Computed radiography dual energy subtraction: performance evaluation when detecting low-contrast lung nodules in an anthropomorphic phantom.
A dedicated chest computed radiography (CR) system has an option of energy subtraction (ES) acquisition. Two imaging plates, rather than one, are separated by a copper filter to give a high-energy and low-energy image. This study compares the diagnostic accuracy of conventional computed radiography to that of ES obtained with two radiographic techniques. One soft tissue only image was obtained at the conventional CR technique (s = 254) and the second was obtained at twice the radiation exposure (s = 131) to reduce noise. An anthropomorphic phantom with superimposed low-contrast lung nodules was imaged 53 times for each radiographic technique. Fifteen images had no nodules; 38 images had a total of 90 nodules placed on the phantom. Three chest radiologists read the three sets of images in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study. Significant differences in Az were only found between (1) the higher exposure energy subtracted images and the conventional dose energy subtracted images (P = .095, 90% confidence), and (2) the conventional CR and the energy subtracted image obtained at the same technique (P = .024, 98% confidence). As a result of this study, energy subtracted images cannot be substituted for conventional CR images when detecting low-contrast nodules, even when twice the exposure is used to obtain them. (+info)
Relief of obstructive pelvic venous symptoms with endoluminal stenting.
PURPOSE: To select patients for percutaneous transluminal stenting of chronic postthrombotic pelvic venous obstructions (CPPVO), we evaluated the clinical symptoms in a cohort of candidates and in a series of successfully treated patients. METHODS: The symptoms of 42 patients (39 women) with CPPVO (38 left iliac; average history, 18 years) were recorded, and the venous anatomy was studied by means of duplex scanning, subtraction venography, and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Successfully stented patients were controlled by means of duplex scanning and assessment of symptoms. RESULTS: The typical symptoms of CPPVO were reported spontaneously by 24% of patients and uncovered by means of a targeted interview in an additional 47%. Of 42 patients, 15 had venous claudication, four had neurogenic claudication (caused by dilated veins in the spinal canal that arise from the collateral circulation), and 11 had both symptoms. Twelve patients had no specific symptoms. Placement of a stent was found to be technically feasible in 25 patients (60%), was attempted in 14 patients, and was primarily successful in 12 patients. One stent occluded within the first week. All other stents were fully patent after a mean of 15 months (range, 1 to 43 months). Satisfaction was high in the patients who had the typical symptoms, but low in those who lacked them. CONCLUSION: Venous claudication and neurogenic claudication caused by venous collaterals in the spinal canal are typical clinical features of CPPVO. We recommend searching for these symptoms, because recanalization by means of stenting is often feasible and rewarding. (+info)
Use of three-dimensional MR angiography for tracking a contrast bolus in the carotid artery.
Contrast-bolus tracking in the carotid bifurcation was accomplished using an MR angiographic technique with a 3D turbo field-echo readout (TR/TE = 6/3, flip angle = 50 degrees) modified by a keyhole scheme. Optimal visibility of the contrast bolus was achieved by digital subtraction from a reference volume. This technique reliably time-resolves the carotid arteries from the jugular veins. (+info)
Sensitivity and specificity of quantitative difference SPECT analysis in seizure localization.
True ictal SPECT can accurately demonstrate perfusion increases in the epileptogenic area but often requires dedicated personnel waiting at the bedside to accomplish the injection. We investigated the value of perfusion changes as measured by ictal or immediate postictal SPECT in localizing the epileptogenic region in refractory partial epilepsy. METHODS: Quantitative perfusion difference images were calculated by registering, normalizing and subtracting ictal (or immediate postictal) from interictal SPECT for 53 patients with refractory epilepsy. Perfusion difference SPECT results were compared with visually interpreted SPECT, scalp electroencephalography (EEG), MRI, PET and intracranial EEG. RESULTS: In 43 patients (81%), discrete areas of increased perfusion (with ictal injections) or decreased perfusion (with postictal injections) were noted. Interictal scalp EEG was localizing in 28 patients (53%), ictal scalp EEG was localizing in 35 patients (66%) and intracranial EEG was localizing in 22 patients (85%) (of 26 patients who underwent invasive study). MRI was localizing in 34 patients (64%), PET was localizing in 32 of 45 patients (71%), interictal SPECT was localizing in 26 patients (49%) and peri-ictal SPECT (visual interpretation) was localizing in 30 patients (57%). By comparison with an intracranial EEG standard of localization, SPECT subtraction analysis had 86% sensitivity and 75% specificity. CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence that SPECT perfusion difference analysis has higher sensitivity and specificity than any other noninvasive localizing criterion and can localize epileptogenic regions with accuracy comparable with that of intracranial EEG. To obtain these results, one must apply knowledge of the timing of the ictal injection relative to seizure occurrence. (+info)
Use of subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI for optimizing the localization of seizure foci in children.
Ictal SPECT studies are increasingly used to localize seizure foci in children with refractory epilepsy, but few studies have reported on ictal-interictal subtraction images co-registered to MRI at this age. METHODS: Twenty-seven children with partial epilepsy (aged 3 mo-18 y) underwent ictal ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT (20 mCi/1.73 m2) combined with video-electroencephalography (EEG) and interictal ECD SPECT followed 2 d later by three-dimensional MRI. Ictal-interictal and interictal-ictal subtraction images were computed by registering and normalizing the ictal to the interictal SPECT scans for each child. The ictal, interictal SPECT and subtraction images were registered to each child's MRI. Difference images (ictal-interictal) were then superimposed on MRI for anatomic localization of the perfusion changes. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility and "facility of interpretation" of overlay images were compared with standard analysis of the non-coregistered ictal and interictal scans. RESULTS: Overlay images allowed the detection of at least one hyperperfused focus in 93% of the children, compared with 74% using ictal and interictal scans separately. Seizure onset was suspected clinically, on EEG or on MRI in 20 children. Overlay images were concordant (n = 11) or larger (n = 7) than the suspected focus in 18 of 20 (90%), whereas these images failed to show any abnormality in 1 child and were discordant with MRI in another patient. In the remaining 7, images showed cortical localization in 6 patients. Among the 5 patients who underwent electrocorticography, overlay images were concordant in 3, larger in 1 and absent in 1. The intra- and interobserver reproducibility and facility of interpretation were significantly higher using overlay images than standard analysis, even when ictal and interictal SPECT were co-registered. CONCLUSION: The co-registration of ictal-interictal subtraction SPECT images to MRI seems to be a helpful technique in localizing the onset of seizure and guiding the intracranial recording in childhood epilepsy. Moreover, this method improves sensitivity, enhances intra- and interobserver reproducibility and makes interpretation easier. (+info)
Isolation of novel cDNAs by subtractions between the anterior mesendoderm of single mouse gastrula stage embryos.
The anterior mesendoderm of mid- to late primitive streak stage mouse embryos has the ability to induce anterior neuroectodermal fate in naive epiblast [S.-L. Ang and J. Rossant (1993) Development 118, 139-149]. A number of genes have been found to be expressed in this tissue, notably the transcription factor Lim1. Lim1-null mice have anterior mesendoderm defects that result in a lack of head formation. Thus, the anterior mesendoderm of gastrula stage mouse embryos should express Lim1-regulated genes that are essential for head development. To identify Lim1-regulated genes, a differential screen with subtraction was developed, using cDNA pools that were amplified from the anterior mesendoderm of single wild-type and Lim1-null gastrula stage embryos. This novel screen strategy has yielded 22 cDNAs that show differential expression between anterior mesendoderm cells of wild-type and Lim1-null embryos. The expression of one novel cDNA SII6 initially colocalizes with Lim1 in the anterior mesendoderm of gastrula stage embryos. Moreover, SII6 expression is undetectable in the anterior mesendoderm of Lim1-null embryos. This screen identifies a set of putative Lim1 target genes that may have important roles in vertebrate head formation. Furthermore, this differential screen strategy should provide a broadly applicable approach to identify differences in gene expression between embryonic tissues of limiting quantity. (+info)
Challenges associated with the incorporation of digital radiography into a picture archival and communication system.
Digital radiography (DR) has recently emerged as an attractive alternative to computed radiography (CR) for the acquisition of general radiographic studies in a digital environment. It offers the possibility of improved spatial and contrast resolution, decreased radiation dose due to improved efficiency of detection of x-ray photons, and perhaps most importantly, holds out the promise of increased technologist productivity. To achieve maximum efficiency, DR must be completely integrated into existing information systems, including the hospital and radiology information systems (HIS/RIS) and, when present, the picture archival and communication system (PACS). The early experience with the integration of DR at the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) has identified several challenges that exist to the successful integration of DR. DR has only recently been defined as a separate Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) modality and images obtained will, at first, be listed under the category of CR. Matrix sizes with some DR products on the market exceed the current size limitations of some PACS. The patient throughput may be substantially greater with DR than with CR, and this in combination with the larger size of image files may result in greater demands for network and computer performance in the process of communication with the HIS/RIS and PACS. Additionally, in a hybrid department using both CR and DR, new rules must be defined for prefetching and display of general radiographic studies to permit these examinations to be retrieved and compared together. Advanced features that are planned for DR systems, such as dual-energy subtraction, tomosynthesis, and temporal subtraction, will likely require additional workstation tools beyond those currently available for CR. (+info)
Identification of differentially methylated sequences in colorectal cancer by methylated CpG island amplification.
CpG island methylation has been linked to tumor suppressor gene inactivation in neoplasia and may serve as a useful marker to clone novel cancer-related genes. We have developed a novel PCR-based method, methylated CpG island amplification (MCA), which is useful for both methylation analysis and cloning differentially methylated genes. Using restriction enzymes that have differential sensitivity to 5-methyl-cytosine, followed by adaptor ligation and PCR amplification, methylated CpG rich sequences can be preferentially amplified. In a model experiment using a probe from exon 1 of the p16 gene, signal was detected from MCA products of a colorectal cancer cell line but not in normal colon mucosa. To identify novel CpG islands differentially methylated in colorectal cancer, we have applied MCA coupled with representational difference analysis to the colon cancer cell line Caco2 as a tester and normal colon mucosa as a driver. Using this strategy, we isolated 33 differentially methylated DNA sequences, including fragments identical to several known genes (PAX6, Versican, alpha-tubulin, CSX, OPT, and rRNA gene). The association of hypermethylation of the clones obtained and transcriptional suppression in colorectal cancer was confirmed by examining the Versican gene, which we found to be silenced in methylated cell lines and reactivated by the methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. We therefore propose that MCA is a useful technique to study methylation and to isolate CpG islands differentially methylated in cancer. (+info)