

*  An Open Study of Foscarnet Treatment of Acyclovir-Resistant Herpes Simplex Virus in Patients With the Acquired Immunodeficiency...

Keywords provided by NIH AIDS Clinical Trials Information Service: AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Immune Tolerance. ... Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral. ... Herpesviridae Infections. DNA Virus Infections. Skin Diseases, Viral. Skin Diseases, Infectious. Skin Diseases. Acyclovir. ... infections in AIDS patients and other immunocompromised patients. To evaluate the necessity, efficacy, and safety of IV ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00002021

*  Multicenter Comparison of Fluconazole (UK-49,858) and Amphotericin B as Treatment for Acute Cryptococcal Meningitis - Full Text...

Keywords provided by NIH AIDS Clinical Trials Information Service: AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Meningitis. ... HIV Infections. Meningitis. Meningitis, Cryptococcal. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. ... MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS Meningitis Drug Information available for: Amphotericin B Fluconazole Liposomal ... Central Nervous System Fungal Infections. Mycoses. Cryptococcosis. Central Nervous System Infections. Fluconazole. Amphotericin ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00002075?order=112

*  The Effects of Treatment for Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) on the Cells of HIV-Infected Patients - Full Text View -...

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection. Drug Therapy, Combination. Anti-HIV Agents ... Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus ... Actinomycetales Infections. Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections. Bacterial Infections. Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous ... MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS Mycobacterial Infections Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000860?order=271

*  Multi-center Comparison of Fluconazole (UK-49,858) and Amphotericin B as Treatment for Acute Cryptococcal Meningitis - Full...

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Meningitis. Injections, Intravenous. Cryptococcus neoformans. Cryptococcosis. Drug ... HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted ... MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS Meningitis Drug Information available for: Amphotericin B Fluconazole Liposomal ... Treatment of intercurrent opportunistic infection as long as no investigational agent, or approved agent for an investigational ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00000708?term=meningitis&rank=11

*  Open, Non-Comparative Study of Intravenous and Oral Fluconazole in the Treatment of Acute Cryptococcal Meningitis - Full Text...

Keywords provided by NIH AIDS Clinical Trials Information Service: AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Meningitis. ... HIV Infections. Meningitis. Meningitis, Cryptococcal. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. ... Central Nervous System Fungal Infections. Mycoses. Cryptococcosis. Central Nervous System Infections. Fluconazole. Antifungal ... The effectiveness of maintenance fluconazole therapy in sustaining a clinical cure in AIDS patients will also be evaluated. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00002040

*  A Phase II/III Trial of Human Anti-CMV Monoclonal Antibody MSL 109 (MACRT) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Cytomegalovirus Retinitis. ... Cytomegalovirus Infections. Herpesviridae Infections. DNA Virus Infections. Eye Infections, Viral. Eye Infections. Antibodies. ... HIV Infections. Retinitis. Cytomegalovirus Retinitis. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. ... MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Cytomegalovirus Retinitis ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000836?order=48

*  Safety and Effectiveness of Nitazoxanide for the Treatment of Cryptosporidiosis in AIDS Patients - Full Text View -...

Keywords provided by NIH AIDS Clinical Trials Information Service: AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Cryptosporidiosis. ... HIV Infections. Cryptosporidiosis. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. ... Protozoan Infections, Animal. Parasitic Diseases, Animal. Coccidiosis. Protozoan Infections. Intestinal Diseases. ... The purpose of this study is to see if it is safe and effective to treat cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients with nitazoxanide. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00004986?order=143

*  A Phase I/II Pilot Treatment Study Of CSF Penetration And Response To Ganciclovir And Foscarnet In CMV Neurologic Disease. -...

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Ganciclovir. Drug Therapy, Combination. Encephalitis. Foscarnet. Cytomegalovirus ... HIV Infections. Brain Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Radiculopathy. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA ... MedlinePlus related topics: Neurologic Diseases Drug Information available for: Foscarnet Foscarnet sodium Ganciclovir ... The study will also provide further data about the natural history of CMV brain infection detected by a combination of symptom ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000856?order=257

AIDS-related lymphoma: AIDS-related lymphoma describes lymphomas occurring in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome: Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome is a provisional name for a newly diagnosed immunodeficiency illness. The name is proposed in the first public study to identify the syndrome.Kaposi's sarcomaManagement of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Prescott Townsend: Prescott Townsend (June 24, 1894 – May 23, 1973) was an American gay rights activist.Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections: The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is an annual scientific meeting devoted to the understanding, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and the opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Thousands of leading researchers and clinicians from around the world convene in a different location in North America each year for the Conference.Vpx: Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. It is similar in structure to the protein Vpr that is carried by SIV and HIV-2 as well as HIV-1.HIV-positive people: HIV-positive people are people who have the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, the agent of the currently incurable disease AIDS.Cytomegalovirus retinitisWorking Formulation: The Working formulation is an obsolete classification of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, first proposed in 1982. It has since been replaced by other lymphoma classifications, the latest published by the WHO in 2008, but is still used by cancer agencies for compilation of lymphoma statistics.Social stigma of obesity: The social stigma of obesity has created negative psychosocial impacts and has caused disadvantages for overweight and obese people. The social stigma often spans one's entire life, starting from a young age and lasting into adulthood.Cognitive effects of HIVSeventh-day Adventist theology: The theology of the Seventh-day Adventist Church resembles that of Protestant Christianity, combining elements from Lutheran, Wesleyan/Arminian, and Anabaptist branches of Protestantism. Adventists believe in the infallibility of Scripture and teach that salvation comes through faith in Jesus Christ.Statnamic load test: The Statnamic load test is a type of test for assessing the load carrying capacity of deep foundations which is faster and less expensive than the static load test. The Statnamic test was conceived in 1985, with the first prototype tests carried out in 1988 through collaboration between Berminghammer Foundation Equipment of Canada and TNO Building Research of the Netherlands (Middendorp et al.MycosisKaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirusCytomegalic inclusion body disease: Cytomegalic inclusion body disease (CIBD) is a series of signs and symptoms caused by cytomegalovirus infection, toxoplasmosis or other rare infections such as herpes or rubella viruses. It can produce massive calcification of the central nervous system, and often the kidneys.CryptococcosisPneumocystis jirovecii: Pneumocystis jirovecii is a yeast-like fungus of the genus Pneumocystis. The causative organism of Pneumocystis pneumonia, it is an important human pathogen, particularly among immunocompromised hosts.Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome: Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS) is a syndrome affecting the eye, which is characterized by peripheral atrophic chorioretinal scars, atrophy or scarring adjacent to the optic disc and maculopathy.Mr San Peppy: Mr San Peppy (1968–1998) was an American Quarter Horse stallion and a famous cutting horse. He was the National Cutting Horse Association, or NCHA, World Champion in 1973 and 1976.NocardiosisHIV/AIDS in South African townships: South Africa’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the most severe in the world, is concentrated in its townships, where many black South Africans live due to the lingering effects of the Group Areas Act. A 2010 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.Pride and Prejudice and Zombies: Dawn of the Dreadfuls: Pride and Prejudice and Zombies: Dawn of the Dreadfuls (2010) is a parody novel by Steve Hockensmith. It is a prequel to Seth Grahame-Smith's 2009 novel Pride and Prejudice and Zombies, focusing on "the early life and training of Elizabeth Bennet, heroine of the earlier Pride and Prejudice and Zombies as she strove to become a gifted zombie hunter, with some mishaps in her early romantic encounters also included.Dermatopathic lymphadenopathyGross examinationCandidiasisSystemic candidiasis: Systemic candidiasis is an infection of Candida albicans causing disseminated disease and sepsis, invariably when host defenses are compromised.Mir-26 microRNA precursor familyMichael A. EpsteinIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.HaemophiliaProgressive multifocal leukoencephalopathyNamibia–Russia relations: Namibia–Russia relations refers to the bilateral relationship between Namibia and Russia. Namibia has an embassy in Moscow and Russia has an embassy in Windhoek.European Society for Primary Immunodeficiencies: The European Society for Primary Immunodeficiencies (ESID) is a Europe-wide medical association for healthcare professionals and researchers who deal with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID).Immunosuppressive drug: Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system. They are used in immunosuppressive therapy to:VoriconazoleZoster-immune globulinCombination therapy: Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone). Typically, these terms refer to using multiple therapies to treat a single disease, and often all the therapies are pharmaceutical (although it can also involve non-medical therapy, such as the combination of medications and talk therapy to treat depression).QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.DoxorubicinTrichosanthin: Trichosanthin is a ribosome-inactivating protein.Tuberculosis managementExternal bacterial infection (fish): External bacterial infection is a condition found in fish.Pathogenesis: The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that lead to the diseased state. The term can also describe the origin and development of the disease, and whether it is acute, chronic, or recurrent.Parasitic disease: A parasitic disease is an infectious disease caused or transmitted by a parasite. Many parasites do not cause diseases.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingWat Chiang ManMycobacterium genavense: Mycobacterium genavense is a slow-growing species of the phylum actinobacteria (Gram-positive bacteria with high guanine and cytosine content, one of the dominant phyla of all bacteria), belonging to the genus mycobacterium.Tumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.Cyclic neutropeniaMilan criteria: In transplantation medicine, the Milan criteria are applied as a basis for selecting patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma for liver transplantation.Thermal cyclerBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Mycobacterium colombiense: Mycobacterium colombiense is a species of the phylum actinobacteria (Gram-positive bacteria with high guanine and cytosine content, one of the dominant phyla of all bacteria), belonging to the genus mycobacterium.MucormycosisPMHC cellular microarray: PMHC cellular microarrays are a type of cellular microarray that has been spotted with pMHC complexes peptide-MHC class I or peptide-MHC class II.Antiviral drug: Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses.

(1/2982) Persistent damage to Enterocytozoon bieneusi, with persistent symptomatic relief, after combined furazolidone and albendazole in AIDS patients.

AIM: To investigate morphological changes in Enterocytozoon bieneusi and the duration of symptomatic relief after combination treatment with furazolidone and albendazole in AIDS patients. METHODS: Four severely immunocompromised AIDS patients with symptomatic E bieneusi infection of the gut received an 18 day course of combined furazolidone and albendazole (500 + 800 mg daily). All patients were monitored for parasite shedding in stool by light microscopy at the end of treatment and monthly during follow up. At the end of treatment, duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from three patients were studied by transmission electron microscopy by two pathologists blind to the patients' treatment or clinical outcome. Duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from one of the patients two months after completion of treatment were also studied electronmicroscopically. RESULTS: All patients had long lasting symptomatic relief, with a major decrease--or transient absence--of spore shedding in stools from completion of treatment. After treatment, changes in faecal spores were persistently found by light microscopy in all cases, and there was evidence of both a substantial decrease in the parasite load and ultrastructural damage in the parasite in all biopsy specimens. The treatment was well tolerated, and no patient had clinical or parasitological relapse during follow up (up to 15 months). CONCLUSIONS: The long lasting symptomatic relief observed in all four treated patients correlated with the persistent decrease in parasite load both in tissue and in stool, and with the morphological changes observed in the life cycle of the protozoan. These data suggest that combined treatment with furazolidone and albendazole is active against E bieneusi and may result in lasting remission even in severely immunocompromised patients.  (+info)

(2/2982) Tuberculous meningitis in South African urban adults.

We retrospectively reviewed 56 adults with culture-proven tuberculous meningitis (TBM), investigating clinical signs, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings and outcome. There were 50 patients, aged 18-59 years, 39 with and 11 without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Six were aged 60 years or older. Neurological signs of TBM in 18-59-year-olds were unaffected by HIV serostatus while, compared to those > or = 60 years of age, there were more patients with meningism (86.0% vs. 33.3%; p = 0.011) and fewer with seizures (12.0% vs. 50.0%; p = 0.046). The HIV-infected 18-59-year-olds had significantly more extrameningeal tuberculosis compared to the non-HIV-infected (76.9% vs. 9.1%; p = 0.0001) and 23.1% had 'breakthrough' TBM. CSF analysis revealed 12 patients (21.4%) with acellular fluid (more common in those > or = 60 years of age, p = 0.016), of whom three had completely normal CSF. A neutrophil predominance was found in 22 patients (39.3%). Only three patients (5.4%) had a positive CSF smear for acid-fast bacilli. In-hospital mortality occurred in 39 patients (69.1%), was similar in all study groups, and was not related to neurological stage. The diagnosis of TBM can be masked by lack of meningism in the elderly and by atypical CSF findings.  (+info)

(3/2982) Clusters of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: analysis of person-to-person transmission by genotyping.

Genotyping at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear rRNA operon was performed on isolates of P. carinii sp. f. hominis from three clusters of P. carinii pneumonia among eight patients with haematological malignancies and six with HIV infection. Nine different ITS sequence types of P. carinii sp. f. hominis were identified in the samples from the patients with haematological malignancies, suggesting that this cluster of cases of P. carinii pneumonia was unlikely to have resulted from nosocomial transmission. A common ITS sequence type was observed in two of the patients with haematological malignancies who shared a hospital room, and also in two of the patients with HIV infection who had prolonged close contact on the ward. In contrast, different ITS sequence types were detected in samples from an HIV-infected homosexual couple who shared the same household. These data suggest that person-to-person transmission of P. carinii sp. f. hominis may occur from infected to susceptible immunosuppressed patients with close contact within hospital environments. However direct transmission between patients did not account for the majority of cases within the clusters, suggesting that person-to-person transmission of P. carinii sp. f. hominis infection may be a relatively infrequent event and does not constitute the major route of transmission in man.  (+info)

(4/2982) Epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Texas.

During 1987-1996, over 22,000 tuberculosis cases were reported in Texas, at an average annual incidence rate of 12.5 cases per 100,000 population. Counties with the highest rates were located along the Mexico-Texas border and in northwestern Texas. Nine percent of cases were resistant to at least one of the five first-line antituberculosis drugs used for treatment. Almost 5 percent (4.6%) were resistant to isoniazid, either alone or in combination with other antibiotics; 2.3% were resistant to rifampin; and only 1.3% were resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin. Being a recurrent case, being foreign-born, being 20-39 years of age, and residing in a Mexico-Texas border county were independent risk factors for isoniazid resistance and rifampin resistance. Tuberculosis patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were more likely to have rifampin resistance and less likely to have isoniazid resistance than patients without HIV infection. Factors associated with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis included a history of previous tuberculosis (relative risk (RR) = 4.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-6.8), non-US birth (RR = 2.69, 95% CI 2.1-3.5), age younger than 20 years (RR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), age 20-39 years (RR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.3-2.6), and residence in a Mexico-Texas border county (RR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.8-3.1).  (+info)

(5/2982) Clinical experience and choice of drug therapy for human immunodeficiency virus disease.

To determine if providers experienced in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease preferred different treatment regimens than providers with less experience, we analyzed data from a national survey of primary care providers' preferred regimens for the management of 30 HIV-related medical conditions. We mailed questionnaires to 999 correct addresses of providers in > 20 cities in the United States in May 1996. We received 524 responses (response rate, 52%). We found a statistically significant association between the number of HIV-infected patients cared for by the provider and the likelihood that the provider would report prescribing highly active antiretroviral therapy and multidrug combinations for treatment of opportunistic infections. Providers with few HIV-infected patients were substantially less likely to report using new therapeutic regimens or new diagnostic tools. We concluded that the preferred regimens of experienced providers are more likely to be consistent with the latest information on treatment for HIV disease than are those of less experienced providers.  (+info)

(6/2982) Early mycological treatment failure in AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis.

Cryptococcal meningitis causes significant morbidity and mortality in persons with AIDS. Of 236 AIDS patients treated with amphotericin B plus flucytosine, 29 (12%) died within 2 weeks and 62 (26%) died before 10 weeks. Just 129 (55%) of 236 patients were alive with negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures at 10 weeks. Multivariate analyses identified that titer of cryptococcal antigen in CSF, serum albumin level, and CD4 cell count, together with dose of amphotericin B, had the strongest joint association with failure to achieve negative CSF cultures by day 14. Among patients with similar CSF cryptococcal antigen titers, CD4 cell counts, and serum albumin levels, the odds of failure at week 10 for those without negative CSF cultures by day 14 was five times that for those with negative CSF cultures by day 14 (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-10.9). Prognosis is dismal for patients with AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis. Multivariate analyses identified three components that, along with initial treatment, have the strongest joint association with early outcome. Clearly, more effective initial therapy and patient management strategies that address immune function and nutritional status are needed to improve outcomes of this disease.  (+info)

(7/2982) Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies.  (+info)

(8/2982) Successful short-term suppression of clarithromycin-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS. California Collaborative Treatment Group.

During a randomized study of clarithromycin plus clofazimine with or without ethambutol in patients with AIDS and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia, eight participants received additional antimycobacterial drugs following the detection of a clarithromycin-resistant isolate (MIC, > 8 micrograms/mL). A macrolide (seven received clarithromycin, one azithromycin) and clofazimine were continued; additional treatment included various combinations of ethambutol, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and rifabutin. After the detection of a resistant isolate and before receipt of additional antimycobacterials, the median peak MAC colony count in blood was 105 cfu/mL (range, 8-81,500 cfu/mL). After additional antimycobacterials, the median nadir MAC colony count was 5 cfu/mL (range, 0-110 cfu/mL). Five (63%) of eight patients had a > or = 1 log10 decrease, including two who achieved negative blood cultures; all of these responses occurred in patients originally assigned to clarithromycin plus clofazimine. Treatment of clarithromycin-resistant MAC bacteremia that emerges during clarithromycin-based treatment can decrease levels of bacteremia and transiently sterilize blood cultures.  (+info)



toxoplasmosis


  • Cerebral toxoplasmosis is one of the most frequently encountered opportunistic infections in the course of AIDS. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • History of cerebral toxoplasmosis or toxoplasmosis infection in any other organ or tissue. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Lymphoma


  • PURPOSE: Phase II trial to study the effectiveness of gallium nitrate in treating patients with AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Determine the response rate and duration of response in patients with AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with gallium nitrate after failure on first-line chemotherapy regimen. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The AIDS defining malignancies include non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, also known as AIDS-related lymphoma or ARL), Kaposi's sarcoma, and cervical cancer. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Are you sure your patient has AIDS-related lymphoma? (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • What are the major clinical and pathologic characteristics of AIDS-related lymphoma? (clinicaladvisor.com)

Patients


  • Toxoplasmic encephalitis is a major cause of illness and death in AIDS patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cryptococcal meningitis is an important cause of disease and death among patients with AIDS. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Usually AMB is given either alone or with FLC to patients with this infection, but these treatments are not always effective and both have toxic effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Non-AIDS patients assigned to AMB also take FLC by mouth daily. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The use of FLC in patients with AIDS is decided on an individual basis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients with AIDS who respond satisfactorily to FCZ receive maintenance therapy to prevent relapse for an additional 12 months. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients with AIDS who respond to AMB may qualify for another Pfizer Central Research protocol. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients without AIDS who respond to therapy are observed for 6 months for relapse. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The incidence of both AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies is significantly increased in HIV+ patients. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Thirty percent of patients have a pre-existing diagnosis of AIDS, before they are diagnosed with ARL. (clinicaladvisor.com)