The empty sella syndrome (ESS) presents a varied clinical and radiographic picture. It may remain asymptomatic or may stimulate an intrasellar growth thereby causing diagnostic and therapeutic problems. An air encephalogram (AEG) is required for diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to review the clinical and radiological features of the ESS and to discuss the pathogenetic mechanisms involved. (+info)
Comparison of cephalometric analysis using a non-radiographic sonic digitizer (DigiGraph Workstation) with conventional radiography.
Cephalometric analysis conventionally requires radiographic exposure which may not be compatible with the growing concern over radiation hazards. Recently, the Dolphin Workstation Imaging System introduced to the dental profession a non-radiographic system, called the DigiGraph Workstation which may be an alternative to cephalometric radiography. The aims of this study were to compare the validity and reproducibility of cephalometric measurements obtained from the DigiGraph Workstation with conventional cephalometric radiographs. The sample consisted of 30 human dry skulls. Two replicated sets of lateral cephalograms were obtained with steel ball markers placed at the majority of the cephalometric landmarks. Duplicate tracings prepared from each radiograph were digitized to obtain cephalometric measurements using the computer software, Dentofacial Planner. For the DigiGraph Workstation, double sonic digitizations were repeated twice for each skull, on two occasions. Fifteen angular and one linear measurements were obtained from both methods and these findings compared using ANOVA, paired t-tests and F-tests. All, except one, cephalometric measurement showed significant differences between the two methods (P < 0.0001). The DigiGraph Workstation consistently produced higher values in 11 measurements (mean differences +0.5 to +15.7 degrees or mm) and lower values in four measurements (mean differences -0.2 to -3.5 degrees). The standard deviations of the differences between readings of both methods were large (0.4-5.8 degrees or mm). The reproducibility of the DigiGraph Workstation measurements was lower than that of the radiographic measurements. The method error of the DigiGraph Workstation ranged from 7 to 70 per cent, while that of radiographic tracings was less than 2 per cent. It was concluded that measurements obtained with the DigiGraph Workstation should be interpreted with caution. (+info)
Evaluation of CSF leaks: high-resolution CT compared with contrast-enhanced CT and radionuclide cisternography.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Radiologic evaluation of CSF leaks is a diagnostic challenge that often involves multiple imaging studies with the associated expense and patient discomfort. We evaluated the use of screening noncontrast high-resolution CT in identifying the presence and site of CSF rhinorrhea and otorrhea and compared it with contrast-enhanced CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies and medical records of all patients who were evaluated for CSF leak during a 7-year period. Forty-two patients with rhinorrhea and/or otorrhea underwent high-resolution CT of the face or temporal bone and then had CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography via lumbar puncture. The results of the three studies were compared and correlated with the surgical findings in 21 patients. RESULTS: High-resolution CT showed bone defects in 30 of 42 patients (71%) with CSF leak. High-resolution, radionuclide cisternography and CT cisternography did not show bone defects or CSF leak for 12 patients (29%) who had clinical evidence of CSF leak. Among the 30 patients with bone defects, 20 (66%) had positive results of their radionuclide cisternography and/or CT cisternography. For the 21 patients who underwent surgical exploration and repair, intraoperative findings correlated with the defects revealed by high-resolution CT in all cases. High-resolution CT identified significantly more patients with CSF leak than did radionuclide cisternography and CT cisternography, with a moderate degree of agreement. CONCLUSION: Noncontrast high-resolution CT showed a defect in 70% of the patients with CSF leak. No radionuclide cisternography or CT cisternography study produced positive results without previous visualization of a defect on high-resolution CT. CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography may be reserved for patients in whom initial high-resolution CT does not identify a bone defect or for patients with multiple fractures or postoperative defects. (+info)
A 38-year-old male presented with an extremely rare primary osteogenic sarcoma, unassociated with Paget's disease or late effects of radiation, involving the sella and sphenoid sinus region. Complete excision of the tumor was achieved through an extended frontobasal approach. Postoperatively, six cycles of combination chemotherapy (adriamycin, ifosphamide, and cisplatin) followed by a total of 55 Gy local radiotherapy in 33 fractions was given. Primary osteogenic sarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the central skull base tumors. Osteogenic sarcoma, in general, has a bad prognosis, and should be managed aggressively with multimodality treatment including gross total surgical resection, combination chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. (+info)
MRI detection of suprasellar germinoma causing central diabetes insipidus.
This is a case report of an 18-year-old man with central diabetes incipidus (DI). An MRI done three months after the onset of the DI did not disclose a responsible lesion. Four months later, a second MRI showed the location of the tumor origin at the upper pituitary stalk and median eminence. Eight months later, the tumor occupied the hypothalamic area. The tumor became large and contrast-making enough to be visible on MRI between 3 and 4 months after the onst of DI. Besides the suprasellar tumor, another mass was noted in the pineal region. The growth pattern of the latter mass corresponded well to that of the former. Although the MRI is a sensitive diagnostic tool for the detection of intracranial tumors, no adequate rationale has been given as to how the MRI might be repeated for children and adolescents who have been diagnosed as having the central DI, when their initial MRIs may have been normal. In our patient, the superconductive thin slice MRI revealed the suprasellar germinoma 4 months after the onset. The suprasellar and pineal tumors in this report originated and developed simultaneously. This may indicate a multi-center origin of the tumor. Another possibility is a very early dissemination from the onset of the tumor development. (+info)
Long-term magnetic resonance imaging follow-up of asymptomatic sellar tumors. -- their natural history and surgical indications.
Serial magnetic resonance (MR) images and clinical symptoms were analyzed in 23 patients with sellar lesions, who were followed up without initial therapy for mass reduction to evaluate their natural history and surgical indication for these lesions. The patients were aged 17 to 78 years (mean 47.3 years) and the follow-up period was 1.5 to 11.6 years (mean 5.1 years). Lesions were divided into two types based on the MR imaging findings, regardless of their histological types. Type C was cystic with or without enhancement of the smooth and thin wall. Type S had enhanced solid components. Ten patients had Type C tumors. Three patients presented with sudden onset of headache. The tumor size spontaneously decreased with intensity change, indicating pituitary apoplexy as the trigger of the onset and intensity change. Four patients presented with the visual disturbance which improved with the reduction of tumor size, but three patients deteriorated and required surgery. The operation revealed Rathke's cleft cyst. The remaining three patients were found incidentally and have been asymptomatic without MR imaging changes. Thirteen patients had Type S tumors. Six patients of nine with 14 mm or larger tumors developed symptomatic tumor enlargement over the follow-up period of 1.2 to 8.6 years (mean 4.9 years) and required treatment. The remainder showed no change. Type C tumors frequently shrink or even disappear spontaneously. We can justify conservative follow-up of Type C tumors in patients with no or only transient symptoms. Type S tumors, larger than 14 mm in size, need closer observation or treatment because they often enlarge and become symptomatic. (+info)
Intimal hyperplasia of the infant parasellar carotid artery: a potential developmental factor in atherosclerosis and SIDS.
Intimal cushions that project into the lumen of arteries are precursors of atherosclerotic plaque formation. The "carotid siphon, " although frequently affected by atherosclerosis, was never analyzed for the occurrence of neonatal intimal hyperplasia. This study provides a topographic and morphometric analysis of intimal cushions in the parasellar internal carotid artery (pICA) of the human infant. A total of 35 specimens were studied in detail, using both standard histological techniques and a new method of computer-aided 3D reconstruction. Intimal hyperplasia occurred at 3 characteristic locations of the pICA: (1) the convex side of the posterior knee (C5 cushion), (2) the bottom of the horizontal segment (C4 cushion), and (3) the concave side of the anterior knee (C3 cushion). The extension of the cushions and the degrees to which they occluded the vessel lumens were measured. The complex shape of the pICA required 3D computer models for exact topographical descriptions and precise measurements. Our results suggest that the occurrence and degree of intimal hyperplasia are related to shape changes of the pICA during postnatal development. We predict that individuals who retain the relatively straight course of the fetal pICA throughout their lives are less prone to develop atherosclerotic lesions at this portion of the carotid artery. A possible contribution of neonatal intimal cushions to the origin of sudden infant death syndrome is discussed. (+info)
Lymphocytic hypophysitis and infundibuloneurohypophysitis; clinical and pathological evaluations.
This report describes the clinical and pathological characteristics of two patients with lymphocytic hypophysitis (LHy) and two with infundibuloneurohypophysitis (INHy). Two of the patients were women and two were men, and their ages were between 27 and 38 years old. This disease was not associated with either pregnancy or the postpartum period in the female patients. Two of the patients presented with diabetes insipidus, one with panhypopituitarism and right abducens paralysis and one with headache and galactorrhea. At presentation three of the patients had mild to moderate hyperprolactinemia and one had low prolactin levels. All four had abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): focal nodular enlarging of the infundibulum and normal hypophysis in one, expanding sellar masses in two, and diffusely thickened stalk with slightly enlarged pituitary gland in one. Three cases showed no sign of adenohypophysial deficiency with stimulation tests. One patient had associated chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Of the first three patients, one patient underwent transcranial and two underwent transnasal transsphenoidal (TNTS) surgery for mass excisions since they were thought to have pituitary tumors. Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal biopsy was performed in the last one with a suspicion of LHy. The pathological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed lymphocytic infiltration. Hyperprolactinemia resolved with surgery in two patients and one developed diabetes insipidus as a complication. We conclude that LHy and infundibuloneurohypophysitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the mass lesions of the sellar region and also should be kept in the mind for the etiopathogenesis of cases of hyperprolactinemia, galactorrhea and diabetes insipidus. In suspected cases endoscopic endonasal biopsy for the histopathological diagnosis can be a safe approach. (+info)