Blepharospasm-oromandibular dystonia syndrome (Brueghel's syndrome). A variant of adult-onset torsion dystonia? (1/293)

Thirty-nine patients with the idiopathic blepharospasm-oromandibular dystonia syndrome are described. All presented in adult life, usually in the sixth decade; women were more commonly affected than men. Thirteen had blepharospasm alone, nine had oromandibular dystonia alone, and 17 had both. Torticollis or dystonic writer's camp preceded the syndrome in two patients. Eight other patients developed toritocollis, dystonic posturing of the arms, or involvement of respiratory muscles. No cause or hereditary basis for the illness were discovered. The evidence to indicate that this syndrome is due to an abnormality of extrapyramidal function, and that it is another example of adult-onset focal dystonia akin to spasmodic torticollis and dystonic writer's cramp, is discussed.  (+info)

Electromyographic activity from human laryngeal, pharyngeal, and submental muscles during swallowing. (2/293)

The durations and temporal relationships of electromyographic activity from the submental complex, superior pharyngeal constrictor, cricopharyngeus, thyroarytenoid, and interarytenoid muscles were examined during swallowing of saliva and of 5- and 10-ml water boluses. Bipolar, hooked-wire electrodes were inserted into all muscles except for the submental complex, which was studied with bipolar surface electrodes. Eight healthy, normal, subjects produced five swallows of each of three bolus volumes for a total of 120 swallows. The total duration of electromyographic activity during the pharyngeal stage of the swallow did not alter with bolus condition; however, specific muscles did show a volume-dependent change in electromyograph duration and time of firing. Submental muscle activity was longest for saliva swallows. The interarytenoid muscle showed a significant difference in duration between the saliva and 10-ml water bolus. Finally, the interval between the onset of laryngeal muscle activity (thyroarytenoid, interarytenoid) and of pharyngeal muscle firing patterns (superior pharyngeal constrictor onset, cricopharyngeus offset) decreased as bolus volume increased. The pattern of muscle activity associated with the swallow showed a high level of intrasubject agreement; the presence of somewhat different patterns among subjects indicated a degree of population variance.  (+info)

MRI examination of the masticatory muscles in the gray wolf (Canis lupus), with special reference to the M. temporalis. (3/293)

We examined the head of the gray wolf (Canis lupus) using MRI methods. Although the arising surface of the M. temporalis was not so enlarged in the frontal bone, the small frontal bone did not disturb the M. temporalis from occupying the lateral space of the frontal area in the gray wolf as in the domesticated dog. In the gray wolf, it is suggested that the M. temporalis may not be well-developed in terms of size of arising area, but in the thickness of running bundles. We suggest that the dog has changed the three-dimensional plan of the M. temporalis during the domestication and that the M. temporalis has developed a large arising surface in the frontal bone and lost the thickness of belly in the frontal area in accordance with the enlargement of the frontal bone and the increase in brain size.  (+info)

Behavior of jaw muscle spindle afferents during cortically induced rhythmic jaw movements in the anesthetized rabbit. (4/293)

The regulation by muscle spindles of jaw-closing muscle activity during mastication was evaluated in anesthetized rabbits. Simultaneous records were made of the discharges of muscle spindle units in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, masseter and digastric muscle activity (electromyogram [EMG]), and jaw-movement parameters during cortically induced rhythmic jaw movements. One of three test strips of polyurethane foam, each of a different hardness, was inserted between the opposing molars during the jaw movements. The induced rhythmic jaw movements were crescent shaped and were divided into three phases: jaw-opening, jaw-closing, and power. The firing rate of muscle spindle units during each phase increased after strip application, with a tendency for the spindle discharge to be continuous throughout the entire chewing cycle. However, although the firing rate did not change during the jaw-opening and jaw-closing phases when the strip hardness was altered, the firing rate during the power phase increased in a hardness-dependent manner. In addition, the integrated EMG activity, the duration of the masseteric bursts, and the minimum gape increased with strip hardness. Spindle discharge during the power phase correlated with jaw-closing muscle activity, implying that the change in jaw-closing muscle activity associated with strip hardness was caused by increased spindle discharge produced through insertion of a test strip. The increased firing rate during the other two phases may be involved in a long-latency spindle feedback. This could contribute to matching the spatiotemporal pattern of the central pattern generator to that of the moving jaw.  (+info)

Craniofacial pain and motor function: pathogenesis, clinical correlates, and implications. (5/293)

Many structural, behavioral, and pharmacological interventions imply that favorable treatment effects in musculoskeletal pain states are mediated through the correction of muscle function. The common theme of these interventions is captured in the popular idea that structural or psychological factors cause muscle hyperactivity, muscle overwork, muscle fatigue, and ultimately pain. Although symptoms and signs of motor dysfunction can sometimes be explained by changes in structure, there is strong evidence that they can also be caused by pain. This new understanding has resulted in a better appreciation of the pathogenesis of symptoms and signs of the musculoskeletal pain conditions, including the sequence of events that leads to the development of motor dysfunction. With the improved understanding of the relationship between pain and motor function, including the inappropriateness of many clinical assumptions, a new literature emerges that opens the door to exciting therapeutic opportunities. Novel treatments are expected to have a profound impact on the care of musculoskeletal pain and its effect on motor function in the not-too-distant future.  (+info)

Masticator space abnormalities associated with mandibular osteoradionecrosis: MR and CT findings in five patients. (6/293)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Imaging of patients with a clinical diagnosis of mandibular osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is often performed to support that clinical suspicion, evaluate the extent of the disease, or exclude coexistent tumor recurrence. The purpose of our study was to describe the clinical, MR imaging, and CT features of five patients with mandibular ORN associated with prominent soft-tissue abnormality in the adjacent masticator muscles. METHODS: The MR and CT examinations of five patients with mandibular ORN associated with soft-tissue abnormalities in the adjacent masticator muscles were reviewed. All patients had received external beam radiotherapy for primary head and neck malignancies, with a total radiation dose range of 60 Gy to 69 Gy in 30 to 38 fractions. RESULTS: CT revealed the typical osseous findings of cortical disruption, trabecular disorganization, and fragmentation in all five patients. Abnormal diffuse enhancement of the adjacent masseter and pterygoid muscles was noted in all patients. Four patients had prominent mass-like thickening of these muscles adjacent to the osseous abnormality. Of the three patients who underwent MR imaging, all showed homogeneous abnormal T1 hypointensity, T2 hyperintensity, and intense enhancement of the bone marrow in the involved mandible. The masticator muscles adjacent to the osseous abnormality also showed abnormal T2 hyperintensity and intense diffuse enhancement on MR images. CONCLUSION: Mandibular ORN can be associated with prominent soft-tissue thickening and enhancement in the adjacent musculature. These changes can appear mass-like and are not related to tumor recurrence or metastatic disease.  (+info)

Adaptation of the muscles of mastication to the flat skull feature in the polar bear (Ursus maritimus). (7/293)

The muscles of mastication of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and those of the brown bear (U. arctos) were examined by anatomical approach. In addition, the examination of the skull was carried out in the polar bear, brown bear and giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). In the polar bear, the rostro-ventral part of the superficial layer of the M. masseter possessed the abundant fleshy portion folded in the rostral and lateral directions like an accordion. Moreover, the rostro-medial area of the superficial layer became hollow in the nuchal direction when the mouth was closed. The M. temporalis of the polar bear covered up the anterior border of the coronoid process of the mandible and occupied the almost entire area of the cranial surface. The M. pterygoideus medialis of the polar bear was inserted on the ventral border of the mandible and on the ventral part of the temporal bone more widely than that of the brown bear. As results of our measurements of the mandible, an effect of the leverage in the polar bear was the smallest in three species. In the polar bear, the skull was flat, and the space between zygomatic arch and ventral border of the mandible, occupied by the M. masseter was the narrowest. It is suggested that the muscles of mastication of the polar bear is adapted to the flat skull feature for supplementing the functions.  (+info)

Craniomandibular status and function in patients with habitual snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea after nocturnal treatment with a mandibular advancement splint: a 2-year follow-up. (8/293)

The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the status and function of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and masticatory system in patients with habitual snoring and obstructive apnoea after 2 years nocturnal treatment with a mandibular advancement splint. Thirty-two patients participated in the study, ranging from 43.0 to 79.8 years of age (mean 54.4 years, SD 8.78) at the start of treatment. All patients had been referred from the ENT department for treatment with a mandibular advancement splint. The acrylic splint advanced the mandible 50-70 per cent of maximal protrusion, opened 5 mm vertically, and was used 6-8 hours per night and 5-7 nights per week. Overjet, overbite, and molar relationship were measured on dental casts. The patients were asked to answer a questionnaire concerning symptoms of craniomandibular dysfunction (CMD). They were also clinically examined in a standardized manner, including registration of range of mandibular movements, TMJ sounds, pain on movement, and palpatory tenderness of the TMJ and the masticatory muscles. None of the patients showed more than five symptoms of dysfunction either at the start of or after 2 years of treatment. A decrease in the frequency of headache was found for nine of those 18 patients that reported headache (P = 0.004). A minor, but significant decrease in overjet and overbite was found and the molar relationship was also changed. It was concluded that 2 years' treatment with a mandibular advancement splint had no adverse effects on the craniomandibular status and function, but the observed occlusal changes requires further evaluation.  (+info)