Values of three coagulation screening tests of precolostral calves.
Prothrombin times, partial thromboplastin times and platelet counts were performed to determine normal values and to screen for coagulation defects of precolostral calves. The precolostral calves were in two groups: one group of a few calves was tested two years before the second larger group. The results for both groups were similar. The tests were performed on postcolostral calves and on mature cows to compare their values with those of precolostral calves. The mean values of prothrombin times and partial thromboplastin times of precolostral calves in the first group were 18.8 seconds and 54.8 seconds respectively. The mean values of prothrombin times and partial thromboplastin times of precolostral calves in the second group were 18.8 seconds and 50.8 seconds respectively. The mean platelet count was 422,400/cmm for the first group and 482,800/cmm for the second group. (+info)
Compound-heterozygous mutations in the plasminogen gene predispose to the development of ligneous conjunctivitis.
Homozygous type I plasminogen deficiency has been identified as a cause of ligneous conjunctivitis. In this study, 5 additional patients with ligneous conjunctivitis are examined. Three unrelated patients (1 boy, 1 elderly woman, and 1 man) had plasminogen antigen levels of less than 0.4, less than 0.4, and 2.4 mg/dL, respectively, but had plasminogen functional residual activity of 17%, 18%, and 17%, respectively. These subjects were compound-heterozygotes for different missense mutations in the plasminogen gene: Lys19 --> Glu/Arg513 --> His, Lys19 --> Glu/Arg216 --> His, and Lys19 --> Glu/Leu128 --> Pro, respectively. The other 2 patients, a 14-year-old boy and his 19-year-old sister, who both presented with a severe course of the disease, exhibited plasminogen antigen and functional activity levels below the detection limit (<0.4 mg/dL and <5%, respectively). These subjects were compound-heterozygotes for a deletion mutation (del Lys212) and a splice site mutation in intron Q (Ex17 + 1del-g) in the plasminogen gene. These findings show that certain compound-heterozygous mutations in the plasminogen gene may be associated with ligneous conjunctivitis. Our findings also suggest that the severity of clinical symptoms of ligneous conjunctivitis and its associated complications may depend on the amount of plasminogen functional residual activity. (+info)
Comparison of the antithrombotic effect of PEG-hirudin and heparin in a human ex vivo model of arterial thrombosis.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-hirudin is a derivative of hirudin with a long plasma half-life. We have compared the efficacy of PEG-hirudin with unfractionated heparin (UH) in preventing arterial thrombosis. Arterial thrombus formation was induced ex vivo in 12 healthy human volunteers by exposing a tissue factor-coated coverslip positioned in a parallel-plate perfusion chamber to flowing nonanticoagulated human blood drawn directly from an antecubital vein at an arterial wall shear rate of 2600 s-1 for 3.5 minutes. PEG-hirudin, UH, or saline (as control) were administered ex vivo through a heparin-coated mixing device positioned proximal to the perfusion chamber. Platelet and fibrin deposition was quantified by immunoenzymatic measure of the P-selectin and D-dimer content of dissolved plasmin-digested thrombi, respectively. UH was administered to a plasma concentration of 0.35 IU/mL. This concentration prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time from 32+/-1 seconds to 79+/-4 seconds (P<0.01). UH did not significantly prevent platelet deposition. However, fibrin deposition was reduced by 39% (P<0.05). PEG-hirudin in plasma concentrations of 0.5, 2.5, and 5 microg/mL prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time to 48+/-2, 87+/-4, and 118+/-4 seconds, respectively. In contrast to UH, PEG-hirudin prevented both platelet and fibrin deposition in a dose-dependent manner with a >80% reduction at 5 microg/mL (P<0.01). Furthermore, the plasma level of PEG-hirudin required to significantly prevent fibrin deposition (0.5 microg/mL) corresponded to a much shorter prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (48+/-2 seconds) than that needed for UH (79+/-4 seconds). Thus, our results are compatible with the view that thrombin is greatly involved in recruitment of platelets in evolving thrombi, and that PEG-hirudin is an effective agent for preventing arterial thrombosis in a human ex vivo experimental model. (+info)
Abnormalities in liver function and coagulation profile following the Fontan procedure.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate liver function and coagulation disorders in patients with a Fontan circulation at different time intervals after surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of clinical data and cross sectional study relating liver function and coagulation profile to time since surgery, in 28 surviving patients after the modified Fontan procedure. PATIENTS: 20 patients (71%) with atriopulmonary anastomosis, seven (25%) with atrioventricular anastomosis, and one (4%) with total cavopulmonary connection. Follow up ranged from 2.0 to 21.8 years (mean 11.1). RESULTS: Abnormal liver function tests, mainly reflecting cholestasis, were present in 21 patients who had a significantly longer follow up (p < 0.01). Protein synthesis was normal in almost all patients. Coagulation profile showed abnormalities in 22 patients. "Procoagulant" abnormalities-that is, decreased plasminogen and protein C activity-were found in 11 and five patients, respectively. The extent of these abnormalities was less in patients with a longer follow up. Anticoagulant abnormalities were factor V deficiency in 16 patients and factor VII deficiency in 17, resulting in a prolonged prothrombin time in 19 patients. Thirteen patients had both pro- and anticoagulant abnormalities. A prethrombotic state was present in five patients, with a significantly longer mean time interval since surgery (p = 0.05). Thus, although the individual procoagulant indices decreased with increasing time intervals since surgery, a prethrombotic state was found particularly in patients with a long term follow up. CONCLUSIONS: Mild cholestasis was mainly present in Fontan patients with a long duration of follow up. Along with laboratory procoagulant abnormalities indicating a prethrombotic state, anticoagulant abnormalities were also present. The coagulation profile varied at different time intervals after surgery. Thus detailed evaluation should be performed regularly, and the use of anticoagulants should be considered in every patient. Long term prospective studies are needed to evaluate the individual fluctuations of coagulation profile over time following a Fontan procedure. (+info)
Comparative characterisation of Russell's viper (Daboia/Vipera russelli) venoms from different regions of the Indian peninsula.
Russell's viper (Daboia/Vipera russelli) venom from different regions of India was subjected to chromatographic, electrophoretic, biochemical and immunological analysis. The elution profiles from ion-exchange chromatography and protein banding pattern from SDS-PAGE showed a significant variation in the constituents of venoms. The acidic proteins are found to be predominant in the venoms of eastern and western regions while basic proteins are the major contributors of the northern and southern regional venoms. The major variation of phospholipases A(2) in the venom samples of India may be described as: southern regional venom is rich in basic, toxic PLA(2) while this activity showed a dramatic decrease as one moves towards west, north and eastern regions of India. In addition, the caseinolytic, TAME-hydrolytic, anticoagulant, oedema-inducing and haemorrhagic activities of the venoms have also varied from one region to another. The muscle specimens of mice injected with venoms of different regions showed variable change in the muscle fibre damage and cell morphology. The eastern regional venom is most lethal among all the venoms. The lethal potencies for four regional venoms vary as: eastern>western>southern>northern. The polyclonal antibodies prepared against the venom of southern region showed cross-reaction with the venoms of other regions, but the extent of cross-reaction and diffusion patterns are different. However, the polyclonal antibodies prepared against southern regional venom showed no protection against lethal toxicity of other regional venoms. (+info)
IgG reactivity to phospholipid-bound beta(2)-glycoprotein I is the main determinant of the fraction of lupus anticoagulant activity quenched by addition of hexagonal (II) phase phospholipid in patients with the clinical suspicion of antiphospholipid-antibody syndrome.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Autoantibodies to beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta(2)-GPI) and/or prothrombin (FII) have been involved in the expression of lupus anticoagulant (LA) activity, an in vitro phenomenon associated with an increased risk of arterial and/or venous thromboembolic events. However, LA activity sustained by anti-FII antibodies has a much weaker association with thrombosis than LA activity sustained by anti-beta(2)-GPI antibodies. Because assays aimed at detecting LA activity are now commercially available, we evaluated the relative sensitivity to anti-FII and anti-beta(2)-GPI antibodies of a commercial LA assay in a consecutive series of patients with the clinical suspicion of anti-phospholipid antibody (APA) syndrome. DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred and ten consecutive patients with the clinical suspicion of APA syndrome (primary in 39) and 36 healthy controls were evaluated for the presence of LA activity (LA, Staclot, Stago), anticardiolipin antibodies (Quanta Lite aCL IgG, IgM, Inova Diagnostics), and IgG binding to solid-phase and/or phospholipid (PL)-bound beta(2)-GPI and FII by ELISA assays developed an optimized in our laboratory. Odds ratios for the association of IgG binding activity with LA and the aCL IgG status were calculated. In LA patients, dependency of LA potency (as assessed by clotting time prolongation in absence or presence of hexagonal phospholipid) on autoantibody titers was analyzed by the generalized linear model. Total IgG fractions were purified from selected patients to evaluate their ability to inhibit prothrombin activation at low FII concentration. RESULTS: Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) of the IgG or IgM type were found in 64 and 23 patients and LA activity in 49 patients. Anti-beta(2)-GPI and anti-FII (solid-phase and PL-bound) IgG titers exceeding by more than 3 standard deviations the mean values observed in control subjects were found in 46 and 47 patients and in 56 and 30 patients respectively, with the highest titers detected in the subgroup of patients with both LA and aCL IgG. The relative risk of LA for patients free of anti-FII and/or anti-beta(2)-GPI IgG was 0.03 after stratification for the aCL IgG status. Anti-beta(2)-GPI (solid-phase and PL-bound) IgG (RR 34.4 and 12.6) and anti-FII (solid-phase) IgG (RR 6.33) were all associated with LA activity. However, when taking into account co-existence of anti-FII and anti-beta(2)-GPI IgG in the same patients, the relative risk of LA for patients with isolated anti-FII IgG (solid-phase and/or PL-bound) was 0.50, whereas it ranged from 4.24 to 8.70 for all the antibody combinations including anti-beta(2)-GPI IgG. Anti-beta(2)-GPI (PL-bound) and aCL IgG titers were the only significant predictors of LA potency determined in absence phospholipid (anti-beta(2)-GPI IgG) or in presence of hexagonal phospholipid (aCL IgG). Total IgG fractions purified from 12 patients (6 with anti-FII IgG) did not significantly inhibit factor II activity up to a 150-fold molar excess. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the high prevalence of anti-FII and anti-beta(2)-GPI IgG in patients with the clinical suspicion of APA syndrome and particularly in the subgroup of patients with LA activity. The fraction of LA activity which can be quenched by addition of hexagonal phospholipid is, however, only dependent on IgG directed to PL-bound beta(2)-GPI. Other antibodies associated with anticardiolipin IgG may explain residual clotting time prolongation observed in the presence of hexagonal phospholipid. (+info)
Response of vitamin K status to different intakes and sources of phylloquinone-rich foods: comparison of younger and older adults.
BACKGROUND: Phylloquinone, found in dark-green vegetables and certain plant oils, is the primary dietary source of the fat-soluble vitamin K. Limited data suggest that the relative bioavailability of phylloquinone from vegetables is lower than that from a supplement. This finding is relevant to the maintenance of optimal vitamin K status. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare, in younger and older adults, the relative bioavailability of phylloquinone from a vegetable with that of a fortified oil. DESIGN: In a crossover design with three 15-d residency periods in a metabolic unit, younger and older men and women (n = 36) consumed a mixed diet containing 100 microg phylloquinone/d. During 2 residency periods, the mixed diet was supplemented for 5 d with either broccoli (377 microg phylloquinone/d; broccoli diet) or phylloquinone-fortified oil (417 microg/d; oil diet). The relative bioavailability of phylloquinone was defined by the difference in plasma phylloquinone, percentage serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC), and urinary gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in response to 5 d of supplementation. RESULTS: For both younger and older adults, plasma phylloquinone concentrations were higher (P < 0.001) and %ucOC values were lower (P = 0.001) after the broccoli and oil diets than after the mixed diet only. Overall, the response to broccoli supplementation was not significantly different from the response to the fortified oil in either age group. Urinary gamma-carboxyglutamic acid did not change in response to supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in the relative bioavailability of phylloquinone, as evidenced by the lack of a significant difference in plasma phylloquinone and %ucOC between the 2 groups after either the broccoli or oil diets for younger and older adults. (+info)
Laboratory evaluation of difenacoum as a rodenticide.
The efficacy of difenacoum as a new anticoagulant rodenticide was evaluated by blood coagulation studies and laboratory feeding tests using warfarin-resistant and non-resistant common rats (Rattus norvegicus), ship rats (R. rattus) and house mice (Mus musculus). Prothrombin assays indicated that the compound had as marked an activity with warfarin-resistant common rats as coumatetralyl had with non-resistant animals. Feeding tests confirmed that 0-005% would be a near-optimal concentration for field use, although there was some evidence of unpalatability. Results with ship rats and house mice were less favourable. Trials with enclosed colonies of warfarin-resistant mice confirmed the laboratory finding that although difenacoum was more effective than all other currently used anticoagulants, it was unlikely to give complete control. It is concluded that difenacoum is a valuable new rodenticide, especiaaly for controlling warfarin-resistant common rats. (+info)