Identifying Cloninger's temperament profiles as related to the early development of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome in young men.
Our aim in this study was to (1) identify naturally occurring temperament profiles in young adulthood by using Cloninger's temperament dimensions and (2) examine the relationship of these profiles with the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome (insulin resistance syndrome, IRS) measured during adolescence and young adulthood. A randomly selected sample of 190 healthy, young adult men was divided into 4 temperament groups by cluster analysis. Physiological parameters studied were serum insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, body-mass index, subscapular skinfold thickness, and the IRS factor. The results showed that a temperament profile characterized by a high level of persistence and reward dependence, an average level of novelty seeking, and a low level of harm avoidance was related to a high level of physiological CHD risk factors; in 3 study phases over a 6-year period, the subjects belonging to that cluster in adulthood were shown to have always belonged to the highest risk group in terms of the physiological risk factors in adolescence and young adulthood. The findings suggest that the temperament profile in question may predispose an individual to the development of the IRS and CHD. (+info)
Ligand interaction with the purified serotonin transporter in solution and at the air/water interface.
The purified serotonin transporter (SERT) was spread at the air/water interface and the effects both of its surface density and of the temperature on its interfacial behavior were studied. The recorded isotherms evidenced the existence of a stable monolayer undergoing a lengthy rearrangement. SERT/ligand interactions appeared to be dependent on the nature of the studied molecules. Whereas an unrelated drug (chlorcyclizine) did not bind to the spread SERT, it interacted with its specific ligands. Compared to heterocyclic drugs, for which binding appeared to be concentration-dependent, a 'two-site' mechanism was evidenced for pinoline and imipramine. (+info)
Pain-sensitive temperament: does it predict procedural distress and response to psychological treatment among children with cancer?
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between pain sensitivity and children's distress during lumbar punctures (LPs), and whether pain sensitivity functions as a moderator of children's responses to a psychological intervention aimed at reducing LP distress. METHOD: Fifty-five children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ages 3 to 18) and their parents completed a questionnaire measure of pain sensitivity. Self-report, physiological, and observed measures of distress were collected during the study baseline LP. Children were then randomized into a psychological intervention or an attention control group. Postintervention and follow-up LPs were observed. RESULTS: Higher levels of pain sensitivity were associated with greater anxiety and pain, both prior to and during the LP. Preliminary analyses indicated that pain sensitivity moderated the effects of intervention on distress. Children who were more pain-sensitive and who received no intervention showed greater increases in LP distress over time. In contrast, children who were more pain-sensitive and who received intervention showed greater decreases in LP distress over time. CONCLUSIONS: A measurement of pain sensitivity may be useful in pediatric oncology settings for effectively targeting pain-vulnerable children for psychological intervention. Preliminary analyses indicate that an empirically-supported intervention for procedural distress is efficacious for those children who are most pain-sensitive. (+info)
A multivariate model of determinants of motor change for children with cerebral palsy.
The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a theory- and data-based model of determinants of motor change for children with cerebral palsy. The dimensions of human functioning proposed by the World Health Organization, general systems theory, theories of human ecology, and a philosophical approach incorporating family-centered care provide the conceptual framework for the model. The model focuses on relationships among child characteristics (eg, primary and secondary impairments, personality), family ecology (eg, dynamics of family function), and health care services (eg, availability, access, intervention options). Clarification of the complex multivariate and interactive relationships among the multiple child and family determinants, using statistical methods such as structural equation modeling, is necessary before determining how physical therapy intervention can optimize motor outcomes of children with cerebral palsy. We propose that the development and testing of multivariate models is also useful in physical therapy research and in the management of complex chronic conditions other than cerebral palsy. Testing of similar models could provide physical therapists with support for: (1) prognostic discussions with clients and their families, (2) establishment of realistic and attainable goals, and (3) interventions to enhance outcomes for individual clients with a variety of prognostic attributes. (+info)
The relationship between reaction to sudden, intermittent movements and sounds and temperament.
Casual observations indicated that some cattle are more sensitive to sudden movement or intermittent sound than other cattle. Six commercial livestock auctions in two states and a total of 1,636 cattle were observed to assess the relationship between breed, sex, and temperament score on the response to sudden, intermittent visual and sound stimuli, such as the ringman swinging his arm for a bid and the sound of him briefly yelling a bid. A 4-point temperament score was used to score each animal while it was in the ring. The scores used were 1) walks and(or) stands still, with slow, smooth body movements; 2) continuously walks or trots, and vigilant; 3) gait is faster than a trot (runs even a couple of steps), with fast, abrupt, jerky movements, and very vigilant; and 4) hits the ring fence, walls, partitions, or people with its head. Animals were observed for flinches, startle responses, or orientation toward sudden, intermittent sounds, motions, and tactile stimulation, such as being touched with a cane or plastic paddle. The cattle observed were mostly Bos taurus beef breeds and Holstein dairy cattle. Holsteins were more sound-sensitive (P = .02) and touch-sensitive (P < .01) than beef cattle. Sensitivity to sudden, intermittent stimuli (e.g., sound, motion, and touch) increased as temperament score (excitability) increased. Cattle with a temperament score of 1 were the least sensitive to sudden, intermittent movement and sound and those with a temperament score of 4 were the most sensitive (P < .01). This same relationship was sometimes observed for touch but was not statistically significant. Motion-sensitive cattle were more likely than nonsensitive cattle to score a temperament rating of 3 or 4 (P < .01). Steers and heifers were more motion-sensitive than the older bulls and cows (P = .03). Beef cattle urinated (P < .01, n = 1,581) and defecated (P < .01, n = 1,582) more often in the ring than did dairy cattle. Cattle that became agitated during handling in an auction ring were the individuals that were most likely to be startled by sudden, intermittent sounds and movements. Reactivity to sudden, intermittent stimuli may be an indicator of an excitable temperament. (+info)
Parenting stress in mothers of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) and full-term infants: a function of infant behavioral characteristics and child-rearing attitudes.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the moderating effects of child-rearing attitudes on the relation between parenting stress and infant behavioral characteristics for mothers of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) and full-term infants. METHODS: Fifty-six 9-month-old infants (23 VLBW and 33 full-term) and their mothers were the participants. Mothers completed measures of parenting stress, child-rearing attitudes, infant temperament, and infant behavioral problems. RESULTS: The VLBW infants had a higher frequency of behavioral problems, and their mothers reported more child health concerns than the mothers of the full-term infants. Regression analyses showed that the relation between parenting stress and infant distress was moderated at medium and high levels of parental strictness for only the VLBW infants. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of stress the mothers of the VLBW infants experienced was a result of the congruence between their infant's behavioral characteristics and their own child-rearing attitudes. (+info)
The primate amygdala mediates acute fear but not the behavioral and physiological components of anxious temperament.
Temperamentally anxious individuals can be identified in childhood and are at risk to develop anxiety and depressive disorders. In addition, these individuals tend to have extreme asymmetric right prefrontal brain activity. Although common and clinically important, little is known about the pathophysiology of anxious temperament. Regardless, indirect evidence from rodent studies and difficult to interpret primate studies is used to support the hypothesis that the amygdala plays a central role. In previous studies using rhesus monkeys, we characterized an anxious temperament endophenotype that is associated with excessive anxiety and fear-related responses and increased electrical activity in right frontal brain regions. To examine the role of the amygdala in mediating this endophenotype and other fearful responses, we prepared monkeys with selective fiber sparing ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala. Unconditioned trait-like anxiety-fear responses remained intact in monkeys with >95% bilateral amygdala destruction. In addition, the lesions did not affect EEG frontal asymmetry. However, acute unconditioned fear responses, such as those elicited by exposure to a snake and to an unfamiliar threatening conspecific were blunted in monkeys with >70% lesions. These findings demonstrate that the primate amygdala is involved in mediating some acute unconditioned fear responses but challenge the notion that the amygdala is the key structure underlying the dispositional behavioral and physiological characteristics of anxious temperament. (+info)
The relation of daily stressors to somatic and emotional symptoms in children with and without recurrent abdominal pain.
Prior investigations of the relation between stressors and symptoms in children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) have focused on major negative life events. This study used consecutive daily telephone interviews to assess daily stressors and symptoms in 154 pediatric patients with RAP and 109 well children. Results showed that patients with RAP reported more frequent daily stressors than well children reported both at home and at school. Idiographic (within-subject) analyses indicated that the association between daily stressors and somatic symptoms was significantly stronger for patients with RAP than for well children. In contrast, the relation between daily stressors and negative affect did not differ between the groups. The relation between daily stressors and somatic symptoms was stronger for patients with RAP who had higher levels of trait negative affectivity. (+info)