Pituitary tumors: pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and management.
Pituitary tumors are frequently encountered intracranial neoplasms. They present with a variety of clinical manifestations that include symptoms and signs of excessive hormone secretion by the tumor, signs of hormone deficits by the normal pituitary gland and others related to expansion of the tumor mass and the resulting compression of surrounding structures such as the optic chiasm and cranial nerves. Advances in molecular biology, immunocytochemical staining and imaging, and the introduction of new treatment options have improved our understanding of the natural history of these adenomas and their management. Available treatments include surgical, medical and radiation therapy. Although the primary treatment for each tumor type may vary, it is important to consider all available options and select the most applicable for that patient. The interaction of all members of management team, including the primary care provider, the endocrinologist and the neurosurgeon in selecting the treatment course can only improve therapeutic outcome. Regardless of the initial choice of treatment,follow-up of all patients should be maintained indefinitely. The managing physician should be familiar with the natural history and long-term complications of pituitary adenomas, and with the side effects of treatments given over the years. (+info)
Expression of 5'-deiodinase enzymes in normal pituitaries and in various human pituitary adenomas.
OBJECTIVE: Local 5'-deiodination of l-thyroxine (T(4)) to active thyroid hormone 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) catalyzed by the two 5'-deiodinase enzymes (D1 and D2) regulates various T(3)-dependent functions in the anterior pituitary and has been well studied in rodents. Only limited information about deiodinase expression and its cellular distribution in human anterior pituitaries is available. DESIGN: We examined 5'-deiodinase enzyme activities in pituitary adenomas (18 non-functioning, seven TSH-producing, one GH- and TSH-producing, five GH-producing, eight prolactin (PRL)-producing, two adenomas each from patients with Cushing's disease and Nelson's syndrome) and three normal anterior pituitaries. METHODS: Activities were measured as release of (125)I(-) from tyrosyl-ring labeled reverse T(3) with or without propylthiouracil, a potent inhibitor of D1 which does not influence D2 activities. RESULTS: Most of the adenomas and normal tissues expressed both isoenzymes, with D2 activity higher than D1. In a few tissues D1 activity was higher than D2 and some tissues did not express D1 activity at all. Highest activities of both enzymes were found in TSH- and PRL-producing adenomas but absolute activities and the D1/D2 ratio were variable in the same kind of tumor in different patients. CONCLUSION: The finding that all examined tissues expressed 5'-deiodinase activity, most of them expressing both isoenzymes, implies that both enzymes are still active in tumors and that local deiodination is important for the function and feedback regulation of human anterior pituitary. (+info)
Microsurgical treatment of Nelson's syndrome.
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the etiology, diagnostic criteria and treatment of Nelson's syndrome. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with Nelson's syndrome who were treated in our department over the last 19 years were analyzed retrospectively. Removal of adenoma by the transsphenoidal approach was done in 21 patients and by transfrontal craniotomy in 2. The follow-up period ranged from six months to nine years. RESULTS: The incidence of Nelson's syndrome was 7.7% in a series of 300 patients with Cushing's disease treated by microsurgery in the same period. Hyperpigmentation was relieved and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels decreased in all patients after tumor excision. Eight patients with visual disturbance improved after surgery. The curative and remission rates were 56.5% and 26.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Transsphenoidal microsurgical removal of pituitary ACTH adenoma is the first choice in the prevention and treatment of Nelson's syndrome. Regular follow-up examinations should be performed over a long time. (+info)
Rosiglitazone for prevention or adjuvant treatment of Nelson's syndrome after bilateral adrenalectomy.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Rosiglitazone in three patients treated with bilateral adrenalectomy followed by hyperpigmentation and hypersecretion of ACTH. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One patient had increasing ACTH after previous transsphenoidal surgery for Nelson's syndrome, and two patients without pituitary adenomas had recurrence of Cushing's disease after primary and repeated transsphenoidal surgery with need for bilateral adrenalectomy. The patients developed hyperpigmentation and increasing ACTH at nadir 2-4 h after morning hydrocortisone dose. ACTH during Rosiglitazone therapy (4 mg/day for 4 weeks and then 8 mg/day) was measured at regular intervals 24 h after the latest dose of hydrocortisone. RESULTS: In two patients there was a decrease in ACTH by 40% after 5 months. The first of these patients showed an escape with increasing ACTH to the initial value after 11 months. In the third patient no effect was observed. Tumour development or progression on magnetic resonance imaging was not observed. CONCLUSION: Rosiglitazone might represent an adjuvant therapy in patients with ACTH hypersecretion. Larger long-term studies are needed. (+info)
Nelson's syndrome is a potentially severe complication of bilateral adrenalectomy performed in the treatment of Cushing's disease, and its management remains difficult. Of all of the features of Nelson's syndrome, the one that causes most concern is the development of a locally aggressive pituitary tumour, which, unusually for pituitary disease, may occasionally cause death from the tumour itself. This feature is especially pertinent given the increasing use in Cushing's disease of laparoscopic bilateral adrenal surgery as a highly effective treatment modality to control cortisol-excess. Despite numerous studies and reports, there is no formal consensus of what defines Nelson's syndrome. Thus, some will define Nelson's syndrome according to the classical description with an evolving pituitary mass after bilateral adrenalectomy, whereas others will rely on increasing plasma ACTH levels, even in the absence of a clear pituitary mass lesion on MRI. These factors need to be borne in mind when considering the reports of Nelson's syndrome, as there is great heterogeneity, and it is likely that overall the modern 'Nelson's syndrome' represents a different disease entity from that of the last century. In the present paper, clinical and epidemiological features of Nelson's syndrome, as well as its treatment modalities, are reviewed. (+info)
Treatment of adrenocorticotropin-dependent Cushing's syndrome: a consensus statement.