Effectiveness of a social influences smoking prevention program as a function of provider type, training method, and school risk.
OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effect of provider (nurse or teacher) and training method (workshop or self-preparation) on outcomes of a social influences smoking prevention program. METHODS: One hundred elementary schools were stratified by school risk score (high risk = high smoking rate among senior students) and assigned randomly to conditions: (1) teacher/self-preparation, (2) teacher/workshop, (3) nurse/self-preparation, (4) nurse/workshop, and (5) control. Intervention occurred in grades 6 to 8. Smoking status at the end of grade 8 was the primary endpoint variable. RESULTS: Intervention reduced grade 8 smoking rates in high-risk schools (smoking rates of 26.9% in control vs 16.0% in intervention schools) but not in low-risk schools. There were no significant differences in outcome as a function of training method and no significant differences in outcome between teacher-provided and nurse-provided interventions in high- and medium-risk schools. Although nurses achieved better outcomes than did teachers in low-risk schools, neither provider type achieved outcomes superior to the control condition in those schools. CONCLUSIONS: Workshop training did not affect outcomes. Teachers and nurses were equally effective providers. Results suggest that programming should target high-risk schools. (+info)
Working to keep school children healthy: the complementary roles of school staff and school nurses.
BACKGROUND: Against a background of future uncertainty for school nursing and little previous research, this study aimed to identify and describe the distinctive role of the school nurse in working to keep school children healthy. Particular attention was paid to the 'interface' between nursing and the health-related work of teachers. The research was carried out in four health authority areas in England. METHODS: Seventy-eight semi-structured interviews were carried out with a range of respondents: school nurses, school Heads and teachers, health authority purchasers and NHS Trust managers. Seven focus group discussions were held with parents and eight with young people of secondary school age. RESULTS: Four key elements of the school nurse role were identified: safeguarding the health and welfare of children; health promotion; a pupils' confidante; and family support. In each of these aspects of work, nurses and teachers had shared or complementary roles. An over-arching role for the school nurse as 'health adviser' to pupils, parents and teachers was also identified. Despite these common elements, emphasis in the practice of individual school nurses varied widely. Difficulties for school nurses in developing their role were identified. Parents and young people saw school as an appropriate setting for health-related work. CONCLUSION: The research identified key components of the school nursing role and the complementary roles of nurses and school staff. To optimize school nurses' contribution to child health, a more strategic approach is required, in partnership with education, along with research into the effectiveness of school nursing interventions. (+info)
Psychosocial factors related to low back pain among school personnel in Nagoya, Japan.
Related factors of low back pain (LBP) among school personnel were investigated. We designed a cross-sectional study employing questionnaires, which included a Japanese version of the Job Content Questionnaire. Subjects consisted of 3306 male and 3184 female school personnel in all public schools and kindergartens operated by Nagoya City, Japan. Prevalence of LBP in each work category was compared to that in general teachers of each gender after adjusting for age. Male teachers at schools for the handicapped and in classrooms for the handicapped showed significantly higher LBP prevalence. Among female participants, teachers at schools for the handicapped, physical education teachers, kindergarten personnel and school nurses displayed higher LBP prevalence. In work categories which demonstrated high LBP prevalence, low social support and low job satisfaction were related to LBP of school nurses despite low physical loads. High job demand and physical loads correlated to LBP in kindergarten personnel. (+info)
Emergency preparedness training for public health nurses: a pilot study.
The Columbia Center for Public Health Preparedness, in partnership with the New York City Department of Health, recently developed an emergency preparedness training program for public health workers. A pilot training program was conducted for a group of school health nurses and evaluated using a pre/posttest design. A surprising finding was that 90% of the nurses reported at least one barrier to their ability to report to duty in the event of a public health emergency. The most frequently cited barriers included child/elder care responsibilities, lack of transportation, and personal health issues. These findings suggest that it may be prudent to identify and address potential barriers to public health workforce responsiveness to ensure the availability of the workforce during emergencies. (+info)
An evaluation of three techniques improving immunization levels in elementary schools.
Three techniques for improving immunization levels among school-age children were tested and then compared for most effective use of school nurses' time. Method A involved reviewing school immunization records, specifically inviting immunization-deficient children to a school-based clinic, with some follow-up to achieve good response. Method B involved sending out permission slips for a school-based clinic to all students without additional investment of nursing time. Method C involved a health education program encouraging parents to have their children immunized on their own. Using an average of 38 hours of school nurse time, Method A succeeded significantly better then Method B in immunizing more immunization-deficient children and raising immunization levels , while giving fewer unnecessary immunizations. Method C did not produce significant improvement of immunization levels. (+info)
Delivering Internet health resources to an underserved health care profession: school nurses.
PURPOSE: This paper reports on a course developed for school nurses. The course focused on locating reliable and high-quality medical information resources on the Internet. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/RESOURCES: The Health Sciences Library System (HSLS) of the University of Pittsburgh formed a partnership with the Pennsylvania Association of School Nurses and Practitioners (PASNAP). Through this partnership, a hands-on course was offered at the PASNAP annual conference. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: As one component of the Health Information for the Public Project, a subcontract of the National Library of Medicine, HSLS collaborated with PASNAP. This collaboration resulted in HSLS librarians' offering a course titled "Access to Electronic Health Information for School Nurses" at PASNAP's annual conference. This paper describes the school nurse population, their professional information needs, and the development of the course curriculum. RESULTS/OUTCOME: This course provided participants with the skills to effectively utilize the Internet to locate high-quality medical information. EVALUATION METHOD: A course evaluation and impact survey were used to assess the effectiveness of the instruction. (+info)
Children who suffer from headaches--a narrative of insecurity in school and family.
BACKGROUND: Headaches are common among schoolchildren, who seem to be afflicted increasingly. AIM: To analyse children's descriptions of their headaches and their thoughts about them, it being assumed that children have insight into the conditions that affect their health. DESIGN OF STUDY: Interview study. SETTING: Two state schools in the city of Malmo, Sweden. METHOD: Fourteen children aged between ten and 12 years, who had gone to the school nurse more than once during the previous two-month period complaining of a headache, took part in thematically structured interviews. Qualitative analysis was performed, aimed at identifying the basic themes involved. RESULTS: The children were found to consistently associate their headaches with conditions in school, specifically with more theoretically-oriented subjects (maths or Swedish), a noisy and disorderly school environment, and insecure relations with classmates. The second theme they took up was insecurity or conflict within the family. Reports of this constituted a major part of the children's accounts of their life situation, despite their failing to link such matters with their headaches. Many of the children considered their patterns of reacting, such as feeling unable to cope or becoming angry, as contributing to their getting headaches. CONCLUSIONS: The children related their headaches consistently to everyday situations and to their relations with others. This highlights the need for broadening the consultation in terms of including personal and contextual factors. (+info)
Are referrals to occupational therapy for developmental coordination disorder appropriate?
AIMS: To assess children referred to the Occupational Therapy Service in Gwent with a presumptive diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in order to investigate the appropriateness of their referral. METHODS: Non-urgent referrals to the occupational therapy team for children with coordination difficulties in Gwent between June 2001 and February 2002 were studied. RESULTS: Eighty nine children, aged 5-10 years, were identified. Thirteen children who would not meet the DCD criteria were excluded. This left 76 children, 67 of whom were actually assessed. If the 15th centile for the Movement ABC is used, 26 children met and 41 failed one of the four criteria in DSM IV (38%). If the 5th centile is used, 21 children met and 46 failed one of the four criteria in the DSM (31%). Of the major groups of referrers, school nurses did the best with 48% success rate; better than the paediatricians with 32%. The worst success rate was in educational psychologists and teachers, with only 20% of cases referred actually having DCD. These differences did not quite reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Less than a third of referrals to occupational therapy for DCD actually have the diagnosis. This suggests that referrers need further training and guidance. This includes a knowledge and understanding of the DSM IV criteria and their interpretation. This would reduce the number of time consuming, unnecessary assessments being done. A triage procedure with a checklist would be a good way forward and we hope to devise one to assist referrers with this process. (+info)