Fur and iron transport proteins in the Brazilian purpuric fever clone of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius.
The Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) clone of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius causes a fatal septicaemic disease, resembling fulminant meningococcal sepsis, in children. When isolate F3031 was grown under iron-limiting conditions, the presence of several iron-regulated proteins of 38-110 kDa was revealed by electrophoretic analysis and a Fur homologue was shown by immunoblotting. Dot-blot assays and immunoblotting indicated that BPF cells bound human transferrin and contained transferrin-binding proteins in the outer membrane. However, the binding activity and the biosynthesis of these proteins were detected even under iron-rich conditions. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated the presence of a periplasmic protein related to the ferric iron-binding protein A (FbpA), the major iron-binding protein described in Neisseria spp. However, the FbpA homologue in strain F3031 was constitutively expressed and was smaller than the periplasmic protein detected in H. influenzae type b strain Eagan. The periplasm of strain F3031 also contained a protein related to the Streptococcus parasanguis FimA protein which recently has been shown to be involved in iron acquisition in Yersinia pestis. Although the Eagan and F3031 FimA homologues had a similar mol. wt, of 31 kDa, the expression of the BPF fimA-like gene was not regulated by the iron concentration of the culture medium. (+info)
Improvement of amyloid-related symptoms after autologous stem cell transplantation in a patient with hepatomegaly, macroglossia and purpura.
AL amyloidosis was diagnosed in a 56-year-old woman with spontaneous purpura, macroglossia and hepatomegaly, a serum IgGk monoclonal gammopathy and a 25% plasma cell bone marrow infiltration. She was started on high-dose treatment consisting of four monthly cycles of VID chemotherapy, then underwent a stem cell collection after priming with cyclophosphamide + G-CSF. Myeloablative therapy was with melphalan and busulfan. Hematologic recovery was fast and uncomplicated. At follow-up 22 months from ASCT, the patient shows a complete remission of the clonal plasma cell disorder, normalization of liver size and alkaline phosphatase level and a significant improvement in the signs of vascular and soft tissue amyloid infiltration. (+info)
Identification of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor/insulin-like growth factor type-2 receptor as a novel target of autoantibodies.
Two human monoclonal autoantibodies, B-33 and B-24, were generated from the B cells of a patient with scleroderma. Both monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were composed of mu and lambda chains, and recognized cytoplasmic vesicular structures by indirect immunofluorescence on Hep-2 cell line slides, although mAb B-24 showed an additional diffuse cytoplasmic staining pattern. By Western blot, mAb B-24 exhibited a polyreactive-like binding pattern, whereas mAb B-33 failed to recognize any electroblotted Hep-2 antigen. The polyreactive versus monospecific behaviour of mAbs B-24 and B-33 was further confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a variety of foreign and autoantigens. The N-terminal sequence of a protein band isolated by affinity chromatography with mAb B-33 was identical to that of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR), also known as the insulin-like growth factor type-2 receptor (IGF-2R). Immunofluorescence experiments on Hep-2 cell line slides demonstrated a striking co-localization between the staining pattern exhibited by these mAbs and the pattern obtained using a goat anti-CI-MPR serum, indicating the recognition by B-24 and B-33 of a structure located predominantly in late endosomes. Sequence analysis of the V-region gene segments of B-33 and B-24 showed both to be identical, except for the existence of a point mutation in B-33 located in the H-complementarity-determining region 3 (H-CDR3) (position 100D), which produces a non-conservative replacement of Gly by Ser. This single replacement appears to be responsible for the dramatic change in reactivity of human mAb B-33. The data shown here provide new evidence of the critical role played by the H-CDR3 region in distinguishing a polyspecific from a monospecific antibody. A population study demonstrated the existence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) reactivity against CI-MPR/IGF-2R in serum specimens from five individuals with different pathological conditions, thus indicating that this molecule is a potential target for the human autoimmune response. (+info)
Wavelength and fluence effect on vascular damage with photodynamic therapy on skin.
Normal skin phototoxicity is clinically predictable during photodynamic therapy with light at 690 and 458 nm wavelengths, in the first 5 h after intravenous bolus infusion of benzoporphyrin derivative mono-acid ring A. This study goal was to determine histologic milestones that lead to tissue necrosis with exposure to red (690 nm) and blue (458 nm) light. The threshold doses for skin necrosis on rabbits were equal at both wavelengths. Lower, equal to, and higher than threshold fluences were delivered in duplicates at hourly intervals, with 40% increments, at constant irradiance. Pathology specimens from irradiated and control sites, were collected at 0, 2, 7, 24, 48 h, and 2 wk after treatment and were paired to equivalent treated sites for clinical evaluation. Immediately after irradiation, at 690 and 458 nm thresholds, light microscopy showed stasis and inflammatory infiltrate in the papillary dermis, respectively; electron microscopy demonstrated pericyte and endothelial cell damage - greater at 690 than 458 nm. At day 1, vascular stasis in the dermis showed a steeper dose-response with red than blue light, and led to necrosis of skin appendages (day 1) and epidermis (days 1-2) at both wavelengths. Sub-threshold fluences induced similar, but significantly milder (p < 0.05) changes and epidermis recovered. Skin necrosis, at threshold fluences in photodynamic therapy with benzoporphyrin derivative mono-acid ring A, was primarily due to vascular compromise to a depth potentially reaching the subcutaneous muscle at 690 nm, whereas at 458 nm vascular damage was confined to upper dermis. This system facilitates selective destruction of skin vasculature, sparing normal epidermis. (+info)
Clotting alterations in primary systemic amyloidosis.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bleeding manifestations frequently observed in patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL) have been attributed to different pathogenetic factors: amyloid deposits in several organs and systems leading to failures of these latter, the affinity of amyloid for some clotting factors, and the presence of plasma components interfering with fibrin formation could all induce alterations of clotting tests. This investigation was aimed at defining the prevalence of clotting abnormalities and their clinical manifestations in patients with AL. DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty-six consecutive patients with biopsy proven amyloidosis and documented monoclonal gammapathy were enrolled within one year. The following clotting tests were considered in the study: activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), reptilase time (RT), Russell's viper venom time (RVTT), fibrinogen, factor X and alpha-2 antiplasmin. RESULTS: Hemorrhagic manifestations were mild to moderate in nine patients, but severe and untractable in one. The most frequent clotting anomaly was defective fibrinogen conversion to fibrin, as demonstrated by prolongation of both TT (85% of cases) and RT (90% of cases). Low levels of factor X activity were observed in about 1 out of 4 samples, while fibrinogen and alpha2 antiplasmin levels were distributed over a wide range of values. PT was prolonged in 8 and aPTT in 25 patients. The search for lupus anticoagulant was negative in samples showing a prolongation of aPTT and/or RVVT. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The prolongation of TT and RT is not dependent on either the presence of a heparin-like substance in the plasma or on fibrinogen levels; furthermore, the prolongation of RVVT is not related to factor X level. The hypothesized presence in the plasma of an inhibitor of fibrin formation could also affect factor X activation by Russell viper venom. The prolongation of TT and RT represents a peculiar feature of amyloidosis. The variability in the behavior of the other clotting times and hemostatic factors studied is mirrored in the heterogeneity of the clinical features observed in this disease. (+info)
The management of fever and petechiae: making sense of rash decisions.
In a retrospective and prospective audit of 55 children presenting to the paediatric assessment unit of a district general hospital with fever and petechial rash, 9% had significant bacterial sepsis. The "ILL criteria" (irritability, lethargy, low capillary refill) for the management of children with fever and petechiae are proposed. (+info)
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: confirmation of diagnosis with in vitro methods.
Profound thrombocytopenia developed in a patient during treatment with heparin for venous thrombosis. The platelet count increased toward normal when heparin administration was stopped, but fell abruptly when the drug was again given. Platelet aggregation occurred when heparin was added to the patient's platelet-rich plasma, or to normal platelets plus the patient's serum. This serum also effected release of 3H-serotonin from normal platelets. This pattern of aggregation was clearly different from that occasionally caused by heparin in a control population. The data is consistent with an effect of heparin on platelets, possibly mediated by on immune mechanism. (+info)
Post-transfusion purpura: a heterogeneous syndrome.
Three new patients with post-transfusion purpura (PTP) are described. As the manifestations in two differ significantly from those of previously reported cases, they serve to expand the definition of this syndrome. Although all 14 previously reported cases have occurred in Pl-A1-negative females, one of our patients was a Pl-A-negative male. Moreover, a female whose postrecovery platelets possessed the Pl-A1 antigen is described. Antiplatelet antibody activity was detected in all three patients by the 51Cr release test; in contrast, only one reacted in the complement (C) fixation assay. Serum obtained during the acute episode from the PlA1-positive patient reacted against platelets from four of 11 normals by C fixation and against platelets from 48 of 53 normals by 51Cr release, including five of nine Pl-A1-negative platelet samples. This case represents the first instance of PTP in which the platelet isoantibody was not specifically directed against the Pl-A1 antigen. These observations suggest that PTP may be a more heterogeneous disorder than previously realized. (+info)