Bovine diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect cattle, including but not limited to:

1. Bovine Tuberculosis: A chronic, infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis. It primarily affects the respiratory system and can be transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated milk or meat.
2. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE): Also known as "mad cow disease," it is a progressive neurological disorder of cattle that results from infection with an agent called a prion. It can be transmitted to humans who consume contaminated beef products, leading to a variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
3. Bovine Johne's Disease: A chronic, infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It affects the intestinal tract and can lead to severe diarrhea, weight loss, and death.
4. Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC): A group of respiratory diseases caused by a variety of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as management and environmental factors. It is one of the most common and costly diseases affecting the cattle industry.
5. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, respiratory distress, and reproductive problems. It can also lead to immunosuppression, making animals more susceptible to other infections.
6. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR): A viral disease that primarily affects the respiratory system, causing symptoms such as fever, nasal discharge, and coughing. It can also lead to reproductive problems, including abortions and stillbirths.
7. Digital Dermatitis: A bacterial skin infection that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity. It is a major welfare concern in the cattle industry.
8. Salmonella Infections: Cattle can serve as reservoirs for Salmonella bacteria, which can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in humans. Proper hygiene and biosecurity measures are essential to prevent the spread of Salmonella from animals to humans.

Bovinos são animais da família Bovidae, ordem Artiodactyla. O termo geralmente se refere a vacas, touros, bois e bisontes. Eles são caracterizados por terem um corpo grande e robusto, com chifres ou cornos em seus crânios e ungulados divididos em dois dedos (hipsodontes). Além disso, os bovinos machos geralmente têm barbas.

Existem muitas espécies diferentes de bovinos, incluindo zebu, gado doméstico, búfalos-africanos e búfalos-asiáticos. Muitas dessas espécies são criadas para a produção de carne, leite, couro e trabalho.

É importante notar que os bovinos são herbívoros, com uma dieta baseada em gramíneas e outras plantas fibrosas. Eles têm um sistema digestivo especializado, chamado de ruminação, que lhes permite digerir alimentos difíceis de se decompor.