Vitronectin inhibits the thrombotic response to arterial injury in mice.
Vitronectin (VN) binds to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and integrins and may play an important role in the vascular response to injury by regulating fibrinolysis and cell migration. However, the role of VN in the earliest response to vascular injury, thrombosis, is not well characterized. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that variation in vitronectin expression alters the thrombotic response to arterial injury in mice. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) injury was used to induce platelet-rich thrombi in mouse carotid arteries. Wild-type (VN +/+, n = 14) and VN-deficient (VN -/-, n = 15) mice, matched for age and gender, were studied. Time to occlusion after FeCl3 injury was determined by application of a Doppler flowprobe to the carotid artery. Occlusion times of VN -/- mice were significantly shorter than those of VN +/+ mice (6.0 +/- 1.2 minutes v 17.8 +/- 2.3 minutes, respectively, P < .001). Histologic analysis of injured arterial segments showed that thrombi from VN +/+ and VN -/- mice consisted of dense platelet aggregates. In vitro studies of murine VN +/+ and VN -/- platelets showed no significant differences in ADP-induced aggregation, but a trend towards increased thrombin-induced aggregation in VN -/- platelets. Purified, denatured VN inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, whereas native VN did not. Thrombin times of plasma from VN -/- mice (20.5 +/- 2.1 seconds, n = 4) were significantly shorter than those of VN +/+ mice (34.2 +/- 6.7 seconds, n = 4, P < .01), and the addition of purified VN to VN -/- plasma prolonged the thrombin time into the normal range, suggesting that VN inhibits thrombin-fibrinogen interactions. PAI-1-deficient mice (n = 6) did not demonstrate significantly enhanced arterial thrombosis compared with wild-type mice (n = 6), excluding a potential indirect antithrombin function of VN mediated by interactions with PAI-1 as an explanation for the accelerated thrombosis observed in VN -/- mice. These results suggest that vitronectin plays a previously unappreciated antithrombotic role at sites of arterial injury and that this activity may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting platelet-platelet interactions and/or thrombin procoagulant activity. (+info)
Preparation and characterization of 'heparinocytes': erythrocytes with covalently bound low molecular weight heparin.
In an attempt to create the possibility of stable, long acting, intravascular anticoagulation, low molecular weight heparin was modified by introducing a sulfhydryl group into the molecule (LMWH-SH). Human erythrocytes were covalently grafted with LMWH-SH by the use of a heterobifunctional coupling reagent which reacts with the SH group of LMWH-SH and surface exposed amino groups of erythrocytes now called 'heparinocytes' (HC). HC were morphologically indistinguishable from untreated erythrocytes and displayed identical osmotic resistance. The functionality of HC was analyzed by classical coagulation tests in which they dose dependently inhibited clot formation. HC were also functional in recalcified whole blood inhibiting thrombin formation as assessed by the cleavage of the chromogenic substrate S-2238. The system appears applicable as a potential autologous, long-term anticoagulant treatment or prophylaxis. (+info)
Anticoagulative effect of pepsin.
Anticoagulative effect of pepsin is observed in vitro when its concentration is 36 microM and higher. This effect is due to inhibition of fibrin monomer polymerization. Protamine abolishes anticoagulative effect of pepsin. Pepsin does not influence platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen. (+info)
Coagulation and bleeding disorders: review and update.
Hemostasis is initiated by injury to the vascular wall, leading to the deposition of platelets adhering to components of the subendothelium. Platelet adhesion requires the presence of von Willebrand factor and platelet receptors (IIb/IIIa and Ib/IX). Additional platelets are recruited to the site of injury by release of platelet granular contents, including ADP. The "platelet plug" is stabilized by interaction with fibrinogen. In this review, I consider laboratory tests used to evaluate coagulation, including prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, and platelet count. I discuss hereditary disorders of platelets and/or coagulation proteins that lead to clinical bleeding as well as acquired disorders, including disseminated intravascular coagulation and acquired circulating anticoagulants. (+info)
Fibrinogen Ales: a homozygous case of dysfibrinogenemia (gamma-Asp(330)-->Val) characterized by a defective fibrin polymerization site "a".
Congenital homozygous dysfibrinogenemia was diagnosed in a man with a history of 2 thrombotic strokes before age 30. His hemostatic profile was characterized by a dramatically prolonged plasma thrombin clotting time, and no clotting was observed with reptilase. Complete clotting of the abnormal fibrinogen occurred after a prolonged incubation of plasma with thrombin. The release of fibrinopeptides A and B by thrombin and of fibrinopeptide A by reptilase were both normal. Thrombin-induced fibrin polymerization was impaired, and no polymerization occurred with reptilase. The polymerization defect was characterized by a defective site "a," resulting in an absence of interaction between sites A and a, indicated by the lack of fragment D(1) (or fibrinogen) binding to normal fibrin monomers depleted in fibrinopeptide A only (Des-AA fm). By SDS-PAGE, the defect was detected on the gamma-chain and in its fragment D(1). The molecular defect determined by analysis of genomic DNA showed a single base change (A-->T) in exon VIII of the gamma-chain. The resulting change in the amino acid structure is gamma 330 aspartic acid (GAT) --> valine (GTT). It is concluded that the residue gamma-Asp(330) is essential for the normal functioning of the polymerization site a on the fibrinogen gamma-chain. (+info)
Immunologic impact and clinical outcomes after surgical exposure to bovine thrombin.
OBJECTIVE: To determine prospectively the immunologic response and adverse clinical events in surgical patients exposed to bovine thrombin during cardiac surgical procedures. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Topical bovine thrombin is used extensively as a hemostatic agent during cardiovascular surgery. Antibodies developing after exposure to bovine thrombin have been anecdotally associated with hemorrhagic complications. METHODS: One hundred fifty-one patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures were prospectively recruited for this study before surgical exposure with topical bovine thrombin. Immunoassays were used to determine antibody levels against both bovine and human coagulation proteins before and after exposure to bovine thrombin. Alterations in coagulation assay parameters and adverse clinical events were followed in all patients enrolled in the study. RESULTS: Baseline elevated antibody levels to one or more bovine coagulation proteins were observed most frequently in patients with a prior history of a surgical procedure during which bovine thrombin is frequently used. More than 95% of patients developed a seropositive response to bovine coagulation proteins, and 51% manifested elevated antibody levels to the corresponding human coagulation proteins after bovine thrombin exposure. Postoperative coagulation abnormalities were more common in patients with antibodies to human coagulation proteins. Patients with multiple elevated antibody levels to bovine proteins before surgery were more likely to sustain an adverse clinical outcome after surgery. Using a logistic regression model, the adjusted odds ratio for sustaining an adverse event with multiple elevated antibody levels to bovine proteins before surgery was 5.40. CONCLUSIONS: Bovine thrombin preparations are highly immunogenic and appear to be associated with an increased risk for adverse clinical outcomes during subsequent surgical procedures. The clinical safety of these commonly used preparations needs to be reassessed, and reexposure to these agents should likely be avoided. (+info)
Purification and properties of three new phospholipase A2 isoenzymes from Micropechis ikaheka venom.
Three new phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoenzymes were purified from the Micropechis ikaheka venom by successive chromatographies. The homogeneity of them was accessed by capillary zone electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Their N-terminal sequences showed high identity (94, 88 and 90, respectively) with MiPLA-1, a group IB PLA2 also from this venom. In addition, strong immuno-cross-reaction with anti-MiPLA-1 serum was observed. These results suggested that three newly purified PLA2 belonged to group IB. Beside enzymatic activity, they induced various pharmacological effects, including myotoxic, anticoagulant effects and insulin secretion stimulating effects. Our results indicated that enzymatic activity is essential for their myotoxic and anticoagulant effects. On the other hand, no direct correlation between their insulin secretion stimulating effect and enzymatic activity was observed, suggesting that they may stimulate insulin secretion through a non-enzymatic mechanism. (+info)
Fibrinogen Philadelphia. A hereditary hypodysfibrinogenemia characterized by fibrinogen hypercatabolism.
A new, autosomally inherited abnormal fibrinogen associated with hypofibrinogenemia has been described in several members of a family. Plasma fibrinogen measured either as thrombin-clottable protein or by immunodiffusion revealed a fibrinogen level ranging between 60 and 90 mg/100 ml. The thrombin time of plasma or purified fibrinogen was prolonged and only partially corrected by the addition of calcium. Purified fibrinogen prolonged the thrombin time of normal plasma. Fibrinopeptide release by thrombin was normal in rate and amount, but fibrin monomer aggregation was grossly disturbed, especially in a high ionic strength medium. We have designated this fibrinogen "fibrinogen Philadelphia." Acrylamide gel electrophoresis of mixtures of [121I]normal and [125I]abnormal fibrinogens revealed a slight increase in the anodal mobility of fibrinogen Philadelphia. Similarly, DEAE-cellulose chromatography showed slightly stronger binding of fibrinogen Philadelphia than normal. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for the low plasma fibrinogen concentration, simultaneous metabolic studies of autologous (patient) and homologous (normal) fibrinogen, labeled with 125I and 121I, respectively, were performed in two affected subjects. Autologous fibrinogen half-life was short and the fractional catabolic rate was markedly increased in both family members. In contrast, homologous fibrinogen half-life and fractional catabolic rate were normal. These metabolic studies demonstrate that rapid degradation of fibrinogen Philadelphia is largely responsible for the depressed levels of a plasma fibrinogen. This represents the first example of a mutant plasma protein in which the molecular defect is associated with an altered catabolism. (+info)