Maternal immunization can enhance passive immunity of infants to pathogens that cause life-threatening illnesses. In most instances, immunization during pregnancy will provide important protection for the woman as well as for her offspring. The tetanus toxoid and influenza vaccines are examples of vaccines that provide a double benefit. Other vaccines under evaluation include those for respiratory syncytial virus, pneumococci, group B streptococci, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Although most IgG antibody crosses the placenta in the third trimester, the process is time-dependent, dictating that immunization should be accomplished ideally at least 6 weeks prior to delivery. IgG1 antibodies are transferred preferentially. Maternal immunization has not interfered with active immunization of the infant. Inactivated vaccines administered in the third trimester of pregnancy pose no known risk to the woman or to her fetus. (+info)
Potential advantages of DNA immunization for influenza epidemic and pandemic planning.
Immunization with purified DNA is a powerful technique for inducing immune responses. The concept of DNA immunization involves insertion of the gene encoding the antigen of choice into a bacterial plasmid and injection of the plasmid into the host where the antigen is expressed and where it induces humoral and cellular immunity. The most effective routes and methods for DNA immunization are bombardment with particles coated with DNA ("gene gun" technique), followed by the intramuscular and intradermal routes. DNA immunization technology has the potential to induce immunity to all antigens that can be completely encoded in DNA, which therefore include all protein, but not carbohydrate, antigens. DNA immunization results in presentation of antigens to the host's immune system in a natural form, like that achieved with live-attenuated vaccines. The DNA immunization strategy has the potential to rapidly provide a new vaccine in the face of an emerging influenza pandemic. (+info)
Safety of long-term therapy with ciprofloxacin: data analysis of controlled clinical trials and review.
We reviewed the literature and the manufacturer's U.S. clinical data pool for safety data on long-term administration of ciprofloxacin (Bayer, West Haven, CT). Only controlled clinical trials including patients treated for >30 days were selected. We identified 636 patients by literature search and 413 patients in the Bayer U.S. database who fulfilled our search criteria; the average treatment duration for these patients was 130 and 80 days, respectively. Main indications for long-term therapy were osteomyelitis, skin and soft-tissue infection, prophylaxis for urinary tract infection, mycobacterial infections, and inflammatory bowel disease. Adverse events, premature discontinuation of therapy, and deaths occurred at a similar frequency in both treatment arms. Most adverse events occurred early during therapy with little increase in frequency over time. As with short-term therapy, gastrointestinal events were more frequent than central nervous system or skin reactions, but pseudomembranous colitis was not observed. No previously unknown adverse events were noted. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is tolerated as well as other antibiotics when extended courses of therapy are required. (+info)
Fluoroquinolone toxicity profiles: a review focusing on newer agents.
For 2 decades fluoroquinolones have been found to be generally well-tolerated and safe. Adverse events may be inherent to the class or influenced by structural modifications. The commonest adverse events are gastrointestinal tract (GI) and central nervous system (CNS) reactions; nephrotoxicity and tendinitis are infrequent, but agents differ greatly in phototoxic potential. Fluoroquinolones are safe in elderly, human immunodeficiency virus-infected, and neutropenic patients, but because of possible effects on articular cartilage, they are not currently recommended for children or pregnant women. Four new agents have recently been licensed. Levofloxacin causes few GI or CNS adverse events and is minimally phototoxic. Sparfloxacin infrequently causes GI or CNS effects but is associated with relatively high rates of phototoxicity and prolongation of the electrocardiographic QTc interval (Q-T interval, corrected for heart rate). Grepafloxacin causes relatively high rates of GI effects, taste perversion, and QTc interval prolongation, but it is minimally phototoxic. Trovafloxacin is associated with a moderate rate of GI effects and a relatively high incidence of dizziness but has low phototoxic potential. (+info)
Expanded safety and immunogenicity of a bivalent, oral, attenuated cholera vaccine, CVD 103-HgR plus CVD 111, in United States military personnel stationed in Panama.
To provide optimum protection against classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1, a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine was developed by combining two live, attenuated vaccine strains, CVD 103-HgR (classical, Inaba) and CVD 111 (El Tor, Ogawa). The vaccines were formulated in a double-chamber sachet; one chamber contained lyophilized bacteria, and the other contained buffer. A total of 170 partially-immune American soldiers stationed in Panama received one of the following five formulations: (a) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(7) CFU, (b) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(6) CFU, (c) CVD 103-HgR alone at 10(8) CFU, (d) CVD 111 alone at 10(7) CFU, or (e) inactivated Escherichia coli placebo. Among those who received CVD 111 at the high or low dose either alone or in combination with CVD 103-HgR, 8 of 103 had diarrhea, defined as three or more liquid stools. None of the 32 volunteers who received CVD 103-HgR alone or the 35 placebo recipients had diarrhea. CVD 111 was detected in the stools of 46% of the 103 volunteers who received it. About 65% of all persons who received CVD 103-HgR either alone or in combination had a fourfold rise in Inaba vibriocidal titers. The postvaccination geometric mean titers were comparable among groups, ranging from 450 to 550. Ogawa vibriocidal titers were about twice as high in persons who received CVD 111 as in those who received CVD 103-HgR alone (600 versus 300). The addition of CVD 111 improved the overall seroconversion rate and doubled the serum Ogawa vibriocidal titers, suggesting that the combination of an El Tor and a classical cholera strain is desirable. While CVD 111 was previously found to be well tolerated in semiimmune Peruvians, the adverse effects observed in this study indicate that this strain requires further attenuation before it can be safely used in nonimmune populations. (+info)
Filter ventilation and nicotine content of tobacco in cigarettes from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to determine filter ventilation and the nicotine content of tobacco and their contribution to machine-smoked yields of cigarettes from the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. METHODS: Ninety-two brands of cigarettes (32 American, 23 Canadian, and 37 British brands) were purchased at retail outlets in State College, Pennsylvania, United States, Toronto, Canada, and London, United Kingdom. A FIDUS FDT filter ventilation tester measured the percentage air-dilution from filter vents. High-pressure, liquid chromatography was used to measure the nicotine content of tobacco. Regression techniques were used to examine the contributions of tobacco nicotine content and filter ventilation to machine-smoked yields of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO). RESULTS: Ninety-four per cent of the American brands, 91% of the Canadian brands, and 79% of British brands were ventilated. The total nicotine content of tobacco and percent nicotine (by weight of tobacco) averaged 10.2 mg (standard error of the mean (SEM) 0.25, range: 7.2 to 13.4) and 1.5% (SEM 0.03, range 1.2 to 2) in the United States, 13.5 mg (SEM 0.49, range: 8.0 to 18.3) and 1.8% (SEM 0.06, range: 1.0 to 2.4) in Canada, 12.5 mg (SEM 0.33, range: 9 to 17.5) and 1.7% (SEM 0.04, range: 1.3 to 2.4) in the United Kingdom. Multiple regression analyses showed that ventilation was by far the largest factor influencing machine-smoked yields of tar, nicotine, and CO. CONCLUSION: Filter ventilation appears to be the predominant method for reducing machine-smoked yields of tar, nicotine, and CO in three countries. However, some brands contain about twice as much nicotine (total content or percent nicotine) as do others, indicating that tobacco types or blends and tobacco castings can be used to manipulate nicotine content and nicotine delivery of cigarettes. (+info)
Changes across 3 years in self-reported awareness of product warning messages in a Hispanic community.
This study investigated the self-reported awareness of product warning messages among independent random samples of Hispanics in San Francisco surveyed from 1989 through 1992. Messages tested were primarily related to cigarette smoking and the consumption of alcoholic beverages. In general, respondents reported low levels of awareness of product warning messages with the exception of those messages dealing with the consumption of alcohol or cigarettes during pregnancy. Nevertheless, there were increases in awareness across years for the alcohol-related warning messages and for one of the cigarette messages, indicating that continued exposure increases awareness of the message. A notable proportion of the respondents reported being aware of a bogus message implying the presence of socially desirable responses in self-reports of message awareness. Gender, education, age and acculturation level of the respondents also showed effects on reported awareness of specific messages. Continued exposure to product warning messages seems useful in producing health-enhancing behaviors among Hispanics. (+info)
Protection of chickens against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV) with a recombinant MDV expressing IBDV VP2.
To develop a herpes virus vaccine that can induce immunity for an extended period, a recombinant Marek's disease (MD) virus (MDV) CVI-988 strain expressing infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) host-protective antigen VP2 at the US2 site (rMDV) was developed under the control of an SV40 early promoter. Chickens vaccinated with the rMDV showed no clinical signs and no mortality and 55% of the chickens were considered protected histopathologically after challenge with very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV), whereas all of the chickens vaccinated with the conventional IBDV vaccine showed no clinical signs and were protected. Chickens vaccinated with the CVI-988 or chickens in the challenge control showed severe clinical signs and high mortality (70-75%) and none of them were protected. Also, the rMDV conferred full protection to chickens against vvMDV just as the CVI-988 strain did, whereas 90% of the challenge control chickens died of MD. Antibody levels against IBDV and MDV following the vaccination increased continuously for at least 10 weeks. No histopathological lesions in the rMDV-vaccinated chickens and no contact transmission of the rMDV to their penmates were confirmed. These results demonstrate that an effective and safe recombinant herpesvirus-based IBD vaccine could be constructed by expressing the VP2 antigen at the US2 site of the CVI-988 vaccine strain. (+info)