Shivering and shivering-like tremor during labor with and without epidural analgesia.
BACKGROUND: Effective treatment and prevention of hyperthermia and shivering-like tremor during labor is hindered by a poor understanding of their causes. The authors sought to identify the incidence of nonthermoregulatory shivering-like tremor and the factors associated with this activity. METHODS: The authors studied women in spontaneous full-term labor who chose epidural analgesia (n = 21) or opioid sedation (n = 31). Shivering-like tremor and sweating were evaluated by observation. Core temperature was recorded in the external auditory canal using a compensated infrared thermometer. Arteriovenous shunt tone was evaluated with forearm minus fingertip skin temperature gradients; gradients less than 0 were considered evidence of vasodilation. Tremor was considered nonthermoregulatory when core temperature exceeded 37 degrees C and the arms were vasodilated. Pain was evaluated using a visual analog scale. RESULTS: Shivering-like tremor was observed in 18% of 290, 30-min data-acquisition epochs before delivery. The patients were both normothermic and vasodilated during 15% of these epochs. Shivering was observed in 16% of 116 postdelivery epochs and was nonthermoregulatory in 28%. Sweating was observed in 30% of predelivery epochs, and the patients were both hypothermic and vasoconstricted during 12%. The mean core temperature in patients given epidural analgesia was approximately 0.2 degrees C greater than in those given sedation. Hyperthermia was observed during 10 epochs (38.4+/-0.3 degrees C) during epidural analgesia and during 10 epochs (38.4+/-0.3 degrees C) with sedation. The patients were vasoconstricted in more than 50% of these epochs in each group. Multivariate mixed-effects modeling identified high pain scores and vasoconstriction as significant predictors of shivering. There were no predictors for shivering epochs in patients who were simultaneously normothermic and vasodilated. Significant predictors of sweating were time before delivery, high pain scores, hypothermia with vasoconstriction, high thermal comfort, and low mean skin temperature. There were no predictors for sweating epochs in patients who were simultaneously hypothermic and vasoconstricted. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the clinical impression that some peripartum shivering-like tremor is nonthermoregulatory. The authors also identified nonthermoregulatory sweating. These data indicate that shivering-like tremor and sweating in the peripartum period is multifactorial. (+info)
Thermoregulatory responses to cold water at different times of day.
This study examined how time of day affects thermoregulation during cold-water immersion (CWI). It was hypothesized that the shivering and vasoconstrictor responses to CWI would differ at 0700 vs. 1500 because of lower initial core temperatures (T(core)) at 0700. Nine men were immersed (20 degrees C, 2 h) at 0700 and 1500 on 2 days. No differences (P > 0.05) between times were observed for metabolic heat production (M, 150 W. m(-2)), heat flow (250 W. m(-2)), mean skin temperature (T(sk), 21 degrees C), and the mean body temperature-change in M (DeltaM) relationship. Rectal temperature (T(re)) was higher (P < 0.05) before (Delta = 0.4 degrees C) and throughout CWI during 1500. The change in T(re) was greater (P < 0. 05) at 1500 (-1.4 degrees C) vs. 0700 (-1.2 degrees C), likely because of the higher T(re)-T(sk) gradient (0.3 degrees C) at 1500. These data indicate that shivering and vasoconstriction are not affected by time of day. These observations raise the possibility that CWI may increase the risk of hypothermia in the early morning because of a lower initial T(core). (+info)
Thermoregulation during cold exposure: effects of prior exercise.
This study examined whether acute exercise would impair the body's capability to maintain thermal balance during a subsequent cold exposure. Ten men rested for 2 h during a standardized cold-air test (4.6 degrees C) after two treatments: 1) 60 min of cycle exercise (Ex) at 55% peak O(2) uptake and 2) passive heating (Heat). Ex was performed during a 35 degrees C water immersion (WI), and Heat was conducted during a 38.2 degrees C WI. The duration of Heat was individually adjusted (mean = 53 min) so that rectal temperature was similar at the end of WI in both Ex (38.2 degrees C) and Heat (38.1 degrees C). During the cold-air test after Ex, relative to Heat 1) rectal temperature was lower (P < 0.05) from minutes 40-120, 2) mean weighted heat flow was higher (P < 0.05), 3) insulation was lower (P < 0.05), and 4) metabolic heat production was not different. These results suggest that prior physical exercise may predispose a person to greater heat loss and to experience a larger decline in core temperature when subsequently exposed to cold air. The combination of exercise intensity and duration studied in these experiments did not fatigue the shivering response to cold exposure. (+info)
Changes in the metabolism of the shivering hind leg of the young ox during several days of continuous cold exposure.
The effect of 4 days of continuous exposure to a cold environment on blood flow in, and oxygen and energy substrate uptake by the shivering hind leg has been studied in young steers. The animals shivered throughout the period of cold exposure and total oxygen consumption (total VO2) remained 40-50% greater than VO2 during thermoneutrality. Leg blood flow (leg Q) and oxygen uptake (leg VO2) increased two- and four-fold respectively on the first day of cold. Both had declined significantly by the final day, leg Q to a level 37% greater than, and leg VO2 to about double, pre-cold levels. The change in the relationships of leg Q and leg VO2 to total VO2 was examined by linear regression analysis, which suggested that the changing contribution of leg VO2 to total VO2 was entirely due to changes in leg Q, rather than in the arteriovenous difference in blood oxyhaemoglobin saturation across the leg. The net uptakes by the leg of free fatty acids (FFA), acetate, glucose and lactate all increased on the first day of cold. Both glucose and acetate uptakes were greater on day 4 than on day 1 in the cold, in spite of the lower leg VO2, but net uptakes of FFA and lactate were considerably lower. The decrease in net uptake of FFA is attributed mainly to an increase in the rate of lipolysis and release of FFA from fat depots in the leg, because of the associated progressive increase in the release of glycerol and oleic acid from the leg. The molar ratios of net carbohydrate substrate, acetate and FFA uptakes to leg VO2 are compared. The results suggest that tissues other than the leg muscles become increasingly important as sites of heat production, and that there are changes in the utilization of glucose, acetate and FFA by shivering muscle, during prolonged cold exposure. (+info)
Relative contribution of skin and core temperatures to vasoconstriction and shivering thresholds during isoflurane anesthesia.
BACKGROUND: Thermoregulatory control is based on both skin and core temperatures. Skin temperature contributes approximately 20% to control of vasoconstriction and shivering in unanesthetized humans. However, this value has been used to arithmetically compensate for the cutaneous contribution to thermoregulatory control during anesthesia--although there was little basis for assuming that the relation was unchanged by anesthesia. It even remains unknown whether the relation between skin and core temperatures remains linear during anesthesia. We therefore tested the hypothesis that mean skin temperature contributes approximately 20% to control of vasoconstriction and shivering, and that the contribution is linear during general anesthesia. METHODS: Eight healthy male volunteers each participated on 3 separate days. On each day, they were anesthetized with 0.6 minimum alveolar concentrations of isoflurane. They then were assigned in random order to a mean skin temperature of 29, 31.5, or 34 degrees C. Their cores were subsequently cooled by central-venous administration of fluid at approximately 3 degrees C until vasoconstriction and shivering were detected. The relation between skin and core temperatures at the threshold for each response in each volunteer was determined by linear regression. The proportionality constant was then determined from the slope of this regression. These values were compared with those reported previously in similar but unanesthetized subjects. RESULTS: There was a linear relation between mean skin and core temperatures at the vasoconstriction and shivering thresholds in each volunteer: r2 = 0.98+/-0.02 for vasoconstriction, and 0.96+/-0.04 for shivering. The cutaneous contribution to thermoregulatory control, however, differed among the volunteers and was not necessarily the same for vasoconstriction and shivering in individual subjects. Overall, skin temperature contributed 21+/-8% to vasoconstriction, and 18+/-10% to shivering. These values did not differ significantly from those identified previously in unanesthetized volunteers: 20+/-6% and 19+/-8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results in anesthetized volunteers were virtually identical to those reported previously in unanesthetized subjects. In both cases, the cutaneous contribution to control of vasoconstriction and shivering was linear and near 20%. These data indicate that a proportionality constant of approximately 20% can be used to compensate for experimentally induced skin-temperature manipulations in anesthetized as well as unanesthetized subjects. (+info)
Thermoregulatory responses of the inbred heat-tolerant FOK rat to cold.
The responses of inbred heat-tolerant FOK rats to cold were compared with those of Wistar King A/H (WKAH) and Std:Wistar (WSTR) strains. The fall of colonic temperature during cold exposure was unexpectedly smaller in FOK than in other groups, but the onset of shivering was delayed in FOK. Norepinephrine (NE)-induced in vivo oxygen consumption and the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 level of brown adipose tissue (BAT) were not different among the groups, but the cold-induced increases in in vivo oxygen consumption as well as plasma glycerol and free fatty acids were higher in FOK than in other groups. In vitro NE-induced oxygen consumption of BAT was less in FOK than WSTR, but not WKAH. The magnitude of the NE-induced increase in blood flow through BAT was higher in FOK than in other groups. These results suggest that FOK paradoxically have a high capacity for nonshivering thermogenesis in spite of their high capacity for heat tolerance, probably due to an increased lipid utilization and improved circulation of BAT. (+info)
Suspected recurrence of malignant hyperthermia after post-extubation shivering in the intensive care unit, 18 h after tonsillectomy.
A 25-yr-old man, subsequently shown to be malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptible by in vitro contracture testing, developed MH during anaesthesia for tonsillectomy. Prompt treatment, including dantrolene, led to rapid resolution of the metabolic crisis. Eighteen hours later the patient's trachea was extubated in the ICU, when he had been stable and apyrexial overnight. Twenty minutes after extubation, an episode of shivering was followed by the onset of tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnoea and a rapid increase in temperature. Recurrence of MH was suspected and the patient was given another dose of dantrolene with good clinical effect. Shivering in this patient may have been an indicator or a causative factor of recurrence of MH. (+info)
The influence of acute hypoxia and carotid body denervation on thermoregulation during non-rapid eye movement sleep in the developing lamb.
We investigated the influence of ambient temperature on the thermoregulatory response to hypoxia in developing lambs before (at 4 and 14 days of age) and after (17 and 30 days of age) carotid body denervation (CBD). Lambs were studied during non-rapid eye movement sleep at thermoneutral (23-15 C) and cool (10-5 C) ambient temperatures, during normoxia and acute hypoxia (inspired oxygen content of 13 %). Measurements of oxygen consumption, arterial partial pressures of O2 and CO2, colonic temperature, incidence of shivering and plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones, cortisol, insulin and glucose were made under each condition. Oxygen consumption was higher at cool compared with thermoneutral ambient temperatures and decreased during hypoxia during cooling at all stages. At 4 days of age, only one lamb shivered during cooling in normoxia, but 4 out of 12 lambs shivered during hypoxia and colonic temperature fell, significantly, by 0.2 C. At 14 days, 8 out of 12 lambs shivered during cooling, of which 6 continued to shiver during hypoxia but colonic temperature did not change significantly. Plasma triiodothyronine concentrations increased on cooling at 4 and 14 days, an affect that was inhibited by hypoxia at 4, but not 14 days of age. At 17 days of age, i.e. post-CBD, plasma thyroid hormone concentrations and oxygen consumption were lower during cold exposure compared with intact lambs at 14 days of age. In CBD lambs, imposing further hypoxia resulted in colonic temperature falling 0. 6 C during cooling, with only 2 out of 10 lambs shivering. Plasma glucose and insulin, but not cortisol, concentrations decreased during hypoxia, irrespective of age or CBD. It is concluded that hypoxia has an important influence on metabolism and thermoregulation, which is modulated by age and environmental conditions. Compromised carotid body function, in lambs older than 2 weeks of age, can result in severe hypoxia and thermoregulatory dysfunction even with modest environmental cooling. (+info)