Spatial and temporal expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein during wound healing.
Parathyroid hormone-related protein is produced by many normal tissues including the skin, where it regulates growth and differentiation of keratinocytes. To define better the role of parathyroid hormone-related protein in the skin, we investigated the spatial and temporal expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein and mRNA by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization during the healing of skin wounds, and the effects of topical administration of a parathyroid hormone-related protein agonist [parathyroid hormone-related protein (1-36)] and a parathyroid hormone-related protein antagonist [parathyroid hormone (7-34)] on the healing rate and morphology of the wounds. Wounds were produced on the back of guinea pigs with a 4 mm punch, and wound sites were collected at different time points during the healing process. Parathyroid hormone-related protein was expressed in normal skin by all viable keratinocyte layers, hair follicles, and adnexae. Following injury, migratory keratinocytes at wound margins and the newly restored epidermis expressed increased levels of parathyroid hormone-related protein. The remodeling phase was associated with progressive restoration of the pattern of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression in normal epidermis. Granulation tissue myofibroblasts and infiltrating macrophages also expressed parathyroid hormone-related protein. In vitro studies using THP-1 cells (a promonocytic cell line) confirmed that macrophages expressed parathyroid hormone-related protein, especially after activation. Topical application of parathyroid hormone related protein (1-36) or parathyroid hormone (7-34) did not result in significant changes in the healing rate and morphology of the wounds. These findings demonstrated that, in addition to keratinocytes, myofibroblasts and macrophages also represent sources of parathyroid hormone-related protein during the healing of skin wounds. Although the data suggest a role for parathyroid hormone-related protein in the healing of skin and in the restoration of epidermal homeostasis, parathyroid hormone-related protein does not appear to be required for proper re-epithelialization in response to injury, potentially because of redundancy in epidermal growth and wound healing, as has been shown for other paracrine and autocrine growth factors of the epidermis. (+info)
Chimera analysis reveals that fibroblasts and endothelial cells require platelet-derived growth factor receptorbeta expression for participation in reactive connective tissue formation in adults but not during development.
The hypothesis that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) plays an important role in repair of connective tissue has been difficult to test experimentally, in part because the disruption of any of the PDGF ligand and receptor genes is embryonic lethal. We have developed a method that circumvents the embryonic lethality of the PDGF receptor (R)beta-/- genotype and minimizes the tendency of compensatory processes to mask the phenotype of gene disruption by comparing the behavior of wild-type and PDGFRbeta-/- cells within individual chimeric mice. This quantitative chimera analysis method has revealed that during development PDGFRbeta expression is important for all muscle lineages but not for fibroblast or endothelial lineages. Here we report that fibroblasts and endothelial cells, but not leukocytes, are dependent on PDGFRbeta expression during the formation of new connective tissue in and around sponges implanted under the skin. Even the 50% reduction in PDGFRbeta gene dosage in PDGFRbeta+/- cells reduces fibroblast and endothelial cell participation by 85%. These results demonstrate that the PDGFRbeta/PDGF B-chain system plays an important direct role in driving both fibroblast and endothelial cell participation in connective tissue repair, that cell behavior can be regulated by relatively small changes in PDGFRbeta expression, and that the functions served by PDGF in wound healing are different from the roles served during development. (+info)
Fibrin microbeads (FMB) as biodegradable carriers for culturing cells and for accelerating wound healing.
We have developed biodegradable fibrin-derived microbeads as potent cell carriers. The fibrin-derived microbeads, 50-200 microm in diameter, were tested for their attachment to a wide range of cell types. Fibrin-derived microbeads were shown to be greatly haptotactic to cells (such as endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts), which respond to fibrinogen in contrast to keratinocytes and different cell lines derived from leukocytic lineage. The cells on fibrin-derived microbeads could be maintained for more than 10 d and achieved a high density. 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance was employed to monitor phosphate metabolism in cells, with densities on the order of 100 million cells per g of fibrin-derived microbeads. The 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine signals, equivalent to the signal obtained with perfused normal skin, indicated that metabolism of cells on fibrin-derived microbeads was responsive to oxygenation and nutrients. Light, fluorescent, and confocal laser microscopy revealed that the porous fibrin-derived microbeads accommodate up to 200-300 cells due to their high surface area which minimized contact inhibition. Cells could degrade the fibrin-derived microbeads and be transferred to seed culture flasks without trypsinization. In a pig skin wound healing model, fibrin-derived microbeads + fibroblasts were transplanted into full thickness punch wounds. This procedure was compared with other treatment modalities, such as the addition of human platelet-derived growth factor BB or fibrin-derived microbeads alone. By the third day after wounding, only the wounds in which fibroblasts on fibrin-derived microbeads were added showed significant formation of granulation tissue. Based on the above, we project many uses of our novel fibrin-derived microbead technology for cell culturing, wound healing and tissue engineering. (+info)
Survival, integration, and differentiation of cardiomyocyte grafts: a study in normal and injured rat hearts.
BACKGROUND: Cardiomyocyte grafting augments myocyte numbers in the heart. We investigated (1) how developmental stage influences graft survival; (2) whether acutely necrotic or healing cardiac lesions support grafts; and (3) the differentiation and integration of cardiomyocyte grafts in injured hearts. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiomyocytes from fetal, neonatal, or adult inbred rats were grafted into normal myocardium, acutely cryoinjured myocardium, or granulation tissue (6 days after injury). Adult cardiomyocytes did not survive under any conditions. In contrast, fetal and neonatal cardiomyocytes formed viable grafts under all conditions. Time-course studies with neonatal cardiomyocytes showed that the grafts recapitulated many aspects of normal development. The adherens junction protein N-cadherin was distributed circumferentially at day 1 but began to organize into intercalated disk-like structures by day 6. The gap junction protein connexin43 followed a similar but delayed pattern relative to N-cadherin. From 2 to 8 weeks, there was progressive hypertrophy and the formation of mature intercalated disks. In some hearts, graft cells formed adherens and gap junctions with host cardiomyocytes, suggesting electromechanical coupling. More commonly, however, grafts were separated from the host myocardium by scar tissue. Gap and adherens junctions formed between neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes in coculture, as evidenced by dye transfer and localization of cadherin and connexin43 at intercellular junctions. CONCLUSIONS: Grafted fetal and neonatal cardiomyocytes form new, mature myocardium with the capacity to couple with injured host myocardium. Optimal repair, however, may require reducing the isolation of the graft by the intervening scar tissue. (+info)
Expression of cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme after myocardial infarction.
AIM: To localize cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) during left ventricular repair after myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: Cardiac ACE was examined by immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against ACE 24 h, 1 wk, 2 wk, 3 wk, and 6 wk after coronary artery ligation in rats. Immunofluorescent double staining technique was applied to distinguish the cells which express ACE. RESULTS: ACE staining was confined to the endothelial cells and distributed in normal cardiac tissue in a gradient pattern along the vascular tree: present around the whole circle of arterial endothelium, present in about 20% of the capillaries, and absent in the veins. One week after MI, ACE expression was noted in the granulation tissue. Three weeks after MI, necrosis within the infarction was replaced by granulation tissue and fibrous tissue which showed strong over-expression of ACE. Six weeks after MI, the region with positive ACE staining regressed and the area with high collagen content on the endocardial side showed only weak ACE stain. Most of the ACE-positive cells in the ACE-over-expression-area were endothelial cells. A few macrophages seen in these regions were also ACE-positive. CONCLUSION: Cardiac ACE was over expressed during the process of tissue repair following MI, reaching a peak in 3 wk. Endothelial cells took the most part of ACE expression. (+info)
Expression of cathepsin K messenger RNA in giant cells and their precursors in human osteoarthritic synovial tissues.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of cathepsin K messenger RNA (mRNA) in the giant cells found in human osteoarthritic (OA) synovium and associated reparative connective tissues, and to compare this with mRNA expression of cathepsins B, L, and S, which are cysteine proteases known to be highly expressed by cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. METHODS: Sections of human OA synovium were processed for in situ hybridization and probed for cathepsins K, B, L, and S. Serial sections were reacted for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and nonspecific esterase (NSE) activity, which are selective markers for the osteoclast and cells of the macrophage/monocyte lineage, respectively. RESULTS: At 3 sites of monocyte infiltration/giant cell formation (granulation tissue, the intimal and subintimal synovial layers, and deep stroma extending to the periphery of osteophytic tissue), both TRAP-positive mono- and multinucleated cells and TRAP-negative, NSE-positive mononuclear precursors were identified. Cells containing both enzyme activities were also found, potentially indicating an intermediate stage of differentiation. The TRAP-positive mononuclear/giant cells, and the occasional NSE-positive precursor, expressed an intense signal for cathepsin K mRNA, but did not express cathepsins B, L, and S. In contrast, the deep zone of phagocytic-like cells adjacent to sites of ossification expressed high levels of mRNA for cathepsins L, B, and S as well as cathepsin K mRNA. CONCLUSION: Giant cells that form within OA synovial tissue express high levels of cathepsin K mRNA. It appears that cathepsin K acts principally to digest the bone (and cartilage) fragments sheered from the joint surface during OA. The high TRAP activity and the undetectable expression of the macrophage-associated degradative proteases (cathepsins B, L, and S) by synovial giant cells strengthens the hypothesis that cathepsin K is the primary protease involved in bone degradation. At sites of synovial osteogenesis, a population of phagocytic-like cells expressed TRAP and cathepsins B, L, S, and K, and may represent blood-derived macrophages pushed toward an osteoclast phenotype. (+info)
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a cysteine-rich peptide synthesized and secreted by fibroblastic cells after activation with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) that acts as a downstream mediator of TGF-beta-induced fibroblast proliferation. We performed in vitro and in vivo studies to determine whether CTGF is also essential for TGF-beta-induced fibroblast collagen synthesis. In vitro studies with normal rat kidney (NRK) fibroblasts demonstrated CTGF potently induces collagen synthesis and transfection with an antisense CTGF gene blocked TGF-beta stimulated collagen synthesis. Moreover, TGF-beta-induced collagen synthesis in both NRK and human foreskin fibroblasts was effectively blocked with specific anti-CTGF antibodies and by suppressing TGF-beta-induced CTGF gene expression by elevating intracellular cAMP levels with either membrane-permeable 8-Br-cAMP or an adenylyl cyclase activator, cholera toxin (CTX). cAMP also inhibited collagen synthesis induced by CTGF itself, in contrast to its previously reported lack of effect on CTGF-induced DNA synthesis. In animal assays, CTX injected intradermally in transgenic mice suppressed TGF-beta activation of a human CTGF promoter/lacZ reporter transgene. Both 8-Br-cAMP and CTX blocked TGF-beta-induced collagen deposition in a wound chamber model of fibrosis in rats. CTX also reduced dermal granulation tissue fibroblast population increases induced by TGF-beta in neonatal mice, but not increases induced by CTGF or TGF-beta combined with CTGF. Our data indicate that CTGF mediates TGF-beta-induced fibroblast collagen synthesis and that in vivo blockade of CTGF synthesis or action reduces TGF-beta-induced granulation tissue formation by inhibiting both collagen synthesis and fibroblast accumulation. (+info)
Arnebin-1 accelerates normal and hydrocortisone-induced impaired wound healing.
Wound healing involves inflammation, cell proliferation, matrix deposition, and tissue remodeling. Interaction of different cells, extracellular matrix proteins, and their receptors are mediated by cytokines and growth factors during wound healing. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of arnebin-1, a natural product isolated from Arnebia nobilis, on normal and impaired wound healing in cutaneous punch wound model. Arnebin-1 was applied topically daily on wounds of hydrocortisone-treated or untreated animals. Arnebin-1 significantly accelerated healing of wounds with or without hydrocortisone treatment as revealed by a reduction in the wound width and gap length compared with controls. Arnebin-1 treatment promoted the cell proliferation, migration, and vessel formation to form a thick granulation tissue and re-epithelialization of the wounds. An increase in the synthesis of collagen, fibronectin and transforming growth factor-beta1 was seen in arnebin-1-treated wounds compared with the untreated control. As transforming growth factor-beta1 is known to enhance wound healing, and associated with the wound healing defect in hydrocortisone-treated wounds, the enhanced expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 at both translational and transcriptional level by arnebin-1 may be responsible for the enhancement of wound healing during normal and impaired wound repair. These studies suggest that arnebin-1 could be developed as a potent therapeutic agent for wound healing in steroid-impaired wounds. (+info)