AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Syphilis Serodiagnosis: Serologic tests for syphilis.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Borrelia burgdorferi Group: Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Dourine: A disease of horses and donkeys caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum. The disease occurs in Africa, the Americas, and Asia.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Glanders: A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Gnathostomiasis: Infections with nematodes of the genus GNATHOSTOMA, superfamily THELAZIOIDEA. Gnathostomiasis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by eating undercooked or raw fish or meat.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Fascioliasis: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.Clonorchis sinensis: A species of trematode flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. Many authorities consider this genus belonging to Opisthorchis. It is common in China and other Asiatic countries. Snails and fish are the intermediate hosts.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Echinococcosis, Pulmonary: Helminth infection of the lung caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.Clonorchiasis: Infection of the biliary passages with CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, also called Opisthorchis sinensis. It may lead to inflammation of the biliary tract, proliferation of biliary epithelium, progressive portal fibrosis, and sometimes bile duct carcinoma. Extension to the liver may lead to fatty changes and cirrhosis. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Leptospirosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.Fasciola: A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Fasciolidae. Two species of this genus are F. hepatica and F. gigantica. The parasites are found in the liver and gallbladder and associated ducts in mammals and occasionally man. F. gigantica occurs rarely in man.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Reagins: Antibodies, especially IGE, that bind to tissue of the same species so that ANTIGENS induce release of HISTAMINE and other vasoactive agents. HYPERSENSITIVITY is the clinical manifestation.Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections: Infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges caused by parasites.Taenia solium: Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.Liver Abscess, Amebic: Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.Babesia: A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Burkholderia mallei: A species of gram-negative bacteria parasitic on HORSES and DONKEYS causing GLANDERS, which can be transmitted to humans.Borrelia: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.Neospora: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.Cysticercus: The larval form of various tapeworms of the genus Taenia.Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Toxocariasis: Infection by round worms of the genus TOXOCARA, usually found in wild and domesticated cats and dogs and foxes, except for the larvae, which may produce visceral and ocular larva migrans in man.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Melioidosis: A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.Treponema pallidum: The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.Fasciola hepatica: A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.Yaws: A systemic non-venereal infection of the tropics caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM subspecies pertenue.Leptospira: A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Ehrlichia chaffeensis: A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the causative agent of human EHRLICHIOSIS. This organism was first discovered at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, when blood samples from suspected human ehrlichiosis patients were studied.Gnathostoma: A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.Sparganosis: Infection of animals, including fish and man, with a developmental stage of Diphyllobothrium. This stage has recently been referred to as a plerocercoid but the name sparganum has persisted. Therefore, infection of fish or other animals with the plerocercoid larvae is sparganosis. Fish-eating mammals, including man, are the final hosts.Borrelia burgdorferi: A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.Pythium: A genus of destructive root-parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Pythiaceae, order Peronosporales, commonly found in cultivated soils all over the world. Differentiation of zoospores takes place in a vesicle.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Neurocysticercosis: Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)Salmonella paratyphi C: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is an agent of PARATYPHOID FEVER in Asia, Africa, and southern Europe.Echinococcosis: An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Convalescence: The period of recovery following an illness.Entamoeba histolytica: A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.Paragonimus: A genus of lung flukes of the family Troglotrematidae infecting humans and animals. This genus consists of several species one of which is PARAGONIMUS WESTERMANI, a common lung fluke in humans.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Paracoccidioides: A mitosporic fungal genus. P. brasiliensis (previously Blastomyces brasiliensis) is the etiologic agent of PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Brucella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Taenia: A genus of large tapeworms.Paracoccidioidomycosis: A mycosis affecting the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes, and internal organs. It is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is also called paracoccidioidal granuloma. Superficial resemblance of P. brasiliensis to Blastomyces brasiliensis (BLASTOMYCES) may cause misdiagnosis.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Cysticercosis: Infection with CYSTICERCUS, the larval form of the various tapeworms of the genus Taenia (usually T. solium in man). In humans they penetrate the intestinal wall and invade subcutaneous tissue, brain, eye, muscle, heart, liver, lung, and peritoneum. Brain involvement results in NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Entamoebiasis: Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.Trichinellosis: An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Echinococcus: A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Treponema Immobilization Test: Syphilis serodiagnosis employing as the antigen Treponema pallidum obtained from rabbit syphilis orchitis. Treponemes are kept alive for a few hours in a special medium. When syphilitic serum and complement are added and incubated, the treponemes are immobilized, i.e., stop moving.Coccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Ehrlichia: Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.Immunoconglutinins: Autoantibodies directed against newly-formed EPITOPES created as the COMPLEMENT cascade is activated and the proteins involved change their conformations.Brucellosis: Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.Burkholderia pseudomallei: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Erythema Chronicum Migrans: A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Paragonimiasis: Infection with TREMATODA of the genus PARAGONIMUS.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Echinococcus granulosus: A species of hydatid tapeworm (class CESTODA) in the family Taeniidae, whose adult form infects the DIGESTIVE TRACT of DOGS, other canines, and CATS. The larval form infects SHEEP; PIGS; HORSES; and may infect humans, where it migrates to various organs and forms permanent HYDATID CYSTS.Toxocara canis: A species of parasitic nematode found in the intestine of dogs. Lesions in the brain, liver, eye, kidney, and lung are caused by migrating larvae. In humans, these larvae do not follow normal patterns and may produce visceral larva migrans (LARVA MIGRANS, VISCERAL).Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Pleuropneumonia: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with PLEURISY, inflammation of the PLEURA.Actinobacillus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOBACILLUS.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Trichinella spiralis: A parasite of carnivorous mammals that causes TRICHINELLOSIS. It is especially common in rats and in swine fed uncooked garbage. Human infection is initiated by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked pork or other meat containing the encysted larvae.First Aid: Emergency care or treatment given to a person who suddenly becomes ill or injured before full medical services become available.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody-Absorption Test: Serologic assay that detects antibodies to Treponema pallidum, the etiologic agent of syphilis. After diluting the patient's serum to remove non-specific antibodies, the serum is mixed on a glass slide with Nichol's strain of Treponema pallidum. An antigen-antibody reaction occurs if the test is positive and the bound antibodies are detected with fluoresceinated antihuman gamma-globulin antibody.Scrub Typhus: An acute infectious disease caused by ORIENTIA TSUTSUGAMUSHI. It is limited to eastern and southeastern Asia, India, northern Australia, and the adjacent islands. Characteristics include the formation of a primary cutaneous lesion at the site of the bite of an infected mite, fever lasting about two weeks, and a maculopapular rash.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Heartwater Disease: A tick-borne septicemic disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by EHRLICHIA RUMINANTIUM.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Ehrlichia ruminantium: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, that causes HEARTWATER DISEASE in ruminants.Weil Disease: A severe form of LEPTOSPIROSIS, usually caused by LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS SEROVAR ICTEROHAEMORRHAGIAE and occasionally other serovars. It is transmitted to humans by the rat and is characterized by hemorrhagic and renal symptoms with accompanying JAUNDICE.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Leprosy: A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Mycobacterium leprae: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Leptospira interrogans: A genus of question mark-shaped bacteria spirochetes which is found in fresh water that is contaminated by animal urine. It causes LEPTOSPIROSIS.Coccidioidomycosis: Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Protein Array Analysis: Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.IndiaLipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.

*  Rapid HIV Tests for Women Late in Pregnancy and During Labor - Full Text View -

AIDS Serodiagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Infectious. Anti-HIV Agents. Disease Transmission, Vertical. Additional relevant ...

*  Avaliação do perfil tecnológico dos centros de testagem e aconselhamento para HIV no Brasil

Keywords : Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome [prevention & control]; AIDS Serodiagnosis; Health Service Access; Health Service ... The "care" profile (21.6%) predominated among the services instituted before 1993, in areas with high AIDS incidence and in ... The "care and prevention" profile (26.9%), included in the AIDS services, predominated between 1999 and 2002, and developed the ...

*  HIV Antibodies (definition)

See Also AIDS Serodiagnosis Other names T-. Lymphotropic Virus Type III Antibodies, Human; Lymphadenopathy-. Associated ... AIDS. 2011 Feb 20;25(4):419-28 PRO-. 140 monclonal antibody 0 *HIV Antibodies *Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized Anti-HIV ... Aids Patient Care STDS 2000 Dec;14(12):671; IDrugs. 2001 Sep;4(9):1068-71 HIV hyperimmune globulin 0 *Immunoglobulins, ... Associated Antibodies; AIDS Antibodies; Antibodies, Lymphadenopathy-. Associated; Antibodies, Lymphadenopathy Associated; ...

*  Search | VHL Regional Portal

AIDS Serodiagnosis (1) * HIV Infections (1) * Simian virus 40 (1) * DNA Primase (1) ..."Clark, Jill E"

*  T E Freese

aids serodiagnosis*risk taking*sexual behavior. T E Freese. Summary. Country: USA ...

*  Nicolas Meda

aids serodiagnosis*maternal welfare*hematologic pregnancy complications*false negative reactions*vertical disease transmission* ... Int J STD AIDS 12:460-2. 2001. ..Anonymous surveys are less subject to selection bias and suggest a stabilization of the HIV ... Int J STD AIDS 15:395-402. 2004. ..30 [1.35-13.6]) and having a positive serology for HSV-2 infection (aOR =4.40 [1.32-14.6]). ... Int J STD AIDS 10:738-40. 1999. ..In conclusion, for the purpose of HIV surveillance, the most reliable method for HIV ...

*  Omotayo Bolu

aids serodiagnosis*health services accessibility*patient acceptance of health care. Omotayo Bolu. Summary. Affiliation: Centers ... Division of HIV AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ... Division of HIV AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ... AIDS Care 22:1323-31. 2010. ..Timeliness to scheduled clinic visits can be used as an objective proxy for self-reported ...

*  M J Rotheram-Borus

aids serodiagnosis*los angeles*homeless persons*health behavior*sexually transmitted diseases. M J Rotheram-Borus. Summary. ... AIDS Educ Prev 18:273-80. 2006. ..However, AIDS researchers, policy makers, and advocates may dramatically influence the ... Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94105, USA. AIDS Patient ... AIDS Institute, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA. AIDS 17:1217-25. 2003 ...

*  Brian J Donovan

aids serodiagnosis*hiv antibodies*routine diagnostic tests*point of care systems*hiv infections ...

*  Michael Sweat

aids serodiagnosis*community networks*condoms*hiv*counseling*developing countries*rural population*hiv infections*incidence* ... Department of HIV AIDS, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. BMC Public Health 13:935. 2013 ... Department of HIV AIDS, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. BMC Public Health 13:935. 2013 ...

*  John J Ross

aids serodiagnosis*cachexia*famous persons*syphilis*16th century history*cryptococcus neoformans*infertility*fluconazole* ... AIDS 17:2145-6. 2003. *. Resistance to levofloxacin and failure of treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia. John J Ross. N Engl J ...

*  Mathew Hickman

aids serodiagnosis*buprenorphine*homeless persons*horizontal disease transmission*addictive behavior*alcoholic intoxication* ... Int J STD AIDS 16:749-54. 2005. ..There is an urgent need to maximize syringe distribution coverage, develop health promotion ... AIDS 19:1207-14. 2005. ..To describe trends in HIV prevalence among injecting drug users in England and Wales between 1990 and ... AIDS 16:F25-31. 2002. ..To establish the prevalence of antibodies to HIV (anti-HIV) and associated risk factors among injecting ...

*  Adam Aluisio

aids serodiagnosis*fathers*infant mortality*prenatal care*counseling*proportional hazards models*hiv infections ...

*  HIV/AIDS-Related Testing Resources | AIDSource

Testing and HIV/AIDS Literature Search Source: PubMed[majr]+AND+ ... Source: AIDSinfo ... ... HIV and AIDS/Women's Health Source: U.S. Office on Women's Health ...

*  Results for: /NewsMagazine | EthicShare Community

AIDS Serodiagnosis;. *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.);. *Civil Rights; ..."Federal Government"&solrsort=ds_cck_field_datetime_published desc

*  Results for: /NewsMagazine | EthicShare Community

AIDS Serodiagnosis (2). *African Americans (2). *Child (2). *Consumer Advocacy (2). *Social Responsibility (2) ... 1. 1996 elections are critical to people of color--the future of HIV/AIDS and human services will be determined at the polls. ..."Update (National Minority AIDS Council)"&solrsort=ds_cck_field_datetime_published desc

*  Results for: /NewsMagazine | EthicShare Community

AIDS Serodiagnosis;. *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.);. *Informed Consent; ... Sinai helps patients avoid the ER, paring state costs and aiding its b... ..."State Government"&solrsort=ds_cck_field_datetime_published desc

*  Results for: /NewsMagazine | EthicShare Community

AIDS Serodiagnosis (17). *Female (17). *Civil Rights (16). *Duty to Warn (16) ... 1. Trial of AIDS drug in U.S. lags as too few participants enroll. ... desc

*  Results for: /NewsMagazine | EthicShare Community

AIDS Serodiagnosis;. *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.);. *Contact Tracing; ... Newsline (People with AIDS Coalition of New York) (5). *Canadian HIV-AIDS policy & law newsletter / Canadian HIV-AIDS Legal ... AIDS clinical care (2). *BETA bulletin of experimental treatments for AIDS : a publication of the San Francisco AIDS foundation ... GMHC treatment issues : the Gay Men's Health Crisis newsletter of experimental AIDS therapies (3) ... desc

*  Results for: /NewsMagazine | EthicShare Community

AIDS Serodiagnosis (4). *Female (4). *Health Services Accessibility (4). *AIDS Vaccines (3) ... 1. US international AIDS funding will also advance a moral agenda.. Canadian HIV/AIDS policy & law review / Canadian HIV/AIDS ... Canadian HIV-AIDS policy & law newsletter / Canadian HIV-AIDS Legal Network = Réseau juridique canadien VIH-SIDA (9) ... Canadian HIV-AIDS policy & law newsletter / Canadian HIV-AIDS Legal Network = Réseau juridique canadien VIH-SIDA. ..."eng; fre"&solrsort=ds_cck_field_datetime_published desc

*  Welcome to CDC stacks | Interpretation and Use of the Western Blot Assay for Serodiagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type...

AIDS Serodiagnosis Blotting, Western Follow-Up Studies Humans Immunoenzyme Techniques Sensitivity And Specificity Time Factors ... Division of AIDS, STD, and TB Laboratory Research.; National Center for Prevention Services (U.S.), Division of HIV/AIDS ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.); Association of Public Health Laboratories.; National Center for HIV/AIDS, ... Interpretation and Use of the Western Blot Assay for Serodiagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections ...

*  The Dual Epidemics of Tuberculosis and AIDS: Ethical and Policy Issues in Screening and Treatment

Aids; Aids Serodiagnosis; Autonomy; Coercion; Consent; Due Process; Discrimination; Employment; Health; HIV Seropositivity; ... The Dual Epidemics of Tuberculosis and AIDS  Bayer, Ronald; Dubler, Nancy Neveloff; Gostin, Lawrence O. (1993-09) ... The Dual Epidemics of Tuberculosis and AIDS: Ethical and Policy Issues in Screening and Treatment. Author. Bayer, Ronald ... The Dual Epidemics of Tuberculosis and AIDS: Ethical and Policy Issues in Screening and Treatment  Bayer, Ronald; Dubler, ...

*  Screening Surgeons for HIV Infection: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

Aids; Aids Serodiagnosis; Costs and Benefits; Counseling; Disease; Evaluation; Evaluation Studies; Family Members; Health; ...

*  HIV-Specific Crime Legislation: Targeting an Epidemic for Criminal Prosecution

Aids; Aids Serodiagnosis; Anonymous Testing; Confidentiality; Crime; Consent; Disclosure; Discrimination; Equal Protection; ...

*  ASMscience | Gastrointestinal Tubercu

Singh, V.,, A. K. Jain,, R. K. Lal,, V. K. Srivastava,, S. Khanna,, S. Gupta,, and J. P. Gupta. 1990. Serodiagnosis of gut ... Bargalló, N.,, C. Nicolau,, P. Luburich,, C. Ayuso,, C. Cardenal,, and F. Gimeno. 1992. Intestinal tuberculosis in AIDS. ... Rosario, P.,, J. Song,, W. Wittenborn,, and F. Christian. 1996. Tracheoesophageal fistula in AIDS: stent versus primary repair. ... Pulmonary miliary tuberculosis and intestinal tuberculosis co-infected with AIDS. J. Dig. Dis. 10:225-227.. ...

Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test: The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL) is a blood test for syphilis that was developed by the eponymous lab. The VDRL test is used to screen for syphilis (it has high sensitivity), whereas other, more specific tests are used to diagnose the disease.SeroconversionCD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.Lyme disease microbiology: Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is caused by spirochetal bacteria from the genus Borrelia, which has at least 37 known species, 12 of which are Lyme related, and an unknown number of genomic strains. Borrelia species known to cause Lyme disease are collectively known as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.Direct agglutination test: A direct agglutination test (DAT) is any test that uses whole organisms as a means of looking for serum antibodies. The abbreviation, DAT, is most frequently used for the serological test for visceral leishmaniasis.Hemagglutination assay: The hemagglutination assay (or haemagglutination assay; HA) and the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI) were developed in 1941–42 by American virologist George Hirst as methods for quantitating the relative concentration of viruses, bacteria, or antibodies.Covering sickness: Covering sickness, or dourine (French, from the Arabic darina, meaning mangy (said of a female camel), feminine of darin, meaning dirty), is a disease of horses and other members of the family equidae. The disease is caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum, which belongs to an important genus of parasitic protozoa, and is the only member of the genus that is spread through sexual intercourse.Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (also known as "Post-kala-azar dermatosis") is a cutaneous condition that is characterized by a macular, depigmented eruption found mainly on the face, arms, and upper part of the trunk. It occurs years(in the Indian variation)or a few months(in the African strain) after the successful treatment of visceral leishmaniasisLeishmania infantum: Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of infantile visceral leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean region of the Old World and in Latin America, where it has been called Leishmania chagasi. It is also an unusual cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is normally caused by specific lineages (or zymodemes).GlandersOld German Shepherd Dog: Old German Shepherd Dog () is a controversial predicate for the long-hair variation of the German Shepherd Dog (), which is not a separate breed recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale. Nonetheless, there are efforts to establish this variety as a separate breed.FasciolosisClonorchis sinensis: Clonorchis sinensis, the Chinese liver fluke, is a human liver fluke in the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. This parasite lives in the liver of humans, and is found mainly in the common bile duct and gall bladder, feeding on bile.Stichosome: Stichosome (from Greek stichos (στίχος) = row; soma (σῶµα) = body) is a multicellular organ that is very prominent in some stages of nematodes and consists of a longitudinal series of glandular unicellular cells (stichocytes) arranged in a row along the oesophagus that form the posterior esophageal glands. It opens into the esophageal lumen and apparently functions as a secretory gland and storage organ.Alveolar hydatid diseaseClonorchiasisBioline Reagents: Bioline Reagents is a primary manufacturer and developerBioline: The PCR Company | Company Profile of a wide range of specialised molecular biology products for the life science industry and research markets. It manufactures reagents including ultra-pure nucleotides, DNA polymerases and mixes, DNA markers, competent cells, products for RNA analysis and other general reagents for molecular biology.LeptospirosisFasciola gigantica: Fasciola gigantica is a parasitic flatworm of the class Trematoda, which causes tropical fascioliasis. It is regarded as one of the most important single platyhelminth infections of ruminants in Asia and Africa.Nontreponemal tests for syphilis: Nontreponemal test refers an indirect method of blood test for diagnosis of infection with syphilis. Nontreponemal Tests detect biomarkers that are released during cellular damage that occurs from the syphilis spirochete.Taenia solium: Taenia solium is the pork tapeworm belonging to cyclophyllid cestodes in the family Taeniidae. It is an intestinal zoonotic parasite found throughout the world, and is most prevalent in countries where pork is eaten.Amoebic liver abscessBabesia divergens: Babesia divergens is an intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite, transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus. It is the main agent of bovine babesiosis, or "redwater fever", in Europe.Latex fixation test: The latex agglutination method is used clinically in the identification and typing of many important microorganisms. These tests are based on and utilize the patient's antigen-antibody immune response.Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome: Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome is a provisional name for a newly diagnosed immunodeficiency illness. The name is proposed in the first public study to identify the syndrome.Indian Veterinary Research InstituteSuperior ligament of malleus: The Superior ligament of the malleus is a delicate fibrous strand that crosses from the roof of the tympanic cavity to the head of the malleus.Borrelia miyamotoi: Borrelia miyamotoi is a spirochete bacterium in the genus Borrelia. A zoonotic bacterium, B.Ehrlichiosis ewingii infectionChagas: Time to Treat campaign: The Chagas: Time to Treat Campaign is an international campaign started by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative to advocate for increased research and development of treatments for Chagas disease. Chagas is a potentially fatal neglected disease that affects between 8 and 13 million people worldwide.Toxocariasis: (ILDS B83.01)Beggin' Strips: Beggin' Strips are a brand of dog treats manufactured and sold in North America by Nestlé Purina PetCare division. Beggin' Strips are designed to resemble strips of bacon.MelioidosisTreponema pallidum particle agglutination assay: The Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (also called TPPA test) is an indirect agglutination assay used for detection and titration of antibodies against the causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.Fasciola hepatica: Fasciola hepatica, also known as the common liver fluke or sheep liver fluke, is a parasitic trematode (fluke or flatworm, a type of helminth) of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes that infects the livers of various mammals, including humans. The disease caused by the fluke is called fascioliasis or fasciolosis, which is a type of helminthiasis and has been classified as a neglected tropical disease.Treponematosis: Treponematosis is a term used to collectively or individually describe any of the diseases caused by the bacterial species Treponema. There are four subspecies described which cause the following diseases:BabesiosisEhrlichia chaffeensis: Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligate intracellular gram-negative species of rickettsiales bacteria. It is a zoonotic pathogen transmitted to humans by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum).Gnathostoma: Not to be confused with Gnathostomata (singular: Gnathostoma), a Vertebrate Superclass.Borrelia burgdorferi: Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. B.Pythium oligandrum: Pythium oligandrum is an Oomycete. It is a parasite of many fungi and other oomycetes including Botrytis, Fusarium and Phytophthora.Microneme: Micronemes are cellular organs, or organelles, possessed by Apicomplexa protozoans that are restricted to the apical third of the protozoan body. They are surrounded by a typical unit membrane.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: A laboratory technique used to evaluate the binding of an antibody to its antigen. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis is similar to immunodiffusion, but with the addition of an applied electrical field across the diffusion medium, usually an agar or polyacrylamide gel.EchinococcosisImmunoperoxidase: Immunoperoxidase is a type of immunostain used in molecular biology, medical research, and clinical diagnostics. In particular, immunoperoxidase reactions refer to a sub-class of immunohistochemical or immunocytochemical procedures in which the antibodies are visualized via a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction.La Convalescence, les SaintesEntamoeba histolytica: Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic protozoan, part of the genus Entamoeba. Predominantly infecting humans and other primates, E.Paragonimus westermani: Paragonimus westermani is the major species of lung fluke to infects humans, causing paragonimiasis. The species sometimes is called the Japanese Lung fluke or Oriental Lung fluke.Depth Charge (horse): Depth Charge (1941–1965) was a Thoroughbred son of Bold Venture who went on to become an outstanding sire of American Quarter Horse racehorses.Simmons Legends: Outstanding Quarter Horse Stallions and Mares p.Taenia crassiceps: Taenia crassiceps is a parasitic organism, and is a member of the Taenia genus. It is a tapeworm.SAG1 protein domain: In molecular biology, the SAG1 protein domain is an example of a group of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked proteins named SRSs (SAG1 related sequence). SAG1 is found on the surface of a protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii.CysticercosisTrypanosoma: Trypanosoma is a genus of kinetoplastids (class Kinetoplastida), a monophyletic group of unicellular parasitic flagellate protozoa. The name is derived from the Greek trypano- (borer) and soma (body) because of their corkscrew-like motion.International Conference on Trichinellosis: The International Commission on Trichinellosis (ICT) was created in 1958 in Budapest and is aiming to exchange information on the biology, the physiopathology, the epidemiology, the immunology, and the clinical aspects of trichinellosis in humans and animals. Prevention is a primary goal (see ICTweb pages).Immunoassay: An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule in a solution through the use of an antibody or immunoglobulin. The macromolecule detected by the immunoassay is often referred to as an "analyte" and is in many cases a protein.Prevalence: Prevalence in epidemiology is the proportion of a population found to have a condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use). It is arrived at by comparing the number of people found to have the condition with the total number of people studied, and is usually expressed as a fraction, as a percentage or as the number of cases per 10,000 or 100,000 people.Echinococcus: The genus Echinococcus includes six parasite species of cyclophyllid tapeworms to date, of the family Taeniidae. Infection with Echinococcus results in hydatid disease, also known as echinococcosis.Widal test: The Widal test, developed in 1896 and named after Georges-Fernand Widal, who introduced it, is a presumptive serological test for enteric fever or undulant fever whereby bacteria causing typhoid fever are mixed with a serum containing specific antibodies obtained from an infected individual. In cases of Salmonella infection, it is a demonstration of the presence of O-soma false-positive result.Coccidiosis: Coccidiosis is a parasitic disease of the intestinal tract of animals caused by coccidian protozoa. The disease spreads from one animal to another by contact with infected feces or ingestion of infected tissue.Ehrlichia ewingii: Ehrlichia ewingii is a species of rickettsiales bacteria.Brucellosis vaccine

(1/692) Human immunodeficiency virus antibody testing by enzyme-linked fluorescent and western blot assays using serum, gingival-crevicular transudate, and urine samples.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible utilization of saliva and urine as alternative samples to serum for the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A total of 302 individuals participated in the study: 187 HIV-infected individuals (106 had Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] stage II infection, 19 had CDC stage III infection, and 62 had CDC stage IV infection) and 115 noninfected persons (46 of the noninfected persons were blood donors and 69 belonged to a group at high risk of HIV infection). Paired saliva and urine samples were taken from each of the participants in the study. The presence of HIV-specific antibodies was detected by an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and the result was confirmed by Western blot analysis (WB). The ELFA with saliva gave maximum sensitivity and specificity values, while ELFA had lower sensitivity (95.2%) and specificity (97. 4%) values for detection of HIV antibody in urine samples. WB with all saliva samples fulfilled the World Health Organization criterion for positivity, while only 96.8% of the urine samples were confirmed to be positive by WB. Among the four reactivity patterns found by WB of these alternative samples, the most frequent included bands against three groups of HIV structural proteins (was ENV, POL, and GAG). The reactivity bands most frequently observed were those for the proteins gp160 and gp120. The least common reactivity band was the band for protein p17. The detection of HIV antibodies in saliva samples by means of ELFA with the possibility of later confirmation by WB makes saliva an alternative to serum for possible use in the diagnosis of infection. In contrast, HIV antibody detection in urine samples by the same methodology (ELFA) could be taken into consideration for use in epidemiological studies.  (+info)

(2/692) Prenatal discussion of HIV testing and maternal HIV testing--14 states, 1996-1997.

In July 1995, the Public Health Service recommended that health-care providers counsel all pregnant women about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and encourage testing for HIV infection and, if indicated, initiate zidovudine therapy. To evaluate compliance with these recommendations, CDC analyzed population-based data on HIV counseling and testing during 1996-1997 from 14 states participating in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). This report presents an analysis of survey data collected from 1996 through 1997; results indicate that HIV counseling and testing of pregnant women were common but varied by state, type of prenatal health-care provider, Medicaid status, and maternal demographic characteristics.  (+info)

(3/692) Universal HIV screening of pregnant women in England: cost effectiveness analysis.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost effectiveness of universal, voluntary HIV screening of pregnant women in England. DESIGN: Cost effectiveness analysis. Cost estimates of caring for HIV positive children were based on the stage of HIV infection and calculated using data obtained from a London hospital between 1986 and 1996. These were combined with estimates of the health benefits and costs of antenatal screening so that the cost effectiveness of universal, voluntary antenatal screening for HIV infection in England could be estimated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lifetime, direct costs of medical care of childhood HIV infection; life years gained as a result of the screening programme; net cost per life year gained for different pretest counselling costs; and different prevalence rates of pregnant women who were unaware that they were HIV positive. RESULTS: Estimated direct lifetime medical and social care costs of childhood HIV infection were pound178 300 using a 5% discount rate for time preference (1995-6 prices). In high prevalence areas screening pregnant women for HIV is estimated to be a cost effective intervention with a net cost of less than pound4000 for each life year gained. For areas with comparatively low prevalence rates, cost effectiveness could be less than pound20 000 per life year gained, depending on the number of pregnant women who are unaware that they are infected and local screening costs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm recent recommendations that universal, voluntary antenatal HIV screening should be implemented in the London area. Serious consideration of the policy should be given for other areas in England depending on local prevalence and screening costs.  (+info)

(4/692) Name-based reporting of HIV-positive test results as a deterrent to testing.

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated attitudes toward name-based reporting of HIV. METHODS: One hundred thirty high-risk, male repeat testers received information on the public health benefits of name-based reporting and reported their intentions to test. RESULTS: Of the 67 men who were randomly selected and asked their intentions before hearing the benefits, 63% said they would not test if reporting were required. After hearing the benefits, 19% changed their minds (P < .014). Of the 63 men who were asked only after hearing the benefits, 44% would not test. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing name-based reporting without working before-hand to change attitudes could undermine the benefits of both testing and HIV surveillance.  (+info)

(5/692) Anonymous or confidential HIV counseling and voluntary testing in federally funded testing sites--United States, 1995-1997.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling and voluntary testing (CT) programs have been an important part of national HIV prevention efforts since the first HIV antibody tests became available in 1985. In 1995, these programs accounted for approximately 15% of annual HIV antibody testing in the United States, excluding testing for blood donation. CT opportunities are offered to persons at risk for HIV infection at approximately 11,000 sites, including dedicated HIV CT sites, sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics, drug-treatment centers, hospitals, and prisons. In 39 states, testing can be obtained anonymously, where persons do not have to give their name to get tested. All states provide confidential testing (by name) and have confidentiality laws and regulations to protect this information. This report compares patterns of anonymous and confidential testing in all federally funded CT programs from 1995 through 1997 and documents the importance of both types of testing opportunities.  (+info)

(6/692) Effects of HIV counseling and testing on sexual risk behavior: a meta-analytic review of published research, 1985-1997.

OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether HIV counseling and testing leads to reductions in sexual risk behavior. METHODS: The meta-analysis included 27 published studies that provided sexual behavior outcome data, assessed behavior before and after counseling and testing, and provided details sufficient for the calculation of effect sizes. The studies involved 19,597 participants. RESULTS: After counseling and testing, HIV-positive participants and HIV-serodiscordant couples reduced unprotected intercourse and increased condom use more than HIV-negative and untested participants. HIV-negative participants did not modify their behavior more than untested participants. Participants' age, volition for testing, and injection drug use treatment status, as well as the sample seroprevalence and length of the follow-up, explained the variance in results. CONCLUSIONS: HIV counseling and testing appears to provide an effective means of secondary prevention for HIV-positive individuals but, as conducted in the reviewed studies, is not an effective primary prevention strategy for uninfected participants. Theory-driven research with attention given to the context of testing is needed to further explicate the determinants of behavior change resulting from HIV counseling and testing, and the effectiveness of specific counseling approaches.  (+info)

(7/692) Field evaluation of the Determine rapid human immunodeficiency virus diagnostic test in Honduras and the Dominican Republic.

Rapid detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can result in improved patient care and/or faster implementation of public health preventive measures. A new rapid test, Determine (Abbott, Abbott Park, Ill.), detects HIV type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 antibodies within 15 min by using 50 microl of serum or plasma. No specialized equipment or ancillary supplies are required, and results are read visually. A positive result is noted by the appearance of a red line. An operational control (red line) indicates proper test performance. We evaluated the Determine rapid HIV detection test with a group of well-characterized serum samples (CD4 counts and viral loads were known) and serum samples from HIV-positive individuals at field sites in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. In the field evaluations, the results obtained by the Determine assay were compared to those obtained by local in-country HIV screening procedures. We evaluated serum from 100 HIV-positive patients and 66 HIV-negative patients. All samples gave the expected results. In a companion study, 42 HIV-positive samples from a Miami, Fla., serum bank were tested by the Determine assay. The samples had been characterized in terms of CD4 counts and viral loads. Fifteen patients had CD4 counts <200 cells/mm(3), while 27 patients had CD4 counts >200 cells/mm(3). Viral loads ranged from 630 to 873,746 log(10) copies/ml. All samples from the Miami serum bank were positive by the Determine test. Combined results from the multicenter studies indicated that the correct results were obtained by the Determine assay for 100% (142 of 142) of the HIV-positive serum samples and 100% (66 of 66) of the HIV-negative serum samples. The Determine test was simple to perform and the results were easy to interpret. The Determine test provides a valuable new method for the rapid identification of HIV-positive individuals, especially in developing countries with limited laboratory infrastructures.  (+info)

(8/692) Serological diagnosis of human immuno-deficiency virus in Burkina Faso: reliable, practical strategies using less expensive commercial test kits.

Reported are the results of a cross-sectional survey in Burkina Faso to identify reliable, practical strategies for the serological diagnosis of HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 infections, using less-expensive commercial test kits in various combinations, as an alternative to the conventional Western blot (WB) test, which costs US$ 60. Serum samples, collected from blood donors, patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and pregnant women, were tested between December 1995 and January 1997. Twelve commercial test kits were available: five Mixt enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), three Mixt rapid tests, and four additional tests including monospecific HIV-1 and HIV-2 ELISA. The reference strategy utilized a combination of one ELISA or one rapid test with WB, and was conducted following WHO criteria. A total of 768 serum samples were tested; 35 were indeterminate and excluded from the analysis. Seroprevalence of HIV in the remaining 733 sera was found to be 37.5% (95% confidence interval: 34.0-41.1). All the ELISA tests showed 100% sensitivity, but their specificities ranged from 81.4% to 100%. GLA (Genelavia Mixt) had the highest positive delta value, while ICE HIV-1.0.2 (ICE) produced the most distinct negative results. Among the rapid tests, COM (CombAIDS-RS) achieved 100% sensitivity and SPO (HIV Spot) 100% specificity. Various combinations of commercial tests, according to recommended WHO strategies I, II, III, gave excellent results when ICE was included in the sequence. The best combination of tests for strategy II, which achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity, was to use ICE and COM, the cost of which was US$ 2.10, compared with US$ 55.60 for the corresponding conventional strategy. For strategy III, the best combination, which achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity, was to use ICE, ZYG (Enzygnost Anti HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus) and COM, the cost of which was US$ 2.90 (19.2 times lower than the corresponding strategy requiring WB). No rapid test combination showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. Our results indicate that the serodiagnosis of HIV in Burkina Faso is possible by using reliable, less-expensive strategies which do not require Western blot testing. Moreover, there is a choice of strategies for laboratories working with or without an ELISA chain.  (+info)


  • The "care and prevention" profile (26.9%), included in the AIDS services, predominated between 1999 and 2002, and developed the most comprehensive set of activities, including STD treatment. (


  • HIV clinician / Delta Region AIDS Education & Training Center. (


  • The "care" profile (21.6%) predominated among the services instituted before 1993, in areas with high AIDS incidence and in large cities. (