On January 27, 1999, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a voluntary recall of Tripedia diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), lot number 0916490, manufactured by Pasteur Merieux Connaught USA. Routine post-release stability testing completed in January 1999 indicated that the potency of the diphtheria toxoid component of this lot was below specification. The potency of the tetanus and pertussis components of this lot was acceptable. (+info)
Evidence of efficacy of the Lederle/Takeda acellular pertussis component diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine but not the Lederle whole-cell component diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine against Bordetella parapertussis infection.
A subanalysis of a recent cohort efficacy trial of a pertussis vaccine was performed to determine its efficacy against cough illnesses due to Bordetella parapertussis infections. Infants received four doses of either the Lederle/Takeda acellular pertussis component diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTaP) vaccine or the Lederle whole-cell component diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTP) vaccine at 3, 4.5, 6, and 15-18 months of age; controls received three doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DT) vaccine only. All subjects were prospectively followed for cough illnesses of > or = 7 days' duration; cases of B. parapertussis infection were confirmed by positive culture, household contact, or serology. Seventy-six cough illnesses due to B. parapertussis were identified; 24 occurred in 929 DTaP recipients, 37 in 937 DTP recipients, and 15 in 321 DT recipients, resulting in an efficacy of 50% for DTaP vaccine (95% CI [confidence interval], 5% to 74%) and 21% for DTP vaccine (95% CI, -45% to 56%). The data in the present analysis suggest that the Lederle/Takeda DTaP vaccine but not the Lederle whole-cell component DTP vaccine has efficacy against B. parapertussis infection. (+info)
The induction of immunologic memory after vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate and acellular pertussis-containing diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine combination.
The significance of reduced antibody responses to the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) component of acellular pertussis-containing combination vaccines (DTaP-Hib) is unclear. A DTaP-Hib vaccine evaluated in infants vaccinated at ages 2, 3, and 4 months showed reduced anti-Hib polysaccharide IgG (geometric mean concentration [GMC], 1.23 microgram/mL; 57%, >1.0 microgram/mL). Polyribitolribosyl phosphate (PRP) and Hib conjugate (PRP-T) vaccine given as a booster during the second year of life was evaluated for the presence of immunological memory. After boosting, most children achieved anti-PRP IgG >1.0 microgram/mL, although the GMC was higher with PRP-T (88.5 microgram/mL) than with PRP vaccine (7.86 microgram/mL, P<.001). The GMC of the PRP group was higher than anticipated for naive PRP recipients of the same age. PRP-specific IgG avidity was significantly higher after boosting than after priming, providing further evidence for the generation of memory. Despite reduced immunogenicity, DTaP-Hib combination vaccines appear to prime for immunologic memory. (+info)
Mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin act as effective mucosal adjuvants for nasal delivery of an acellular pertussis vaccine: differential effects of the nontoxic AB complex and enzyme activity on Th1 and Th2 cells.
Mucosal delivery of vaccines is dependent on the identification of safe and effective adjuvants that can enhance the immunogenicity of protein antigens administered by nasal or oral routes. In this study we demonstrate that two mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT), LTK63, which lacks ADP-ribosylating activity, and LTR72, which has partial enzyme activity, act as potent mucosal adjuvants for the nasal delivery of an acellular pertussis (Pa) vaccine. Both LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced antigen-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), secretory IgA, and local and systemic T-cell responses. Furthermore, using the murine respiratory challenge model for infection with Bordetella pertussis, we demonstrated that a nasally delivered diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTPa) combination vaccine formulated with LTK63 as an adjuvant conferred a high level of protection, equivalent to that generated with a parenterally delivered DTPa vaccine formulated with alum. This study also provides significant new information on the roles of the binding and enzyme components of LT in the modulation of Th1 and Th2 responses. LTK63, which lacks enzyme activity, promoted T-cell responses with a mixed Th1-Th2 profile, but LTR72, which retains partial enzyme activity, and the wild-type toxin, especially at low dose, induced a more polarized Th2-type response and very high IgA and IgG antibody titers. Our findings suggest that the nontoxic AB complex has broad adjuvant activity for T-cell responses and that the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of the A subunit also appears to modulate cytokine production, but its effect on T-cell subtypes, as well as enhancing, may be selectively suppressive. (+info)
Antigen-specific responses to diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine in human infants are initially Th2 polarized.
Immune responses to exogenous antigens in infant experimental animals display various degrees of Th2 polarization. Preliminary evidence from small human studies suggest a similar age-dependent response pattern to vaccines, but detailed investigations on vaccine immunity during infancy have not yet been undertaken. We report below the results of a comprehensive prospective study on responses to the tetanus component of the diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine in a cohort of 55 healthy children, employing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) collected at the 2-, 4-, and 6-month vaccinations and at 12 months. Antigen-specific production of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) was determined at each sample point, in parallel with polyclonal (phytohemagglutinin PHA-induced) cytokine responses. Our results indicate early and persistent Th2 responses to the vaccine, in contrast to a more delayed and transient pattern of IFN-gamma production. This initial disparity between the Th1 and Th2 components of the vaccine response was mirrored by patterns of polyclonally induced cytokine production, suggesting that the delayed maturation of the Th1 component of the vaccine response during infancy is secondary to developmental processes occurring within the overall Th cell system. (+info)
Effect of needle length on incidence of local reactions to routine immunisation in infants aged 4 months: randomised controlled trial.
OBJECTIVE: To compare rates of local reactions associated with two needle sizes used to administer routine immunisations to infants. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Routine immunisation clinics in eight general practices in Buckinghamshire. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy infants attending for third primary immunisation due at 16 weeks of age: 119 infants were recruited, and 110 diary cards were analysed. INTERVENTIONS: Immunisation with 25 gauge, 16 mm, orange hub needle or 23 gauge, 25 mm, blue hub needle. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parental recordings of redness, swelling, and tenderness for three days after immunisation. RESULTS: Rate of redness with the longer needle was initially two thirds the rate with the smaller needle (relative risk 0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.99), P=0.04), and by the third day this had decreased to a seventh (relative risk 0.13 (0.03 to 0.56), P=0.0006). Rate of swelling with the longer needle was initially about a third that with the smaller needle (relative risk 0.39 (0.23 to 0.67), P=0.0002), and this difference remained for all three days. Rates of tenderness were also lower with the longer needle throughout follow up, but not significantly (relative risk 0.60 (0.29 to 1.25), P=0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Use of 25 mm needles significantly reduced rates of local reaction to routine infant immunisation. On average, for every five infants vaccinated, use of the longer needle instead of the shorter needle would prevent one infant from experiencing any local reaction. Vaccine manufacturers should review their policy of supplying the shorter needle in vaccine packs. (+info)
Use of diphtheria toxoid-tetanus toxoid-acellular pertussis vaccine as a five-dose series. Supplemental recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).
Four vaccines containing diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) are currently licensed in the United States for use among infants and young children. As of October 2000, two products, ACEL-IMUNE (a product of Lederle Laboratories) and Tripedia (Aventis Pasteur, Inc.) were licensed for the five-dose DTaP vaccination series. Two other vaccines, Infanrix (SmithKline Beecham Biologicals) and Certiva (North American Vaccine, Inc.) are licensed for the first four doses of the vaccination series, beginning with the primary series at ages 2, 4, and 6 months, and for completing the DTaP series among children who began the series with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and whole-cell pertussis vaccine. This report supplements the statement from CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices regarding use of acellular pertussis vaccines and summarizes data regarding reactogenicity of acellular pertussis vaccines when administered as the fourth and fifth consecutive doses. Increases in the frequency and magnitude of local reactions at the injection site with increasing dose number have occurred for all currently licensed DTaP vaccines. Extensive swelling of the injected limb, sometimes involving the entire thigh or upper arm, after receipt of the fourth and fifth doses of DTaP vaccines has been demonstrated for multiple products from different manufacturers. Because data are insufficient regarding the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of using DTaP vaccines from different manufacturers in a mixed sequence, ACIP continues to recommend that, whenever feasible, the same brand of DTaP vaccine be used for all doses in the vaccination series. When the vaccine provider does not know or does not have available the type of DTaP vaccine previously administered, any of the licensed DTaP vaccines can be used to complete the vaccine series. (+info)
Update on the supply of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine.
During the last quarter of 2000, the U.S. Public Health Service learned of a shortage of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) and tetanus toxoid (TT) resulting from decreased production of these vaccines by the two U.S. manufacturers. Previously published recommendations outlined priorities for use of the limited supply of Td and TT. The shortage was expected to be resolved by early 2001; however, on January 10, 2001, Wyeth Lederle (Pearl River, New York) announced it had stopped production of tetanus toxoid-containing products. Although a small amount of Td is produced by the University of Massachusetts for local distribution, Aventis Pasteur (Swiftwater, Pennsylvania) is now the sole nationwide distributor of Td and TT. Aventis Pasteur is shipping limited quantities of vaccine to assure a wide distribution of available doses. (+info)