Genetically corrected autologous stem cells engraft, but host immune responses limit their utility in canine alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency.
Canine alpha-L-iduronidase (alpha-ID) deficiency, a model of the human storage disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), is an ideal system in which to evaluate the clinical benefit of genetically corrected hematopoietic stem cells. We performed adoptive transfer of genetically corrected autologous hematopoietic cells in dogs with alpha-ID deficiency. Large volume marrow collections were performed on five alpha-ID-deficient dogs. Marrow mononuclear cells in long-term marrow cultures (LTMCs) were exposed on three occasions during 3 weeks of culture to retroviral vectors bearing the normal canine alpha-ID cDNA. Transduced LTMC cells from deficient dogs expressed enzymatically active alpha-ID at 10 to 200 times the levels seen in normal dogs. An average of 32% of LTMC-derived clonogenic hematopoietic cells were provirus positive by polymerase chain reaction and about half of these expressed alpha-ID. Approximately 10(7) autologous gene-modified LTMC cells/kg were infused into nonmyeloablated recipients. Proviral DNA was detected in up to 10% of individual marrow-derived hematopoietic colonies and in 0.01% to 1% of blood and marrow leukocytes at up to 2 to 3 years postinfusion. Despite good evidence for engraftment of provirally marked cells, neither alpha-ID enzyme nor alpha-ID transcripts were detected in any dog. We evaluated immune responses against alpha-ID and transduced cells. Humoral responses to alpha-ID and serum components of the culture media (fetal bovine and horse sera and bovine serum albumin) were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cellular immune responses to autologous alpha-ID but not neo(r) transduced cells were demonstrated by lymphocyte proliferation assays. To abrogate potential immune phenomena, four affected dogs received posttransplant cyclosporine A. Whereas immune responses were dampened in these dogs, alpha-ID activity remained undetectable. In none of the dogs engrafted with genetically corrected cells was there evidence for clinical improvement. Our data suggest that, whereas the alpha-ID cDNA may be transferred and maintained in approximately 5% of hematopoietic progenitors, the potential of this approach appears limited by the levels of provirally derived enzyme that are expressed in vivo and by the host's response to cultured and transduced hematopoietic cells expressing foreign proteins. (+info)
Combined aortic and mitral stenosis in mucopolysaccharidosis type I-S (Ullrich-Scheie syndrome).
The genetic mucopolysaccharidosis syndromes (MPS) are autosomal recessive inborn errors of metabolism. Heart valve involvement in MPS is not uncommon but only a few case reports of successful cardiac surgery are available. In particular, reports of combined aortic and mitral stenosis associated with MPS type I-S are very rare. Both type I and type VI MPS are associated with significant left sided valvar heart disease that requires surgical valve replacement because of irregular valve thickening, fibrosis, and calcification. A 35 year old man had severe mitral valve stenosis after successful surgical replacement of a stenotic aortic valve. Valvar heart disease was investigated by cardiac ultrasound and left heart catheterisation. Histomorphological characterisation of the affected mitral valve was performed. The case illustrates typically associated clinical features of cardiac and extracardiac abnormalities found in MPS type I-S. (+info)
Fluorometric measurement of urinary alpha-L-iduronidase activity.
A fluorogenic substrate for alpha-L-iduronidase, 4-methylumbelliferyl alpha-L-iduronide, has been newly synthesized and the enzyme activity has been measured in urine samples obtained from normal persons and patients suffering from mucopolysaccharidosis. Urine samples derived from a patient with Scheie syndrome showed greatly reduced activity compared with a normal adult at a similar age. This patient exhibited a high level of urinary excretion of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate, which could be interpreted in terms of her low alpha-L-iduronidase activity. The use of the fluorogenic substrate has some advantages over existing methods because of the high sensitivity and the relative ease of handling, and it should be useful not only for diagnosis but also for following the purification process of the enzyme. (+info)
Impaired elastogenesis in Hurler disease: dermatan sulfate accumulation linked to deficiency in elastin-binding protein and elastic fiber assembly.
Hurler disease resulting from a deficiency in alpha-L-iduronidase, which causes an accumulation of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans, is characterized by connective tissue and skeletal deformations, cardiomyopathy, cardiac valve defects, and progressive coronary artery stenosis. In this report, we present evidence that accumulation of dermatan sulfate but not heparan sulfate moieties is linked to impaired elastic fiber assembly that, in turn, contributes substantially to the development of the clinical phenotype in Hurler disease. Our data suggest that dermatan sulfate-bearing moieties bind to and cause functional inactivation of the 67-kd elastin-binding protein, a molecular chaperone for tropoelastin, which normally facilitates its secretion and assembly into elastic fibers. We demonstrate that, in contrast to normal skin fibroblasts and cells from Sanfilippo disease, which accumulate heparan sulfate, Hurler fibroblasts show reduced expression of elastin-binding protein and do not assemble elastic fibers, despite an adequate synthesis of tropoelastin and sufficient production of a microfibrillar scaffold of elastic fibers. Because cultured Hurler fibroblasts proliferate more quickly than their normal counterparts and the addition of exogenous insoluble elastin reduces their proliferation, we suggest that cell contacts with insoluble elastin play an important role in controlling their proliferation. (+info)
Retroviral vector design studies toward hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis type I.
To optimize a gene transfer system for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type I, 10 retroviral vectors were constructed to express the human alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) cDNA. These vectors were designed to evaluate the potential effects of specific promoters, the addition of selectable markers, and the use of multiple promoters versus an internal ribosome entry site for expression of IDUA and selectable maker genes. The effect of vector design was investigated in primary patient fibroblasts (F(MPS)) or murine fibroblast cell lines; while overall comparison of transgene expression was determined in patients' peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL(MPS)) and CD34+ progenitors (PBPC(MPS)). We observed that the human PGK promoter introduced the highest IDUA activity per 1% relative transgene frequency in F(MPS). Use of the same promoter to separately regulate both the therapeutic gene and a drug-resistance gene resulted in decreased expression of the unselected gene. Co-selection using bicistronic vectors not only increased the number of transductants, but also elevated transgene expression under selective pressure in transgene-positive progenitors. Bicistronic vector LP1CD overcame down-regulation and practically introduced the highest IDUA level in unselected PBL(MPS) and an intermediate level in PBPC(MPS). These studies provide a better understanding of factors contributing to efficient gene expression in hematopoietic cells. (+info)
Gentamicin-mediated suppression of Hurler syndrome stop mutations restores a low level of alpha-L-iduronidase activity and reduces lysosomal glycosaminoglycan accumulation.
Hurler syndrome is the most severe form of a lysosomal storage disease caused by loss of the enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase (encoded by the IDUA gene), which participates in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) within the lysosome. In some populations, premature stop mutations represent roughly two-thirds of the mutations that cause Hurler syndrome. In this study we investigated whether the aminoglycoside gentamicin can suppress stop mutations within the IDUA gene. We found that a Hurler syndrome fibroblast cell line heterozygous for the IDUA stop mutations Q70X and W402X showed a significant increase in alpha-L-iduronidase activity when cultured in the presence of gentamicin, resulting in the restoration of 2.8% of normal alpha-L-iduronidase activity. Determination of alpha-L-iduronidase protein levels by an immunoquantification assay indicated that gentamicin treatment produced a similar increase in alpha-L-iduronidase protein in Hurler cells. Both the alpha-L-iduronidase activity and protein level resulting from this treatment have previously been correlated with mild Hurler phenotypes. Although Hurler fibroblasts contain a much higher level of GAGs than normal, we found that gentamicin treatment reduced GAG accumulation in Hurler cells to a normal level. We also found that a reduced GAG level could be sustained for at least 2 days after gentamicin treatment was discontinued. The reduction in the GAG level was also reflected in a marked reduction in lysosomal vacuolation. Taken together, these results suggest that the suppression of premature stop mutations may provide an effective treatment for Hurler syndrome patients with premature stop mutations in the IDUA gene. (+info)
Enzyme-replacement therapy in mucopolysaccharidosis I.
BACKGROUND: Mucopolysaccharidosis I is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of the enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase. We evaluated the effect of enzyme-replacement therapy with recombinant human alpha-L-iduronidase in patients with this disorder. METHODS: We treated 10 patients with mucopolysaccharidosis I (age, 5 to 22 years) with recombinant human alpha-L-iduronidase at a dose of 125,000 U per kilogram of body weight given intravenously once weekly for 52 weeks. The patients were evaluated at base line and at 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks by detailed clinical examinations, magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and brain, echocardiography, range-of-motion measurements, polysomnography, clinical laboratory evaluations, measurements of leukocyte alpha-L-iduronidase activity, and urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion. RESULTS: Hepatosplenomegaly decreased significantly in all patients, and the size of the liver was normal for body weight and age in eight patients by 26 weeks. The rate of growth in height and weight increased by a mean of 85 and 131 percent, respectively, in the six prepubertal patients. The mean maximal range of motion of shoulder flexion and elbow extension increased significantly. The number of episodes of apnea and hypopnea during sleep decreased 61 percent. New York Heart Association functional class improved by one or two classes in all patients. Urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion decreased after 3 to 4 weeks of treatment; the mean reduction was 63 percent of base-line values. Five patients had transient urticaria during infusions. Serum antibodies to alpha-L-iduronidase were detected in four patients. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with mucopolysaccharidosis I, treatment with recombinant human alpha-L-iduronidase reduces lysosomal storage in the liver and ameliorates some clinical manifestations of the disease. (+info)
Oral busulfan pharmacokinetics and engraftment in children with Hurler syndrome and other inherited metabolic storage diseases undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only treatment for selected inherited metabolic storage diseases (IMSD); a significant shortcoming is failure to achieve donor-derived engraftment. This study was undertaken to determine whether busulfan pharmacokinetics (BU PK) are altered in children with IMSD and whether BU concentrations are important in achieving engraftment. BU samples were obtained from 39 IMSD children, including 20 children with Hurler syndrome, undergoing HCT. Patients received oral BU (40 mg/m(2)/dose x 8 doses), cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg/day x 2 doses) and TBI (750 cGy in one fraction) as a preparative regimen. Median (range) oral clearance corrected for bioavailability (Cl/F in ml/min/kg), area under the curve (AUC in ng min/ml) and BU plasma concentration (Cp in ng/ml) with the fourth dose were 5.2 (2.1-11.4), 318 294 (112 893-640 995) and 950 (314-1780), respectively. Children < 3 years of age had lower AUC and Cp but higher Cl/F (P < or = 0.03). BU Cp (P = 0.06) or marrow cell dose (P = 0.32) was not different in Hurler syndrome compared to other IMSD. A median BU Cp of 959 and 831 ng/ml was achieved in children with full and failed early engraftment, respectively. There was no difference in early and late engraftment between children with Hurler and other IMSD. In conclusion, we found no significant association between engraftment, marrow cell dose and BU exposure when combined with CY and TBI in children with IMSD. (+info)