Value of captopril renal scintigraphy in hypertensive patients with renal failure.
The aims of this study were to show the value of captopril renal scintigraphy for detecting a renovascular cause in hypertensive patients with renal failure and to assess the ability to predict the beneficial effect of revascularization on renal function. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with renal failure (mean glomerular filtration rate = 35 mL/min) underwent renal scintigraphy after injection of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine. Baseline scintigraphy was performed, and the test was repeated 24 h later after oral administration of 50 mg captopril given 60 min before the test. RESULTS: In 5 of 6 patients with a renovascular cause for renal failure, and 2 of 3 patients with a probable arterial pathology, scintigraphy had a high probability. The result was indeterminate in the other 2 patients. In 5 of 11 patients with negative arteriography and 14 of 18 patients with probable absence of renovascular pathology, we found a low probability of functional renal artery stenosis. Six revascularization procedures were performed and were predictive of a beneficial effect in 5 patients. Time of peak activity was an effective predictor in each case. CONCLUSION: In hypertensive patients with renal failure, captopril renal scintigraphy can detect hemodynamic dysfunction downstream from a renal artery stenosis and can predict the beneficial effect of revascularization in some cases. (+info)
Evaluation of renal function from 99mTc-MAG3 renography without blood sampling.
To develop a camera-based method for evaluating renal function with 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), we examined the relationship between various renogram parameters and 99mTc-MAG3 clearance. METHODS: Twenty-one patients underwent renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-MAG3. Eighty 3-s frames were obtained after the bolus injection of 250 MBq tracer, followed by the collection of 52 30-s frames. Regions of interest were drawn for the kidneys, perirenal background areas and subrenal background areas, and background-subtracted renograms were generated. Renal accumulation at 0.5-1.5, 0.5-2, 1-2, 1-2.5 and 1.5-2.5 min after tracer arrival in the kidney was calculated as area under the background-subtracted renogram, and percent renal uptake was obtained after correction for soft-tissue attenuation and injected dose. The slope of the renogram was determined for the same segments used in calculating area under the renogram, and slope index was computed as slope corrected for attenuation and injected dose. Percent renal uptakes and slope indices were correlated by linear regression analysis with 99mTc-MAG3 clearance measured using a single blood sampling method. RESULTS: Among the values of percent renal uptake, the value obtained at 1.5-2.5 min using the perirenal background correlated best with 99mTc-MAG3 clearance. The slope index at 0.5-1.5 or 0.5-2 min using the subrenal background provided better accuracy than percent renal uptake for predicting clearance. There were no substantial differences in the relative function of the right kidney between the methods using percent renal uptake and slope index. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-MAG3 clearance can be assessed with acceptable accuracy by a camera-based method. The method based on the slope of the renogram may replace the one based on the area under the renogram in evaluating renal function from 99mTc-MAG3 renograms. (+info)
In vivo and in vitro characterizations of three 99mTc-labeled monoclonal antibody G250 preparations.
In previous clinical studies, excellent visualization of tumor lesions has been observed with 131I-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) G250 in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In several cases, 131I-cG250 immunoscintigraphy disclosed tumor lesions that were not visualized by radiography or CT. To improve image quality, we aimed to develop a 99mTc-labeled mAb G250 preparation for radioimmunodetection of RCC. We studied in vitro stability, biodistribution and imaging potential of three 99mTc-labeled G250 preparations in nude mice with subcutaneous RCC xenografts.125I-G250 and the nonspecific mAb 131I-MN14 were used as control antibodies. METHODS: The mAb G250 was labeled with 99mTc according to three methods using: (a) S-hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC), (b) S-benzoylmercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) and (c) a direct labeling method (Schwarz method). The stability of all preparations was tested in serum at 37 degrees C during 48 h. In addition, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, cysteine and glutathione challenge assays were performed. RESULTS: All preparations showed good stability in serum during the 48-h incubation period. 99mTc-G250 (Schwarz) showed release of the radiolabel at a 100-fold or higher molar excess of cysteine and at a 10,000-fold or higher molar excess of glutathione. 99mTc-MAG3-G250 showed release of the radiolabel at a 10,000-fold molar excess of cysteine. 99mTc-HYNIC-G250 was stable under all conditions. Tumors were clearly visualized with all preparations. 99mTc-G250 (Schwarz) showed significantly lower blood levels (3.8 %ID/g) compared with all other preparations (11.2, 13.4 and 13.4 %ID/g for 99mTc-HYNIC-G250, 99mTc-MAG3-G250 and 125I-G250, respectively, 48 h postinjection). At 48-h postinjection, mean tumor uptake was very high with all mAb G250 preparations: 92.4 (99mTc-HYNIC-G250), 125.9 (99mTc-MAG3-G250), 29.4 (99mTc-G250 Schwarz) and 75.4 (125I-G250) %ID/g. Mean tumor uptake of the nonspecific 131I-MN14 mAb was 6.6 %ID/g. CONCLUSION: In this study, 99mTc-HYNIC-G250 showed excellent in vitro stability and tumor targeting. Moreover, this preparation could be labeled with high efficiency (>95%) at room temperature within 15 min. Therefore, 99mTc-HYNIC-G250 seems to be an ideal candidate for radioimmunodetection of RCC. (+info)
Dynamic SPECT evaluation of renal plasma flow using technetium-99m MAG3 in kidney transplant patients.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate Patlak's graphic analysis method to determine renal plasma flow (RPF) in kidney transplants. METHODS: Dynamic SPECT was performed with 99mTc MAG3 in 12 patients. RPF was determined by both Patlak's graphic analysis method and Russell's method. Ventral, central and dorsal tomographic images of the transplanted kidney were reconstructed to estimate intrarenal distribution of renal plasma flow. RESULTS: The renal influx constant (Ku) calculated by Patlak's graphic analysis method was reproducible and correlated with both serum creatinine (r = -0.88, P < 0.001) and blood urea nitorogen levels (r = -0.82, P < 0.002). However, a significant difference was noted between the RPF values derived from Patlak's graphic analysis method and Russell's method. Ku was corrected by a factor calculated from raw and reconstructed data, and the resulting values were in fair agreement with those determined by Russell's method. CONCLUSION: These methods are useful in evaluating the function of transplanted kidneys. (+info)
Reproducibility of single-sample clearance of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine and 131I-orthoiodohippurate.
Recent literature has questioned whether 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) clearance measurements are reproducible enough for routine clinical monitoring of renal function. For many years, we have routinely followed the renal function of patients with spinal cord injuries using a combination of radionuclide imaging and clearance measurement. METHODS: In this study, we retrospectively review 1626 effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) measurements in 197 patients with paraplegia or quadriplegia performed over a 21-y period, using 131I-orthoiodohippurate (OIH) through 1990 and MAG3 since 1991. MAG3 clearance was divided by 0.53 to convert it to ERPF. Reproducibility was measured as pooled SD from the single-patient linear regression lines of ERPF versus time. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference between MAG3 (SD = 46 mL/min, n = 907) and OIH (SD = 52 mL/min, n = 719). The data were therefore combined to obtain the SD for a single ERPF measurement, which was 49 mL/min. The corresponding coefficient of variation was 8.5% of the mean value of 581 mL/min. In our experience, this is adequate for monitoring the renal function of these patients. (+info)
Relative 99mTc-MAG3 renal uptake: reproducibility and accuracy.
The aim of this study was to estimate the reproducibility and accuracy of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) relative percentage uptake. METHODS: Reproducibility was evaluated on healthy volunteers who were submitted twice to a 99mTc-MAG3 renographic study, which used different uptake algorithms, different background corrections and different time intervals. Accuracy was evaluated in a group of patients with symmetrical or asymmetrical relative renal function, who underwent both 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and 99mTc-MAG3 studies, using the DMSA relative percentage uptake as a reference. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The methods that combined the best reproducibility and accuracy for estimating 99mTc-MAG3 left-to-right uptake ratio were the integral method, with subrenal or perirenal background correction, and the Patlak-Rutland plot. The use of the integral method without background correction introduced a systematic bias, whereas the slope method resulted in high variability. Therefore these methods cannot be recommended. (+info)
A comparison of deconvolution and the Patlak-Rutland plot in renography analysis.
Deconvolution and the Patlak-Rutland plot are two of the most commonly used methods for analyzing dynamic radionuclide renography. Both methods allow estimation of absolute and relative renal uptake of radiopharmaceutical and of its rate of transit through the kidney. METHODS: A theoretical comparison of uptake assessment by both techniques is made and a mathematical derivation of the relationship between mean transit time (MTT) and renal outflow efficiency (ROE) is presented. The validity of these theoretical findings was tested in a series of 120 renograms obtained using 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3). RESULTS: The estimates of renal uptake obtained are theoretically equivalent. The renogram measurements confirmed this, because there was no significant systematic difference in relative counts obtained by the two methods. Absolute counts were significantly higher for the deconvolution measurements, but only by 2.0%. The SDs of the differences between the two techniques, expressed as a percentage of the mean, were 1.7% and 5.4% for relative and absolute counts, respectively. There was an inverse monotonic relationship between MTT and ROE. ROE evaluated at a particular time was shown to depend on absolute renal function. Measured values of MTT and ROE were consistent with the theoretical prediction. CONCLUSION: The two approaches to renogram analysis provide consistent parameters for both uptake and transit evaluation. (+info)
F+0 diuresis renography in infants and children.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of modifying diuresis renography by the simultaneous administration of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) and furosemide in the investigation of hydronephrosis and hydroureteronephrosis in infants and children. Two parameters were assessed: the diuretic response in normal kidneys and the ability of the F+0 study to differentiate between renal obstruction and nonobstruction and to identify the level of obstruction in cases of renal obstruction. METHODS: Seventy-two patients (48 males, 24 females; age 2 d to 7 y; median age 6 wk) with sonographic diagnoses of hydronephrosis or hydroureteronephrosis were reviewed prospectively over a 3-y period. All patients had prior sonographic studies and micturating cystourethrography. Bladder catheterization was not routinely performed and was undertaken only if the child had suspected vesicoureteric junction (VUJ) obstruction or grade II or more vesicoureteric reflux. A weight-adjusted dose of 99mTc-MAG3 (maximum 200 MBq, minimum 20 MBq) and 1 mg/kg of furosemide (maximum 40 mg) were administered intravenously at the same time. Posterior imaging of the kidneys and bladder was performed for 20 min and followed by gravity-assisted drainage or imaging after voiding. All patients were followed-up for 6-12 mo, and the final diagnoses were based on either surgery or conservative management with repeated sonography or follow-up 99mTc-MAG3 studies (or both). The results of the F+0 diuresis renography were then compared with the final diagnoses. RESULTS: A renal unit was defined as a kidney and its ureter. There were 151 renal units with 1 patient having bilateral duplex kidneys, 6 patients having unilateral duplex kidneys and 1 patient having a solitary kidney. Fifty-five normal renal units and 96 abnormal renal units on the basis of sonographic findings were assessed. The furosemide clearance half-time for the 55 normal renal units was 1.3-6.3 min (mean 3.8 min). Of the 96 abnormal renal units, 53 were classified as nonobstructed and 43 were classified as obstructed. Of the 53 renal units classified as nonobstructed, there were 48 true-negative studies and 5 false-negative studies; of the 43 renal units classified as obstructed, there were 40 true-positive studies and 3 false-positive studies. The sensitivity was 88.9%, specificity was 94.1% and accuracy was 91.7%. The level of obstruction, either pelviureteric junction or VUJ, was also correctly identified. CONCLUSION: F+0 diuresis renography shows excellent diuretic responses in normal kidneys and is a valid method for the investigation of hydronephrosis and hydroureteronephrosis in infants and children. (+info)