Chemomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice.
The modulatory effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg/kg bodyweight and 250 mg/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b(5) and Cytochrome p(450) ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 6-8 week old female Swiss albino mice. Further, the chemopreventive efficacy of the extract was evaluated in a two stage model of 7,12 - dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis. Significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the activities of hepatic cytochrome b(5), cytochrome p(450), catalase, glutathione peroxidase ( GPx ), glutathione reductase (GR), acid soluble sulfhydryl content (-SH ) and a significant decrease ( p<0.01 ) in the hepatic MDA level were observed at both dose levels of treatment when compared with the control values. Glutathione-S- transferase ( GST )activity was found to be significantly increased (p<0.01 ) only at the higher dose level. Butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA ) fed at a dose of 0.75% in the diet for 7 and 14 days (positive control ) caused a significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the levels of hepatic phase I and phase II enzymes, anti- oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and a decrease in lipid peroxidation. The skin papillomagenesis studies demonstrated a significant decrease (p<0.05 ) in the percentage of mice with papillomas, average number of papillomas per mouse and papillomas per papilloma bearing mouse when the animals received a topical application of the extract at a dose of 5mg/ kg body weight in the peri-initiation phase 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application, Group II ), promotional phase (from the day of croton oil application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group III ) and both peri and post initiation stages (from 7 days prior to DMBA application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group IV) compared to the control group (Group I ). The percentage inhibition of tumor multiplicity has been recorded to be 27, 72, and 81 in Groups II, III, and IV, respectively. These findings are suggestive of a possible chemopreventive potential of Moringa oliefera drumstick extract against chemical carcinogenesis. (+info)
Preventive effects of Moringa oleifera (Lam) on hyperlipidemia and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes in iron deficient rats.
The effects of Moringa oleifera (MO), Moringaceae on hyperlipidemia and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes caused by iron deficiency were investigated. Four-week-old male Wistar-strain rats were fed a control diet based on AIN-93G (C), an iron deficient diet (FeD), a FeD + 0.5% MO (FeD-m) diet, or a FeD + MO 1% (FeD-M) diet for 4 weeks. It was found that MO reduced iron-deficient diet-induced increases in serum and hepatic lipids with dose-dependent increases of serum quercetin and kaempherol, but did not prevent anemia. By electron microscopy, in iron deficient hepatocytes, slightly swollen mitochondria and few glycogen granules were observed, but glycogen granules increased and mitochondria were normalized by treatment with MO. Furthermore, lipoproteins were observed in the Golgi complex under treatment with MO. These results suggest a possible beneficial effect of MO in the prevention of hyperlipidemia and ultrastructural changes in hepatocytes due to iron-deficiency. (+info)
Ameliorative effect of three medicinal plants (P. fraternus, Terminelia a., and Moringa oleifera) on arsenic trioxide induced alteration of lipid peroxidation and protein contents in chicken liver homogenate: an in vitro study.
The ameliorative effect of the aqueous extract of three medicinal plants P. fraternus. Terminalia A., and Moringa oleifera (PF, TA, and MO) on arsenic trioxide (As2O3) induced alteration in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein contents was studied in vitro. Liver from healthy chicken (Gallus domesticus) weighing 1.2 to 1.5 kg was bought to laboratory in frozen condition from local slaughter house and used for study. When 0.2 mL of liver homogenate was treated with 1-5 microg/mL of As2O3, it caused significant alterations in LPO and total protein content of chicken liver. The maximum alteration was observed at 3 mg/mL concentration of As2O3. Addition of each plant extract to liver homogenate did not caused significant alteration in LPO and protein contents. However, concurrent addition of As2O3 and plant extract (25-100 microg/mL) caused significant ameliorative effect. Ameliorative effect of each plant extract was studied separately. The maximum amelioration of PF, MO, and TA was observed at 50 mg/mL, 100 microg/mL, and 100 microg/mL respectively. Thus it is concluded that aqueous extract of PF was observed to have better ameliorative effect. (+info)
Oil and fatty acid diversity in genetically variable clones of Moringa oleifera from India.
The physico-chemical properties of oil from Moringa oleifera seeds from India were determined in the present study. The petroleum ether extracted oil ranged from 27.83 - 45.07% on kernel basis and 15.1-28.4% on whole seed basis in 20 different clones. Leaves and pods showed a good source of vitamin C. Oleic acid (C18:1) has been found to be the major fatty acid being 78.91-85.52% as compared to olive oil, which is considered to be richest source of oleic acid. All the clones from India did not show any presence of behenic acid (C 22:0). The oil was also found to contain high levels of beta-sitosterol ranged from 42.29-47.94% stigmasterol from 13.66-16.61%, campesterol from 12.53-16.63%. The gamma- and delta-tocopherol were found to be in the range of 128.0-146.95, 51.88-63.5 and 55.23-63.84 mg/kg, respectively. (+info)
Larvicidal activity of the water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds against Aedes aegypti and its toxicity upon laboratory animals.
Moringa oleifera leaf extracts inhibit 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone by CYP3A4.
BACKGROUND: Moringa oleifera is a tropical tree often used as a herbal medicine, including by people who test positive for HIV. Since herbal constituents may interact with drugs via inhibition of metabolizing enzymes, we investigated the effects of extracts of M. oleifera on the CYP3A4-mediated 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone. METHODS: Methanolic and aqueous leaf and root of extracts of M. oleifera with concentrations between 0.01 and 10 mg/ml were incubated with testosterone and mixed-sex human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH. Metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested with HepG2 cells using the MTT formazan assay. RESULTS: Significant CYP3A4 inhibitory effects were found, with IC50 values of 0.5 and 2.5 mg/ml for leaf-methanol and leaf-water extracts, respectively. Root extracts were less active. Cytotoxicity was observed only with the leaf-water extract (IC50 = 6 mg/ml). CONCLUSIONS: Further investigation is warranted to elucidate the potential of M. oleifera for clinically significant interactions with antiretroviral and other drugs. (+info)
Adoption of Moringa oleifera to combat under-nutrition viewed through the lens of the "Diffusion of innovations" theory.
Point-of-use interventions to decrease contamination of drinking water: a randomized, controlled pilot study on efficacy, effectiveness, and acceptability of closed containers, Moringa oleifera, and in-home chlorination in rural South India.