Cardioprotection by opening of the K(ATP) channel in unstable angina. Is this a clinical manifestation of myocardial preconditioning? Results of a randomized study with nicorandil. CESAR 2 investigation. Clinical European studies in angina and revascularization.
AIMS: To assess the anti-ischaemic and anti-arrhythmic effects and overall safety of nicorandil, an ATP sensitive potassium (K+) channel opener, with 'cardioprotective' effects, in patients with unstable angina. METHODS: In a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study, oral nicorandil 20 mg twice daily or a matching placebo was administered for a minimum of 48 h to patients admitted with unstable angina. Treatment was standardized to include, where tolerated, oral aspirin, a beta-blocker and diltiazem. Continuous Holter ECG monitoring was performed for 48 h to assess the frequency and duration of transient myocardial ischaemia and any tachyarrhythmia, as the predefined end-points of the study. A pain chart recorded the incidence and severity of chest pain throughout the study period. Patients with myocardial infarction identified retrospectively from troponin-T analysis were excluded. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-five patients were recruited into the study. Forty-three patients were excluded with an index diagnosis of myocardial infarction, two were not randomized and 12 had unsatisfactory tape data. In the remaining 188 patients, six out of 89 patients (6.7%) on nicorandil experienced an arrhythmia, compared with 17 out of 99 patients (17.2%) on placebo (P=0.04). Three nicorandil patients experienced three runs of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia compared to 31 runs in 10 patients on placebo (P=0.087 patients; P<0.0001 runs). Three nicorandil patients had four runs of supraventricular tachycardia, compared to 15 runs in nine patients on placebo (P=0.14 patients; P=0.017 runs). Eleven (12.4%) patients on nicorandil had 37 episodes of transient myocardial ischaemia (mostly silent) compared with 74 episodes in 21 (21.2%) patients on placebo (P=0.12 patients; P=0.0028 episodes). In the overall safety analysis, which included all patients who received at least one dose of study medication, there were no significant differences in the rates of myocardial infarction or death between the nicorandil or placebo-treated groups. CONCLUSIONS: Nicorandil, added to aggressive anti-anginal treatment for unstable angina, reduces transient myocardial ischaemia, non-sustained ventricular, and supraventricular arrhythmia compared to placebo. The anti-arrhythmic activity with nicorandil is probably a secondary effect resulting from its anti-ischaemic action and we suggest that this may be related to its effect on the ATP sensitive potassium channel causing pharmacological preconditioning. (+info)
Intravenous nicorandil can preserve microvascular integrity and myocardial viability in patients with reperfused anterior wall myocardial infarction.
OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether the intravenous administration of nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ channel opener, exerts beneficial effect on microvascular function and functional and clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). BACKGROUND: Experimental studies documented that ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener exerts cardioprotection after prolonged ischemia. METHODS: We randomly divided 81 patients with a first anterior AMI into two groups, nicorandil (n = 40) and control groups (n = 41). All patients received successful coronary angioplasty within 12 h after the symptom onset and underwent myocardial contrast echcardiography (MCE) with the intracoronary injection of sonicated microbubbles. In the nicorandil group, we injected 4 mg of nicorandil followed by the infusion at 6 mg/h for 24 h and by oral nicorandil (15 mg/day). RESULTS: The improvement in regional left ventricular function, wall motion score and regional wall motion was significantly better in the nicorandil group then in the control group. Intractable congestive heart failure, malignant ventricular arrhythmia and pericardial effusion were more frequently found in the control group than in the nicorandil group (15% vs. 37%, 5% vs. 20% and 8% vs. 37%, p < 0.05, respectively). The frequency of sizable MCE no reflow phenomenon was significantly lower in the nicorandil group than in the control group (15% vs. 33%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous nicorandil in conjunction with coronary angioplasty is associated with better functional and clinical outcomes compared to angioplasty alone in patients with an anterior AMI. Myocardial contrast echocardiography findings imply that an improvement in microvascular function with nicorandil may be attributable to this better outcome. (+info)
Effects of nicorandil on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats: a possible role of K(ATP) channels.
The anti-ulcer effects of nicorandil [N-(2-hydroxyethyl)nicotinamide nitrate ester] were examined on water-immersion plus restraint stress-induced and aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in rats, compared with those of cimetidine. Nicorandil (3 and 10 mg/kg) given orally to rats dose-dependently inhibited the development of acid-related damage (water-immersion- and aspirin-induced gastric lesions) in the models. Cimetidine (50 mg/kg, p.o.) also had anti-ulcer effects in the same models. However, in the presence of glibenclamide (20 mg/kg, i.v.), an antagonist of K(ATP) channels, nicorandil did not inhibit the formation of gastric lesions. Nicorandil (10 mg/kg) given intraduodenally (i.d.), like cimetidine (50 mg/kg), significantly reduced the volume of the gastric content, total acidity and total acid output in the pylorus ligation model. Glibenclamide reversed the changes caused by i.d. nicorandil. I.v. infusion of nicorandil (20 microg/kg per min) significantly increased gastric mucosal blood flow, without affecting blood pressure and heart rate, but the increase in the blood flow was not observed after i.v. treatment with glibenclamide (20 mg/kg). These results indicate that nicorandil administered orally to rats produces the anti-ulcer effect by reducing the aggressive factors and by enhancing the defensive process in the mucosa through its K(ATP)-channel-opening property. (+info)
Effects of nicorandil on aortic input impedance: a comparative study with nitroglycerin.
A study of aortic input impedance was performed to evaluate the effects of nicorandil on the systemic circulation, and the effects were compared with those of nitroglycerin. Sixteen patients with coronary artery disease were divided into 2 age-matched groups. Aortic input impedance was obtained from Fourier analysis of aortic pressure and flow signals at baseline conditions, after intravenous administration of either 4 mg (Group 1) or 8 mg (Group 2) nicorandil, and 20 min after 0.3 mg sublingual nitroglycerin. In Group 1, the first harmonic impedance modulus (Z1, 304+/-140 dyne x s x cm(-5)) and the average of the first to third harmonics (Z1-3, 207+/-99 dyne x s x cm(-5)), indices of wave reflection, significantly decreased (24.4% (p<0.05) and 24.7% (p<0.01), respectively) after nicorandil, and 41.3% (p<0.01) and 33.9% (p<0.01) after nitroglycerin. The effects between the 2 vasodilators were not significantly different. In Group 2, Z1 and Z1-3 (275+/-138 and 196+/-93 dyne x s x cm(-5), respectively) also decreased after administration of nicorandil (28.4% (p<0.01) and 35.9% (p<0.01), respectively), and after administration of nitroglycerin (23.9% (p<0.01) and 28.7% (p<0.01), respectively), without any significant difference between the 2 drugs. Characteristic impedance and total peripheral resistance (R) in both groups remained unchanged except for R after 8 mg nicorandil (from 1830+/-415 to 1433+/-428 dyne x s x cm(-5); p<0.01). Like nitroglycerin, both doses of nicorandil reduced wave reflection. The reduction in R after 8 mg nicorandil is related to decreased tone in the resistance arteries, probably due to potassium channel opener effects. (+info)
Effects of nicorandil as compared to mixtures of sodium nitroprusside and levcromakalim in isolated rat aorta.
1. The contribution of the relaxant mechanisms of nicorandil (NIC) were analysed by comparing its effects with those of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), levcromakalim (LEM) and mixtures (1:10, 1:30 and 1:100) of SNP:LEM in isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta. 2. In rings precontracted with KCl (25 mM), the relative inhibitory potency of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ and the K(ATP) channel inhibitor glibenclamide (GLI) on SNP:LEM mixtures showed a good correlation with the relative proportion of SNP and LEM in the mixtures. Furthermore, the degree of the inhibition by ODQ and GLI of the effects of the 1:30 SNP:LEM mixture varied as a function of the relative potency of SNP and LEM in KCl-, noradrenaline- (NA) or NA plus nifedipine-treated arteries. 3. The inhibitory effects of ODQ, GLI and ODQ plus GLI on NIC-induced relaxation was similar to that for the 1:30 SNP:LEM mixture in NA plus nifedipine-contracted arteries, but the inhibition of GLI or ODQ plus GLI was smaller in KCl-contracted arteries. 4. In conclusion, the relative importance of activation of the cyclic GMP pathway and K(ATP) channel opening in mixtures of SNP and LEM could be predicted by the proportion of the drugs in the mixtures and by the relative potency of SNP vs LEM in different experimental conditions. Furthermore, the present results suggest that besides these two mechanisms, a third ODQ- and GLI-insensitive mechanism, possibly involving Ca2+ channel blockade, also participates in the relaxant effects of NIC in KCl-induced contractions. (+info)
Nonischemic ST-segment elevation induced by negative inotropic agents.
The present study investigated whether regional ventricular dyskinesia (ie, systolic bulging) is a direct cause of ST-segment elevation in canine hearts in vivo. Regional ventricular dyskinesia was induced in 33 anesthetized open-chest dogs by injection of negative inotropic agents into the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) without disruption of coronary blood flow. Regional myocardial contraction was assessed in terms of the percent systolic shortening (%SS) and percent systolic bulging (%bulging), which were measured using ultrasonic crystals. The ST-segment elevation of the LAD-perfused area was measured with a unipolar electrode. Lidocaine, a sodium channel blocker, nicorandil, a potassium channel opener, propranolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, or verapamil, a calcium channel blocker, was administered by intracoronary injection during maximal vasodilation induced by adenosine. All drugs induced dose-dependent ST-segment elevation in association with a parallel reduction in %SS and a parallel increase in %bulging. The absence of myocardial ischemia was confirmed by the absence of NADH fluorescence. It was concluded that regional ventricular dyskinesia had an important role in ST-segment elevation not associated with myocardial ischemia. (+info)
Nicorandil abolished repolarisation alternans in a patient with idiopathic long QT syndrome.
A 23 year old woman with idiopathic long QT syndrome had repeated syncopal attacks associated with torsades de pointes. T wave alternans (TWA) was recorded and the QT interval was abnormally prolonged during treadmill exercise test. Monophasic action potential (MAP) alternans also appeared after an abrupt shortening of the cycle length in electrophysiological study. After intravenous administration of nicorandil 6 mg, both TWA and MAP alternans disappeared. (+info)
Three minute, but not one minute, ischemia and nicorandil have a preconditioning effect in patients with coronary artery disease.
OBJECTIVES: This study focused on 1) the determination of the optimal preconditioning (PC) duration, and 2) the protective effect of nicorandil (NC), a hybrid nitrate with a KATP channel opening effect, during a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) model in humans. BACKGROUND: The ischemic PC effect is induced in 180 s ischemia, but not in 120 s ischemia in rabbit hearts. However, the duration of ischemia that induces PC effect and the role of the KATP channel in the PC effect in humans are still unclear. METHODS: Forty-six patients with stable angina were randomly allocated to four groups: the duration of the first inflation as PC ischemia was 60 s in the PC60 group (n = 12), and 180 s in the PC180 group (n = 12). In the other groups, NC (80 microg/kg) was intravenously given for 1 min in the NC group (n = 12), and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) (40 microg/kg) was given in the ISDN group (n = 10). Five minutes after first inflation or drug administration, a second inflation was conducted for 120 s in each group. In the ECG, the lead with the largest shift in ST segment (deltaST max), and the sum of elevated ST levels in all leads (sigmaST) were determined. RESULTS: In the PC60 group, no significant difference was observed in either deltaST max or sigmaST between the first and second inflation. However, the second inflation in the PC180 group showed significantly lower levels of deltaST max and sigmaST compared with those of the first inflation. In the NC group, both deltaST max and sigmaST measured at 30 s and 60 s after balloon inflation were significantly lower than those of the first inflation in the PC60 and PC180 control groups. In the ISDN group, no significant difference was observed in deltaST max or sigmaST. CONCLUSION: In human PTCA models, a PC effect is observed in 180 s ischemia, but not in 60 s ischemia. A pharmacological PC effect is induced by NC, a KATP channel opener with a nitrate-like effect but not ISDN. This suggests that the opening of KATP channels plays an important role in the protecting effect of NC. (+info)