3D MRI of the membranous labyrinth. An age related comparison of MR findings in patients with labyrinthine fibrosis and in persons without inner ear symptoms.
PURPOSE: We compared MRI of the membranous labyrinth in patients with chronic non-neoplastic inner ear disease and MR signs of labyrinthine fibrosis and controls depending on their age, in order to establish whether there were any MR differences regarding patient age groups, control age groups and between the patients and controls themselves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical ENT examinations as well as a T2* weighted 3D CISS (Constructive Interference in Steady State) sequence with a slice thickness of 0.7 mm were performed. Our collective was subdivided as follows: 0-19 years (10 controls, 3 patients with chronic non-neoplastic inner ear disease), 20-49 years (55 controls, 8 patients), 50 years and older (40 controls, 22 patients). Detectability of labyrinthine structures (e.g. cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals) and filling defects were evaluated. RESULTS: In the 3 age-groups of the control collective no significant differences were observed in the membranous labyrinth. However differences concerning labyrinthine detectability emerged between controls and patients in both the 20-49 years and 50 years and older age groups. In the patient collective the 3 age groups showed no significant discrepancy in the mean number of lesions. CONCLUSION: Filling defects of the membranous labyrinth on 3D CISS MR images are pathological even in older persons. We would therefore recommend high resolution T2* weighted MRI in the case of suspected labyrinthine fibrosis. (+info)
Click evoked myogenic potentials in the differential diagnosis of acute vertigo.
OBJECTIVE: In response to loud clicks, a vestibular evoked potential can be recorded from sternocleidomastoid muscles, called "click evoked myogenic potential" (CEMP). This paper reports on the usefulness of CEMP in the differential diagnosis of acute vertigo of presumed vestibular origin. METHODS: CEMP was examined in 40 patients with acute vertigo of vestibular origin (26 with acute peripheral vestibulopathy, five with Meniere's disease, three with benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo (BPPV), six with psychogenic vertigo) and the results compared with standard caloric reaction (CR). For CEMPs, clicks were delivered unilaterally via a pair of headphones. EMG activity was collected by surface electrodes placed on the sternocleidomastoid belly and averaged. RESULTS: In 29 patients, CR was unilaterally abnormal, pointing to a peripheral vestibular lesion. Seventeen of them had a corresponding loss of CEMPs; the other 12 patients had a normal CEMP. The remaining 11 patients had normal results in both tests. In comparison with CR, CEMP showed a sensitivity of 59% and a specificity of 100% for peripheral vestibular disorders. CONCLUSION: CR is a test of the horizontal canal whereas CEMP is thought to be a sacculus test. Different results of CR and CEMP may be due to this difference between target organs stimulated and may be of prognostic value. (+info)
A Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of TNP-470 administered weekly to patients with advanced cancer.
A Phase I study of angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470 was conducted in patients with advanced cancer. TNP-470 (25-235 mg/m2) was administered i.v. over 4 h once a week to patients who had solid tumors refractory to the best available treatment or with a high risk of recurrence and who had normal renal, hepatic, and hematological function and no evidence of coagulopathy. The aims of the study were to determine the maximum tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and the pharmacokinetics of TNP-470 given on a once-weekly schedule. Thirty-six patients, ages 23-75 (median, 54 years), with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 were treated. The number of patients at each dose level (mg/m2) were 6 (25), 3 (50), 3 (75), 3 (100), 3 (133), 12 (177), and 6 (235). The principal toxicities of TNP-470 were dizziness, lightheadedness, vertigo, ataxia, decrease in concentration and short-term memory, confusion, anxiety, and depression, which occurred at doses of 133, 177, and 235 mg/m2. Two patients treated at 235 mg/m2 experienced DLT in the form of grade III cerebellar neurotoxicity after 6 weeks of treatment. Overall, these neurological symptoms were dose-related, had an insidious onset, progressively worsened with treatment, and resolved completely within 2 weeks of stopping the drug. One patient with malignant melanoma had stabilization of the previously growing disease for 27 weeks while on the treatment. Two patients, one with adenocarcinoma of the colon and the other with a soft tissue sarcoma, had no clinically detectable disease but were at high risk for recurrence at the initiation of treatment and received 13 months and > 3 years of treatment, respectively, with no evidence of disease recurrence. The remaining patients had progression of their disease after 1-6 months of treatment. The mean plasma half-life (t(1/2)) of TNP-470 and its principal metabolite, AGM-1883, were extremely short (harmonic mean, t(1/2) of 2 and 6 min, respectively) with practically no drug detectable in the plasma by 60 min after the end of the infusion. MII, an inactive metabolite, had a considerably longer t(1/2) of approximately 2.6 h. Mean peak TNP-470 concentrations were > or = 400 ng/ml at doses > or = 177 mg/m2. On the basis of this study, the maximum tolerated dose of TNP-470 administered on a weekly schedule was 177 mg/m2 given i.v over 4 h. The principal DLT was neurotoxicity, which appeared to be dose-related and was completely reversible. On the basis of the short plasma t(1/2) of TNP-470, exploration of a prolonged i.v. infusion schedule is warranted. (+info)
The work by the developing primary care team in China: a survey in two cities.
BACKGROUND: China is in the process of converting its existing primary care resources into general practice. The infrastructure is different from that of many other countries. OBJECTIVES: We surveyed patients' reasons for encounter (RFE) and the health providers' diagnoses in the general practice clinics of two large northern cities in order to assess the nature of the work of these practices. METHOD: Practices whose staff had a short course of training in the theory and practice of the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) were recruited to document the RFE and diagnoses of patient encounters in two separate winter weeks. RESULTS: The practices dealt mainly with chronic illness in older patients. Hypertension-related problems were the most frequent diagnoses, followed by upper respiratory tract infection. Patients also consulted very frequently for dizziness. Overall, there was good agreement between RFE and diagnosis in some organ systems. CONCLUSION: In their present form, the Chinese practices surveyed were delivering the full range of general practice care to a self-selected age group of patients. The ICPC was very useful for monitoring the work of general practice from the perspective of both the patients and the providers. (+info)
A new method for the screening of unidentified complaints syndrome in pre-, mid- and post-menopausal women.
A new simple test for the screening of pre-, mid- and post-menopausal women with unidentified complaints overlaid by psychiatric disorders has been devised. This test is performed by intravenous injection of conjugated estrogen and by comparing Kupperman's menopausal indices before and after the injection. That is, the discriminant function between groups with and without psychiatric abnormalities was obtained from Kupperman's menopausal indices before and after intravenous injection of conjugated estrogen, and from this function was made a calculative differential diagnosis between the two groups. The calculative diagnosis agreed fairly well with the clinical diagnosis by the psychiatrist. (+info)
Pre and post betahistine therapy 99m Tc - HMPAO brain spect studies in patients with vertigo.
Vertebro basilar insufficiency (VBI) is a well known cause of vertigo. Brain Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) is an important diagnostic tool to detect and to quantitate the perfusion abnormalities in different areas of the brain. Effect of an antivertigo drug Betahistine on improving the hypoperfusion in different areas of the brain in vertigo patients was studied using brain SPECT. Betahistine at a dose of 16 mg three times daily was shown to improve perfusion in the hypoperfused areas of the brain resulting in relief from symptoms of vertigo. The cerebellar region, which is the most important area involved in vertigo patients with vascular pathology, showed almost complete normalisation of perfusion following Betahistine therapy. (+info)
A dissociation between subjective and objective unsteadiness in primary orthostatic tremor.
Patients with primary orthostatic tremor (OT) experience a disabling sense of unsteadiness but rarely fall. In order to study the relationship between the development of subjective unsteadiness, objective unsteadiness and tremor, we recorded standing under four conditions (eyes open or closed, feet together or apart) in six patients with OT. Subjective unsteadiness was indicated by the patients on a four-point scale using a hand-held slider. Objective unsteadiness was assessed by measuring the path lengths of the centre of foot pressure and body motion at the level of the cervical spine. Tremor was measured by surface electromyography from leg and paraspinal muscles. OT patients were objectively more unsteady than controls. Objective unsteadiness also increased disproportionately in patients when standing with eyes closed. These findings suggest that balance control in OT is abnormal and shows increased visual dependence. Subjective unsteadiness increased from mild to severe over seconds to minutes. The increase was faster when standing with eyes closed or feet together. However, although escalating subjective unsteadiness was paralleled by an increase in leg tremor, there were no comparable changes in either paraspinal tremor or objective unsteadiness during the course of a stand. We conclude that there is a dissociation between subjective and objective unsteadiness. This implies that subjective unsteadiness does not arise simply from an awareness of increased body sway. We postulate that the sensation of unsteadiness arises from a tremulous disruption of proprioceptive afferent activity from the legs. This disturbance gives rise to increased co-contracting drive to the leg muscles in order to stiffen the joints and increase stability. Since muscle activity remains tremor-locked, the tremulous proprioceptive feedback is increased, which then further increases the sensation of unsteadiness, and so on in a vicious circle of escalating activity. (+info)
Vertigo and vestibular rehabilitation.
The role of rehabilitation in the management of vertigo is limited to a very specific group of conditions. An Occupational therapist who is a part of the multidisciplinary team treating the vertiginous patient, with the knowledge of physiology and therapeutic benefit of vestibular rehabilitation can widen the rehabilitation spectrum for various diseases producing vertigo and dysequilibrium, to resolve or minimise these symptoms. The present article reviews the need for vestibular rehabilitation and the different conditions needing the same along with its characteristics, physiology and various exercises prescribed. (+info)