No data available that match "3T3-L1 Cells"

*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Insulin Induces an Increase in Cytosolic Glucose Levels in 3T3-L1 Cells with Inhibited Glycogen...
Here, we used the fluorescent indicator protein (FLIPglu-600µ) to monitor cytosolic glucose dynamics in mouse 3T3-L1 cells in ... The results show that cells exhibit a low resting cytosolic glucose concentration. However, in cells with inhibited glycogen ... In untreated cells with sensitive glycogen synthase activation, insulin stimulation did not result in a change in the cytosolic ... It has been thought for a long time that glucose entering the cytosol is swiftly phosphorylated in most cell types; hence the ...
*  Aspirin Breaks the Crosstalk between 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells by Regulating Cytokine Production
Subsequently, culture of 4T1 cells in 3T3-L1 adipocyte-conditioned medium (Ad-CM) and co-culture of 3T3-L1 and 4T1 cells using ... Aspirin inhibited inflammatory MCP-1 adipokine production by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the cell growth and migration of 4T1 cells. ... α or conditioned medium from RAW264.7 cells. In 4T1 cells, treatment with aspirin decreased cell viability and migration, ... The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of aspirin on 3T3-L1 adipocytes, 4T1 ...
*  The Transcription Factor Fos-Related Antigen 1 Is Induced by Thiazolidinediones During Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells |...
B, two days later, confluent 3T3-L1 cells and 3T3-L1 cells treated for 7 days with Dex, Ins, and BRL were treated with ... A, nuclear run-on transcripts were isolated from 3T3-L1 cells 2 days after confluence and from 3T3-L1 cells treated for 7 days ... Induced expression of fra-1 by BRL during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. A, differential display analysis of 3T3-L1 cells ... Expression of Fra-1 and JunD proteins during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Nuclear cell extracts were isolated from 3T3-L1 ...
*  Induction of Bach1 and ARA70 gene expression at an early stage of adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells | Biochemical...
The induction of these two genes was observed only in growth-arrested 3T3-L1 cells, and not in proliferating cells. In NIH-3T3 ... Induction of Bach1 and ARA70 gene expression at an early stage of adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells. Makoto ... Induction of Bach1 and ARA70 gene expression at an early stage of adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells ... Induction of Bach1 and ARA70 gene expression at an early stage of adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells ...
*  Changes in protein levels of adipokines in 3T3-L1 cells | Open-i
Changes in protein levels of adipokines in 3T3-L1 cells treated with HCV core protein.(A) The protein level of IL-6 was ... The levels of mRNA are shown as ratios relative to GST treated cells. Mentions: First, we treated mouse 3T3-L1 cells, which ... pone.0131346.g002: Changes in protein levels of adipokines in 3T3-L1 cells treated with HCV core protein.(A) The protein level ... pone.0131346.g002: Changes in protein levels of adipokines in 3T3-L1 cells treated with HCV core protein.(A) The protein level ...
*  Expression of Nuclear Receptors during Adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 Cells COUP-TFI COUP-TFII PPAR  VDR GCNF ROR  HNF4  LXR  LXR ...
... α 0h 4h 8h 18h 1D 2D 3D 4D 5D 6D 7D 8D h 2d d Induction MediumDifferentiation Medium NR Expression during Adipogenesis of 3T3- ... L1 Cells (2) Fu et al., Mol. Endo. 19: 2437 (2005) Nur77 PPAR γ NUR77 LXR  PPAR  ... 2 VDR and COUP-TFII Expression during Adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 Cells 0h 4h 8h 18h 1D 2D 3D 4D 5D 6D 7D 8D VDR COUP-TFII 0 6 12 18 ... 5 Other Nuclear Receptors 0h 4h 8h 18h 1D 2D 3D 4D 5D 6D 7D 8D 0 2 4 8 18h 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 3T3-L1 cells Inducing MediumDjffer. ...
*  Toxicogenomics in the 3T3-L1 cell line, a new approach for screening of obesogenic compounds - Institutional Repository...
Toxicogenomics in the 3T3-L1 cell line, a new approach for screening of obesogenic compounds ... the use of transcriptomics in the 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell line. Based on the data from a previous study of our group using a ... The high stability and reproducibility of the 3T3-L1 gene transcription patterns over different experiments and cell batches is ... In conclusion, this study shows the high relevance and reproducibility of this 3T3-L1 based in vitro toxicogenomics tool for ...
*  Plus it
Preparation of cell lysates from 3T3-L1 cells.. 3T3-L1 cells were washed twice with cold PBS and lysed in TNET buffer (1% ... C: Estrogen directly represses Acrp30 levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mature (day 8) 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated for 12 h in ... A: Acrp30 levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes after overnight E2 exposure. Top panel: Intracellular Acrp30 levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes ... Cell culture.. 3T3-L1 murine fibroblasts were propagated and differentiated as previously described (15). Dulbecco's modified ...
*  Anti-obesity Effects of Laminaria Japonica Fermentation on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes is Mediated by the Inhibition of C/EBP-α/β and...
Cell proliferation of LJF-treated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. We observed cell toxicity of LJF in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by MTS assay. ... 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells were seeded into 6-well plates at 2 × 104/ well in 4 mL of BCS-DMEM. After cell cycle arrest, cell ... Inhibitory effect of LJF on glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Generally, glucose consumption increases during 3T3-L1 cell ... Figure 2: LJF affects the cell proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells. Cells were treated with LJF at various ...
*  Inhibition of adipocyte differentiation by mechanical stretching through ERK-mediated downregulation of PPARγ2 | Journal of...
a) Undifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells at confluence. (b) 3T3-L1 cells induced without cyclic stretching for 45 hours after ... A) Phase-contrast microscopic images Oil-Red-O-stained 3T3-L1 cells after a maturation period of 9 days. (a) 3T3-L1 cells ... Culture, differentiation, stretching and staining of 3T3-L1 cells. The mouse preadipocyte cell line 3T3-L1 was obtained from ... A) A protocol of cyclic stretching during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and phase-contrast microscopic images of 3T3-L1 ...
*  Ursolic Acid Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through LKB1/AMPK Pathway
The cells were determined for proliferation, differentiation, fat accumulation as well as the protein expressions of molecular ... Methods and Results The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate in the presence or absence of UA for 6 days. ... Conclusions Ursolic acid inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through the LKB1/AMPK pathway. There is ... the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of UA on adipogenesis and mechanisms of action in 3T3-L1 ...
*  MicroRNA-139-5p Suppresses 3T3-L1 Preadipocyte Differentiation Through Notch and IRS1/PI3K/Akt Insulin Signaling Pathways. |...
... the overexpression of Notch1 or IRS1 partially restored the suppressive effects miR-139-5p on differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. ... To our knowledge, this was the first report that miR-139-5p functioned negatively by targeting Notch1 and IRS1 during 3T3-L1 ... MicroRNA-139-5p Suppresses 3T3-L1 Preadipocyte Differentiation Through Notch and IRS1/PI3K/Akt Insulin Signaling Pathways.. [ ... Here, miR-139-5p was identified as an inhibitor of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation with significantly down-regulating the ...
*  Berberine, a Natural Plant Product, Activates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase With Beneficial Metabolic Effects in Diabetic and...
A: Microscopic views of 3T3-L1 cells. 3T3-L1 cells were differentiated into adipocytes in the absence or presence of berberine ... Cell culture and GLUT4 translocation assay.. 3T3-L1 cells were cultured at 37°C in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) ... The differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells was induced as described previously (17). L6 myoblasts up to passage 15 were cultured in α- ... 3E). To further test this in vitro, we next treated 3T3-L1 cells with or without berberine during adipocyte differentiation and ...
*  Anti-Adipogenic | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological Action | Natural
An ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia inhibits adipogenesis and promotes adipolysis in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cells.Sep 30 ... Baicalein lowered the lipid accumulation in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes by inhibiting the very early stage of adipogenesis.Dec 31, ... Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, inhibits adipogenesis through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in 3T3-L1 ... EGCG inhibited adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner.Dec 06, 2016. ...
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
It was observed that 1 reduced adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells potently, as evidenced by a decrease in cellular lipid ... Scutellarin from Scutellaria baicalensis suppresses adipogenesis by upregulating PPAR? in 3T3-L1 cells. ... An emerging strategy to regenerate beta-cell mass is through transdifferentiation of pancreatic alpha cells to beta cells. We ... Current differentiation protocols for deriving insulin-producing ?-cells from stem cells result in ?-cells lacking both MafA ...
*  The Role of PPAR in the Transcriptional Control by Agonists and Antagonists
... γ transcriptional activity and adipogenic action in 3T3-L1 and 3T3-F442A preadipocyte cells. BADGE also affected the expression ... it potently inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells [75]. A main step in the synthesis of PGF2α is the conversion of ... γ agonists also promote adipocytic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and stimulate the uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by ... and blocks rosiglitazone-stimulated adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 and RAW246.7 macrophage-like cells [14]. This ...
*  Glyphosate | GreenMedInfo | Toxic Ingredient | Natural Medicine
... formulation of glyphosate inhibits proliferation and differentiation to adipocytes and induces programmed cell death in 3T3-L1 ... Pubmed Data : Cell Chem Biol. 2017 Feb 16 ;24(2):133-140. Epub 2017 Jan 26. PMID: 28132892 ... Co-formulants in glyphosate-based herbicides disrupt aromatase activity in human cells below toxic levels.Dec 31, 2015. ... A glyphosate-based herbicide induces necrosis and apoptosis in mature rat testicular cells in vitro, and testosterone decrease ...
*  The Crosstalk Between Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Delta Like-1 Mediates Early Chondrogenesis During Embryonic...
Regulation of preadipocyte factor-1 gene expression during 3T3-L1 cell differentiation. Endocrinology 1996; 137: 2923-2928.. * ... dlk1 specifically interacts with insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 to modulate adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. J Mol ... BMP-2 supplemented cell cultures, B) in PD169316 supplemented cell cultures, and C) in DAPT supplemented cell cultures at days ... to generate a single-cell suspension. Cells were suspended at a density of 2 × 107 cells per milliliter in Dulbecco's modified ...
*  C/EBPα Regulates Human Adiponectin Gene Transcription Through an Intronic Enhancer | Diabetes
Orlicky DJ, Schaack J: Adenovirus transduction of 3T3-L1 cells. J Lipid Res 42:460-466, 2001. ... C: Gene reporter constructs were transfected into differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, HEK293, and undifferentiated 3T3-L1 ... and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Luciferase activity directed by the Pro-Luc construct in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was nearly twofold higher ... 3T3-L1 adipocytes were transfected by a modification of the electroporation method (33). For comparison, confluent 3T3-L1 ...
... formulation of glyphosate inhibits proliferation and differentiation to adipocytes and induces programmed cell death in 3T3-L1 ... Roundup(®) formulation exhibits genotoxicity in blood cells of fish (Anguilla anguilla).. Click here to read the entire ... Bt toxins are not inert on nontarget human cells, and that they can present combined side-effects with other residues of ... "Formulated glyphosate activates the DNA-response checkpoint of the cell cycle leading to the prevention of G2/M transition.". ...
*  Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated...
6-ODA stimulated lipid accumulation in HSC-T6 and 3T3-L1 cells. •The first report of a fatty acid with a triple bond ... activated PPARγ in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPARγ-dependent ... Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 ... Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPARγ whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of ...
*  The Antiobesity Effect of Polygonum aviculare L. Ethanol Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice
a) Oil Red-O staining of intracellular triglycerides in 3T3-L1 cells. 3T3-L1 cells were treated with various concentrations (0 ... Figure 5: The effect of PAE on gene expression in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. 3T3-L1 cells were treated with various ... Similarly, treatment with PAE decreased the mRNA expression of SREBP-1c, PPARγ, FAS, and aP2 in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells ( ... Cell Culture and Differentiation. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes (ATCC, Rockville, MD, USA) were maintained in Dulbecco's modified ...
*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) Sprout Treated with Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) Improved Anti...
Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control ... resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the ... The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ... ROS Production in 3T3-L1 Preadipocyte. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were grown to confluence and induced to differentiate into ...
*  Deficiency of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Enhancer Protects Mice From Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance | Diabetes
The effects of AICAR on adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2001; 286: 852- 856. ... Activators of AMP-activated protein kinase enhance GLUT4 translocation and its glucose transport activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes ... preventing its apoptotic cleavage and promoting cell survival. Cell Death Differ 2007; 14: 368- 377. ... HEK293 cells were cotransfected with His-IR and GST alone, GST-tagged wild-type PIKE-A (WT), or Tyr682, 774F (YY) mutant. The ...
*  CiNii 論文 - Dexamethasone Increases β 2 : Adrenoceptor : Regulated Phosphatidylcholine...
β1-and β2-adrenergic receptor expression in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells GUEST S. J. ... Genetic regulation of β2-adrenergic receptors in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts NAKADA MT. ... Bakumondo-to (Mai-Men-Dong-Tang) increases β_1-adrenergic receptor mRNA expression in rat alveolar type II cells : 礒濱 洋一郎 , ... Dexamethasone Increases β_2 : Adrenoceptor : Regulated Phosphatidylcholine Secretion in Rat Alveolar Type II Cells * * Isohama ...

No data available that match "3T3-L1 Cells"

(1/1584) Role of cyclooxygenases COX-1 and COX-2 in modulating adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

Cyclooxygenase (COX) catalyses the rate-limiting step of prostanoid biosynthesis. Two COX isoforms have been identified, COX-1, the constitutive form, and COX-2, the inducible form. While COX-2 has been implicated in body fat regulation, the underlying cellular mechanism remains to be elucidated. The present study was undertaken to examine the potential role of COX in modulating adipogenesis and to dissect the relative contribution of the two isoenzymes in this process. COX-2 was found to be expressed in undifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells and down-regulated during differentiation, whereas the cellular level of COX-1 remained relatively constant. Abrogating the activity of either of these two isoenzymes by selective COX inhibitors accelerated cellular differentiation, suggesting that both COX isoenzymes negatively influenced differentiation. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) significantly up-regulated COX-2 expression ( approximately 2-fold) in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells, whereas similar effect was not observed with COX-1 expression. Abrogating the induced COX-2 activity reversed the TNFalpha-induced inhibition of differentiation by approximately 70%, implying a role for COX-2 in mediating TNFalpha signaling. Hence, both COX isoforms were involved in the negative modulation of adipocyte differentiation. COX-2 appeared to be the main isoform mediating at least part of the negative effects of TNFalpha.  (+info)

(2/1584) Isomer-specific regulation of metabolism and PPARgamma signaling by CLA in human preadipocytes.

Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has previously been shown to be the CLA isomer responsible for CLA-induced reductions in body fat in animal models, and we have shown that this isomer, but not the cis-9,trans-11 CLA isomer, specifically decreased triglyceride (TG) accumulation in primary human adipocytes in vitro. Here we investigated the mechanism behind the isomer-specific, CLA-mediated reduction in TG accumulation in differentiating human preadipocytes. Trans-10,cis-12 CLA decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and oxidation, and reduced insulin-dependent glucose transporter 4 gene expression. Furthermore, trans-10,cis-12 CLA reduced oleic acid uptake and oxidation when compared with all other treatments. In parallel to CLA's effects on metabolism, trans-10,cis-12 CLA decreased, whereas cis-9,trans-11 CLA increased, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and several of its downstream target genes when compared with vehicle controls. Transient transfections demonstrated that both CLA isomers antagonized ligand-dependent activation of PPARgamma. Collectively, trans-10,cis-12, but not cis-9, trans-11, CLA decreased glucose and lipid uptake and oxidation and preadipocyte differentiation by altering preadipocyte gene transcription in a manner that appeared to be due, in part, to decreased PPARgamma expression.  (+info)

(3/1584) Regulation of ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux during adipose differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells.

Adipose cells specialized in energy storage, contain large intracellular triglyceride-rich lipid droplets, are enriched with free cholesterol, and express sterol-regulated transcription factors such as liver X receptor (LXR). The recent identification of the LXR-dependent ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) pathway for cholesterol release from peripheral cells has led us to address the question of the expression and function of ABCA1 in adipocytes. In 3T3-L1 adipose cells, we observed a strong induction of ABCA1 mRNA during adipose differentiation, but only limited variations in ABCA1 protein. Lipid efflux onto apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), which depends on ABCA1, was comparable in adipocytes and preadipocytes, demonstrating a differential regulation of ABCA1 mRNA and cholesterol efflux. We also found that total cell cholesterol remained stable during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, but membrane cholesterol was lower in adipocytes than in preadipocytes, suggesting redistribution of cholesterol to the lipid droplet. Finally, we show that under standard lipolytic stimulation, 3T3-L1 adipocytes do not release cholesterol onto apoA-I, a process that required long exposures to lipolytic agents (24 h). In conclusion, despite large induction of ABCA1 mRNA during differentiation, cholesterol efflux through the ABCA1 pathway remains limited in adipocytes and requires prolonged lipolysis. This is consistent with the view of the adipocyte behaving as a cholesterol sink, with plasma cholesterol-buffering properties.  (+info)

(4/1584) Activation of PPARalpha and PPARgamma by environmental phthalate monoesters.

Phthalate esters are widely used as plasticizers in the manufacture of products made of polyvinyl chloride. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP) induces rodent hepatocarcinogenesis by a mechanism that involves activation of the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha). MEHP also activates PPAR-gamma (PPARgamma), which contributes to adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitization. Human exposure to other phthalate monoesters, including metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate, is substantially higher than that of MEHP, prompting this investigation of their potential for PPAR activation, assayed in COS cells and in PPAR-responsive liver (PPARalpha) and adipocyte (PPARgamma) cell lines. Monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-sec-butyl phthalate (MBuP) both increased the COS cell transcriptional activity of mouse PPARalpha, with effective concentration for half-maximal response (EC50) values of 21 and 63 microM, respectively. MBzP also activated human PPARalpha (EC50=30 microM) and mouse and human PPARgamma (EC50=75-100 microM). MEHP was a more potent PPAR activator than MBzP or MBuP, with mouse PPARalpha more sensitive to MEHP (EC50=0.6 microM) than human PPARalpha (EC50=3.2 microM). MEHP activation of PPARgamma required somewhat higher concentrations, EC50=10.1 microM (mouse PPARgamma) and 6.2 microM (human PPARgamma). No significant PPAR activation was observed with the monomethyl, mono-n-butyl, dimethyl, or diethyl esters of phthalic acid. PPARalpha activation was verified in FAO rat liver cells stably transfected with PPARalpha, where expression of several endogenous PPARalpha target genes was induced by MBzP, MBuP, and MEHP. Similarly, activation of endogenous PPARgamma target genes was evidenced for all three phthalates by the stimulation of PPARgamma-dependent adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 cell differentiation model. These findings demonstrate the potential of environmental phthalate monoesters for activation of rodent and human PPARs and may help to elucidate the molecular basis for the adverse health effects proposed to be associated with human phthalate exposure.  (+info)

(5/1584) Mutational analysis of the hormone-sensitive lipase translocation reaction in adipocytes.

Lipolysis in adipocytes governs the release of fatty acids for the supply of energy to various tissues of the body. This reaction is mediated by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), a cytosolic enzyme, and perilipin, which coats the lipid droplet surface in adipocytes. Both HSL and perilipin are substrates for polyphosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA), and phosphorylation of perilipin is required to induce HSL to translocate from the cytosol to the surface of the lipid droplet, a critical step in the lipolytic reaction (Sztalryd C., Xu, G., Dorward, H., Tansey, J. T., Contreras, J.A, Kimmel, A. R., and Londos, C. (2003) J. Cell Biol. 161, 1093-1103). In the present paper we demonstrate that phosphorylation at one of the two more recently discovered PKA sites within HSL, serines 659 and 660, is also required to effect the translocation reaction. Translocation does not occur when these serines residues are mutated simultaneously to alanines. Also, mutation of the catalytic Ser-423 eliminates HSL translocation, showing that the inactive enzyme does not migrate to the lipid droplet upon PKA activation. Thus, HSL translocation requires the phosphorylation of both HSL and perilipin.  (+info)

(6/1584) Insulin stimulates expression of the pyruvate kinase M gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

M2-type pyruvate kinase (M2-PK) mRNA is produced from the PKM gene by an alternative RNA splicing in adipocytes. We found that insulin increased the level of M2-PK mRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in both time- and dose-dependent manners. This induction did not require the presence of glucose or glucosamine in the medium. The insulin effect was blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of insulin signaling pathways such as wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and PD98059, an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase. A stable reporter expression assay showed that the promoter activity of an about 2.2-kb 5'-flanking region of the rat PKM gene was stimulated by insulin, but the extents of these stimulations were lower than those of the mRNA stimulation. Thus, we suggest that insulin increases the level of M2-PK mRNA in adipocytes by acting at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels through signaling pathways involving both PI3K and MAPK kinase.  (+info)

(7/1584) Syntaxin 6 regulates Glut4 trafficking in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

Insulin stimulates the movement of glucose transporter-4 (Glut4)-containing vesicles to the plasma membrane of adipose cells. We investigated the role of post-Golgi t-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) in the trafficking of Glut4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Greater than 85% of syntaxin 6 was found in Glut4-containing vesicles, and this t-SNARE exhibited insulin-stimulated movement to the plasma membrane. In contrast, the colocalization of Glut4 with syntaxin 7, 8, or 12/13 was limited and these molecules did not translocate to the plasma membrane. We used adenovirus to overexpress the cytosolic domain of these syntaxin's and studied their effects on Glut4 traffic. Overexpression of the cytosolic domain of syntaxin 6 did not affect insulin-stimulated glucose transport, but increased basal deGlc transport and cell surface Glut4 levels. Moreover, the syntaxin 6 cytosolic domain significantly reduced the rate of Glut4 reinternalization after insulin withdrawal and perturbed subendosomal Glut4 sorting; the corresponding domains of syntaxins 8 and 12 were without effect. Our data suggest that syntaxin 6 is involved in a membrane-trafficking step that sequesters Glut4 away from traffic destined for the plasma membrane. We speculate that this is at the level of traffic of Glut4 into its unique storage compartment and that syntaxin 16 may be involved.  (+info)

(8/1584) HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake and targeting to lipid droplets in adipocytes.

Adipocytes express high levels of the HDL scavenger receptor class B type I in a differentiation-dependent manner. We thus have analyzed the routes of HDL cholesterol trafficking at different phases of adipocyte differentiation in the 3T3-L1 cell line. One novel and salient feature of this paper is the observation of a widespread distribution in the cell cytoplasm of Golgi markers, caveolin-2, and a fluorescent cholesterol analog NBD-cholesterol (NBD-chol), observed in the early phases of adipocyte formation, clearly distinct from that observed in mature fat cells (i.e., with fully formed lipid vesicles). Thus, in cells without visible lipid droplets, Golgi markers (Golgi 58K, Golgin 97, trans-Golgi network 38, Rab 6, and BODIPY-ceramide), caveolin-2, and NBD-chol all colocalize in a widespread distribution in the cell. In contrast, when lipid droplets are fully formed at latter stages, these markers clearly are distributed to distinct cell compartments: a compact juxtanuclear structure for the Golgi markers and caveolin-2, while NDB-chol concentrates in lipid droplets. In addition, disorganization of the Golgi using three different agents (Brefeldin, monensin, and N-ethyl-maleimide) drastically reduces NBD-chol uptake at different phases of adipocyte formation, strongly suggesting that the Golgi apparatus plays a critical role in HDL-mediated NBD uptake and routing to lipid droplets.  (+info)

  • preadipocyte
  • Delta like-1 (Dlk1)/preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1)/fetal antigen-1 (FA1) is a novel surface marker for embryonic chondroprogenitor cells undergoing lineage progression from proliferation to prehypertrophic stages. (
  • inhibits
  • Recent studies have provided evidence that the endogenously produced PPAR γ antagonist, 2,3-cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA), which is similar in structure to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), inhibits cancer cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo . (
  • mRNA
  • The levels of mRNA are shown as ratios relative to GST treated cells. (
  • The level of IL-6 mRNA expression was significantly increased in 3T3-L1 cells treated with 70Q for 24 h compared with wild HCV core protein (Fig 1A). (
  • On the other hand, 70Q induced significant reduce in mRNA expressions of adiponectin and leptin compared to control (GST), though the differences between 70R and 70Q-treated cells did not reach statistical significance due to wide variation of data range (Fig 1B and 1C). (
  • Similar to the changes in mRNA expression, the protein level of IL-6 was significantly increased in 70Q cells (Fig 2A), and the levels of adiponectin and leptin were significantly reduced in 70Q cells (Fig 2B and 2C). (
  • In humans, chemerin mRNA is highly expressed in white adipose tissue, liver and lung while its receptor, CMKLR1 is predominantly expressed in immune cells as well as adipose tissue. (
  • vitro
  • GPR84 is normally expressed at low levels in myeloid cells and can be induced in vitro by stimulating macrophage or microglial cells with LPS, TNFα, or PMA. (
  • Subsequent studies revealed that the dye can be used to monitor lymphocyte proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo, due to the progressive halving of CFSE fluorescence within daughter cells following each cell division. (
  • protein
  • Here, we used the fluorescent indicator protein (FLIPglu-600µ) to monitor cytosolic glucose dynamics in mouse 3T3-L1 cells in which glucose utilization for glycogen synthesis was inhibited. (
  • The effects of toll-like receptor (TLR)2/4 inhibition on IL-6 production by 3T3-L1 induced by HCV core protein were examined. (
  • A) The protein level of IL-6 was significantly increased, and the protein levels of (B) adiponectin and (C) leptin were significantly reduced in cells treated with 70Q for 48 h compared with 70R and GST protein. (
  • Moreover, 70Q HCV protein augmented the IL-6 production and reduced adiponectin production from 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner (Fig 3A and 3B) and IL-6 production was higher and adiponectin production were lower in the cells treated with 70Q compared to 70R in each concentration. (
  • Also, the encoded protein can interact with CDK2 and CDK4, thereby inhibiting these kinases and causing growth arrest in cultured cells. (
  • This protein is expressed in the mammalian nervous system and plays a significant role in the development and function of nerve cells. (
  • At the cellular level, sortilin functions in protein transport between the Golgi apparatus, endosome, lysosome, and plasma membrane, leading to its involvement in multiple biological processes such as glucose and lipid metabolism as well as neural development and cell death. (
  • In addition, two hydrophobic loops have been detected in this domain and act to anchor the protein in the cell membrane. (
  • PPAR
  • Activation of PPAR γ by thiazolidinediones (TZDs) leads to altered metabolism in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle cells, and liver, resulting in insulin sensitization [ 12 ]. (
  • mice
  • There was also a GPR84 downregulation in dentritic cell derived from FcRgamma chain KO mice. (
  • Ablating lysosomal acid lipase (Lal-/-) in mice led to aberrant expansion of myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs) (>40% in the blood, and >70% in the bone marrow) that arise from dysregulated production of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow. (
  • glucose
  • Glucose is an important source of energy for mammalian cells and enters the cytosol via glucose transporters. (
  • The results show that cells exhibit a low resting cytosolic glucose concentration. (
  • However, in cells with inhibited glycogen synthase activation, insulin induced a robust increase in cytosolic free glucose. (
  • The insulin-induced increase in cytosolic glucose in these cells is due to an imbalance between the glucose transported into the cytosol and the use of glucose in the cytosol. (
  • In untreated cells with sensitive glycogen synthase activation, insulin stimulation did not result in a change in the cytosolic glucose level. (
  • This is the first report of dynamic measurements of cytosolic glucose levels in cells devoid of the glycogen synthesis pathway. (
  • cytotoxicity
  • Glyphosate Commercial Formulation Causes Cytotoxicity, Oxidative Effects, and Apoptosis on Human Cells: Differences With its Active Ingredient. (
  • Stem Cells
  • Furthermore, the use of CFSE has extended beyond the immune system, with the dye being used to monitor the proliferation of many other cell types such as smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, hematopoietic stem cells and even bacteria. (
  • proliferation
  • CEBPD is involved in regulation of apoptosis and cell proliferation. (
  • By the use of fluorescent antibodies against different lymphocyte cell surface markers it is also possible to follow the proliferation behaviour of different lymphocyte subsets. (
  • insulin
  • Here, we have investigated the metabolic effects of berberine in two animal models of insulin resistance and in insulin-responsive cell lines. (
  • These cells are also sensitive to lipogenic and lipolytic hormones and drugs, including epinephrine, isoproterenol, and insulin. (
  • This molecular function enables sortilin to participate in various biological processes, including the transport of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane of fat and skeletal muscle cells in response to insulin. (
  • human
  • Co-formulants in glyphosate-based herbicides disrupt aromatase activity in human cells below toxic levels. (
  • Interestingly
  • Interestingly, a significant role for sortilin has recently also been reported in the field of oncology, as it has been detected in several cancer cell lines. (
  • receptor
  • As a sorting receptor on the cell surface and on the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi apparatus within the cell, sortilin is involved in the transport of a wide variety of intracellular proteins between the trans-Golgi network, endosome, lysosome, and secretory granules, as well as the plasma membrane. (
  • It also mediates the interaction between proNGF and the p75NTR:sortilin complex by acting as a co-receptor to signal cell death. (
  • RARRES2 is thought to act as a cell surface receptor. (
  • neuronal
  • The fine regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by sortilin is required for both neuronal and tumor cell survival. (
  • contributes
  • Furthermore, it appears that sortilin participates in the progression of breast cancer and contributes to tumor cell adhesion and invasion. (
  • lymphocytes
  • However, perhaps the most important CFSE investigations have been those demonstrating that many of the effector functions of lymphocytes, such as cytokine production by T lymphocytes, and antibody class switching by B cells, are division dependent. (
  • Detailed protocols are now available that can be used to label lymphocytes (and other cell types) with a high degree of reliability and precision. (
  • found
  • Genes coding for transporter proteins that confer multidrug resistance to the cells have also been found to be activated by CEBPB. (
  • When FITM2 has a mutation in its fourth transmembrane domain that happens to be a gain-of-function one, is found overexpressed in cells, it has unfailingly caused the buildup of TG rich lipid droplets. (
  • proteins
  • In the cells of mammals, the construction of lipid droplets is a process that is strictly controlled, using hormone induced signals, proteins related to droplets, and lipases as well. (