Processing, stability, and receptor binding properties of oligomeric envelope glycoprotein from a primary HIV-1 isolate.
The envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is thought to exist on the virion surface as a trimer of non-covalently associated gp120/gp41 molecules. We expressed trimeric envelope glycoprotein from three primary, macrophage tropic HIV-1 isolates in baby hamster kidney cells and analyzed the furin-mediated cleavage, stability, and receptor binding properties of the oligomers. The envelope glycoprotein was secreted in a soluble form deleted of its transmembrane anchor and the intracytoplasmic domain (gp140). A mixture of trimers, dimers, and monomers of gp140 as well as monomeric gp120 was detected on polyacrylamide gels. Analysis by sucrose gradient centrifugation revealed that trimers and dimers were essentially composed of uncleaved gp140, whereas most of the gp120 was found in the monomeric fraction. To analyze the effect of the cleavage of gp140 to gp120/Delta41 on trimerization, we co-expressed the furin protease along with gp140. Surprisingly, furin expression changed the subcellular localization of the envelope glycoprotein, which became in majority sequestered in the major furin compartment, the trans-Golgi network, as judged by confocal laser microscopy. The envelope glycoprotein secreted from furin-co-expressing cells was almost completely cleaved to gp120 and Deltagp41, but gp120 was found exclusively in the monomeric fraction, with a few residual oligomers being composed of uncleaved gp140. Secreted uncleaved gp140 trimers were purified to homogeneity and analyzed for their capacity to interact with cellular receptors CD4 and CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5). Receptor binding was analyzed on CD4- and CCR5-expressing cells as well as on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Trimers showed greatly reduced binding to CD4 as compared with monomers. Neither monomers nor trimers bound directly to CCR5. In conclusion, our results show that the cleaved form of the envelope glycoprotein does not form stable trimers, suggesting that gp120/gp41 oligomers on the virion surface might be stabilized by a yet to be identified mechanism and that the virion might attach to CD4 via a monomeric form of gp120. These results are relevant to the development of an envelope-based vaccine against AIDS. (+info)
Implication of sphingolipid metabolism in the stability of the Golgi apparatus.
We examined the effects of short chain and long chain ceramides on the stability of the Golgi apparatus. Short chain ceramides, C(2)- and C(6)-ceramides, blocked brefeldin A-induced Golgi disassembly without affecting the rapid release of Golgi coat proteins, whereas they did not inhibit brefeldin A-induced tubulation of endosomes. Both short chain ceramides also retarded Golgi disassembly induced by nordihydroguaiaretic acid and nocodazole, suggesting that they stabilize the Golgi apparatus. In contrast to short chain ceramides, natural long chain ceramides, when incorporated into cells or formed within cells upon treatment with sphingomyelinase or metabolic inhibitors, enhanced brefeldin A-induced Golgi disassembly. These results suggest that sphingolipid metabolism is implicated in the stability of the Golgi apparatus. (+info)
Syntaxin 7 is localized to late endosome compartments, associates with Vamp 8, and Is required for late endosome-lysosome fusion.
Protein traffic from the cell surface or the trans-Golgi network reaches the lysosome via a series of endosomal compartments. One of the last steps in the endocytic pathway is the fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes. This process has been reconstituted in vitro and has been shown to require NSF, alpha and gamma SNAP, and a Rab GTPase based on inhibition by Rab GDI. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fusion events to the lysosome-like vacuole are mediated by the syntaxin protein Vam3p, which is localized to the vacuolar membrane. In an effort to identify the molecular machinery that controls fusion events to the lysosome, we searched for mammalian homologues of Vam3p. One such candidate is syntaxin 7. Here we show that syntaxin 7 is concentrated in late endosomes and lysosomes. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments show that syntaxin 7 is associated with the endosomal v-SNARE Vamp 8, which partially colocalizes with syntaxin 7. Importantly, we show that syntaxin 7 is specifically required for the fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes in vitro, resulting in a hybrid organelle. Together, these data identify a SNARE complex that functions in the late endocytic system of animal cells. (+info)
Effects of insulin on intracellular GLUT4 vesicles in adipocytes: evidence for a secretory mode of regulation.
The facilitative glucose transporter, GLUT4 undergoes insulin-dependent movement to the cell surface in adipocytes. The magnitude of the insulin effect is much greater for GLUT4 than other recycling proteins such as the CD-MPR. In the present study we have studied the colocalisation of these proteins in adipocytes in an effort to explain this selective insulin-dependent recruitment of GLUT4. Using immunofluorescence microscopy or immuno-EM on 3T3-L1 adipocytes we find that there is considerable colocalisation between these proteins particularly within the area of the TGN. However, the distribution of CD-MPR was not significantly effected by insulin. The insulin-dependent recruitment of GLUT4 was concomitant with a selective decrease in GLUT4 labelling of cytoplasmic vesicles whereas the amount of GLUT4 in the TGN region (approx. 50% of total GLUT4) was relatively unaffected. To explore the possibility that the cytoplasmic GLUT4(+) vesicles represent an intracellular insulin-responsive storage compartment we performed quantitative immuno-EM on whole mounts of intracellular vesicles isolated from basal and insulin-stimulated adipocytes. These studies revealed that: (1) GLUT4 and CD-MPR were concentrated in small (30-200 nm) vesicles at a labelling density of 1-20+ gold particles/vesicle; (2) there was significant overlap between both proteins in that 70% of the total GLUT4 pool colocalised with CD-MPR; (3) a significant amount of GLUT4 (approx. 50% of total) was found in a subpopulation of vesicles that contained as little as 5% of the total CD-MPR pool; (4) the GLUT4(+)/CD-MPR(-) vesicles were highly insulin-responsive, and (5) the total number of GLUT4(+) vesicles, but not CD-MPR(+) vesicles, decreased by approx. 30% in response to insulin treatment. These data are consistent with a model in which GLUT4 is selectively sorted into a vesicular compartment in adipocytes that is recruited to the plasma membrane by insulin stimulation. (+info)
Rapid transport of internalized P-selectin to late endosomes and the TGN: roles in regulating cell surface expression and recycling to secretory granules.
Prior studies on receptor recycling through late endosomes and the TGN have suggested that such traffic may be largely limited to specialized proteins that reside in these organelles. We present evidence that efficient recycling along this pathway is functionally important for nonresident proteins. P-selectin, a transmembrane cell adhesion protein involved in inflammation, is sorted from recycling cell surface receptors (e.g., low density lipoprotein [LDL] receptor) in endosomes, and is transported from the cell surface to the TGN with a half-time of 20-25 min, six to seven times faster than LDL receptor. Native P-selectin colocalizes with LDL, which is efficiently transported to lysosomes, for 20 min after internalization, but a deletion mutant deficient in endosomal sorting activity rapidly separates from the LDL pathway. Thus, P-selectin is sorted from LDL receptor in early endosomes, driving P-selectin rapidly into late endosomes. P-selectin then recycles to the TGN as efficiently as other receptors. Thus, the primary effect of early endosomal sorting of P-selectin is its rapid delivery to the TGN, with rapid turnover in lysosomes a secondary effect of frequent passage through late endosomes. This endosomal sorting event provides a mechanism for efficiently recycling secretory granule membrane proteins and, more generally, for downregulating cell surface receptors. (+info)
The R-SNARE endobrevin/VAMP-8 mediates homotypic fusion of early endosomes and late endosomes.
Endobrevin/VAMP-8 is an R-SNARE localized to endosomes, but it is unknown in which intracellular fusion step it operates. Using subcellular fractionation and quantitative immunogold electron microscopy, we found that endobrevin/VAMP-8 is present on all membranes known to communicate with early endosomes, including the plasma membrane, clathrin-coated pits, late endosomes, and membranes of the trans-Golgi network. Affinity-purified antibodies that block the ability of endobrevin/VAMP-8 to form SNARE core complexes potently inhibit homotypic fusion of both early and late endosomes in vitro. Fab fragments were as active as intact immunoglobulin Gs. Recombinant endobrevin/VAMP-8 inhibited both fusion reactions with similar potency. We conclude that endobrevin/VAMP-8 operates as an R-SNARE in the homotypic fusion of early and late endosomes. (+info)
Evidence supporting a late Golgi location for lactosylceramide to ganglioside GM3 conversion.
Ganglioside GM2 synthase and other enzymes required for complex ganglioside synthesis were localized recently to the trans Golgi network (TGN). However, there are conflicting reports as to the location of GM3 synthase; originally this enzyme was detected in the early Golgi of rat liver but a recent report localized it to the late Golgi. We have used chimeric forms of ganglioside GM2 synthase to determine if the location of lactosylceramide (LacCer) to GM3 conversion in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was the early or late Golgi. Our approach tested whether GM3 could be utilized as a substrate by GM2 synthase chimeras which were targeted to compartments earlier than the trans Golgi, i.e., GM3 produced in the cis Golgi should be utilized by GM2 synthase located anywhere in the Golgi whereas GM3 produced in the trans Golgi should only be used by GM2 synthase located in the trans Golgi or TGN. Comparison of cell lines stably expressing these chimeras revealed that the in vivo functional activity of GM2 synthase decreased progressively as the enzyme was targeted to earlier compartments; specifically, the percentage of GM3 converted to GM2 was 83-86% for wild type enzyme, 70% for the medial Golgi targeted enzyme, 13% for the ER and cis Golgi targeted enzyme, and only 1.7% for the ER targeted enzyme. Thus, these data are consistent with a late Golgi location for LacCer to GM3 conversion in these cells. (+info)
Binding of AP2 to sorting signals is modulated by AP2 phosphorylation.
The two clathrin-associated adaptor complexes AP1 and AP2 are known to participate in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles at the trans-Golgi network and at the plasma membrane. During this process adaptors are involved in the sequestration of vesicle cargo by binding to the sorting signals within the cytoplasmic domains of the cargo proteins and in the recruitment of the clathrin coat. After budding of the clathrin-coated vesicles, the clathrin and adaptors dissociate from the vesicles. Here we show that in vitro binding of AP2 to sorting signals, which is one of the initial steps in receptor-mediated endocytosis, is modulated by adaptor phosphorylation. AP2 was phosphorylated by incubating purified AP2 in the presence of ATP and dephosphorylated by incubation with alkaline phosphatase. Affinity for tyrosine-, leucine-based and noncanonical sorting motifs was 15-33 times higher for phosphorylated than for dephosphorylated AP2. Also the binding of AP2 to membranes was regulated by adaptor phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and was about 8-fold higher for phosphorylated than for dephosphorylated AP2. Moreover, AP2 isolated from cytosol is higher phosphorylated than membrane-extracted and exhibits a 5-fold higher binding affinity than AP2 extracted from membranes. Taken together these data point to a cycle of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation as a mechanism for regulating the reversible association of AP2 with membranes and sorting signals during the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis. (+info)