Inhibition of lipolysis causes suppression of endogenous glucose production independent of changes in insulin.
We have shown that insulin controls endogenous glucose production (EGP) indirectly, via suppression of adipocyte lipolysis. Free fatty acids (FFA) and EGP are suppressed proportionately, and when the decline in FFA is prevented during insulin infusion, suppression of EGP is also prevented. The present study tested the hypothesis that suppression of lipolysis under conditions of constant insulin would yield a suppression of EGP. N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) was used to selectively suppress adipocyte lipolysis during euglycemic clamps in conscious male dogs. FFA suppression by CHA caused suppression of EGP. Liposyn control experiments, which maintained FFA levels above basal during CHA infusion, completely prevented the decline in EGP, whereas glycerol control experiments, which maintained glycerol levels close to basal, did not prevent a decline in EGP. These controls suggest that the EGP suppression was secondary to the suppression of FFA levels specifically. A difference in the sensitivity of FFA and EGP suppression (FFA were suppressed approximately 85% whereas EGP only declined approximately 40%) was possibly caused by confounding effects of CHA, including an increase in catecholamine and glucagons levels during CHA infusion. Thus suppression of lipolysis under constant insulin causes suppression of EGP, despite a significant rise in catecholamines. (+info)
Thiazolidinedione treatment prevents free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in male wistar rats.
We sought to ascertain whether pretreatment with troglitazone (20 days) could prevent acute free fatty acid (FFA)-induced insulin resistance in male Wistar rats. Animals were divided into three groups: 1) control, 2) FFA infusion alone (FFA1), and 3) thiazolidinedione (TZD)-treated + FFA infusion (FFA1). Days before a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, all animals were cannulated in the jugular vein (infusion) and carotid artery (sampling). Animals were allowed 5 days to recover from surgery and fasted 12 h before the experiment. Glucose (variable), insulin (40 mU. kg(-1). min(-1)), and Liposyn (heparinized 10% lipid emulsion) infusions were initiated simultaneously and continued from 0-120 min. Steady-state glucose, 8.3 +/- 0.14 mmol/l, and insulin concentrations, 7.3 +/- 2.45 nmol/l, were the same between groups. Interestingly, steady-state FFA levels were significantly lower in animals pretreated with TZD compared with FFA alone (1.83 +/- 0.26 vs. 2.96 +/- 0.25 mmol/l; P = 0.009), despite matched intralipid infusion rates. A second group of TZD-treated animals (TZD + FFA2) were infused with intralipid at a higher infusion rate (44%) to match the arterial concentrations of FFA1. The glucose infusion and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rates (GDRs) were significantly decreased (40%) for untreated Liposyn infused (FFA1) compared with control rats. In addition, insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation and IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity was significantly reduced, 30-50%, in FFA1 rats. TZD pretreatment prevented the FFA-induced decrement in insulin signaling. Fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) also was significantly reduced (56%) in untreated FFA1 rats after the clamp but remained identical to control values for TZD-treated rats. In conclusion, acutely elevated FFA levels 1) induced a significant reduction in tracer-determined GDR paralleled by impaired tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and reduced IRS-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity and 2) induced a significant reduction in FAT/CD36 total protein. TZD pretreatment prevented FFA-induced decrements in insulin action and prevented the reduction in FAT/CD36 protein. (+info)
Female rats do not exhibit free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance.
It is well described that excessive lipid metabolism can cause insulin resistance in both animals and humans, and this has been implicated as a causative factor in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in humans. Recently, we have shown that intravenous lipid emulsion (liposyn) infusion during a 120-min euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp led to significant reductions in insulin action and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) skeletal muscle protein expression. After reviewing the literature, it became evident that essentially all past studies, including our own, were conducted in male animals. Therefore, to determine whether there were sex determinants of fat-induced insulin resistance, we assessed the impact of free fatty acid (FFA) elevation on insulin action in female rats. Here, we report that a fourfold elevation in plasma FFA concentration induced a 40% reduction in the insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate, a 30% decline in insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle insulin substrate receptor-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, a 48% decrease in IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity, and a 50% reduction in muscle FAT/CD36 protein expression in male rats. In striking contrast, we found no effect of FFA elevation to cause insulin resistance, changes in IRS-1/PI 3-kinase, or FAT/CD36 protein levels in female animals. Our findings indicate that female animals are protected from lipid-induced reductions in insulin action. (+info)
Effects of free fatty acids on glucose uptake and utilization in healthy women.
To study effects of sex on free fatty acid (FFA)-induced insulin resistance, we have examined the effects of acute elevations of plasma FFA levels on insulin-stimulated total body glucose uptake in nine healthy young women. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (approximately 500 pmol/l) clamps were performed for 4 h with coinfusion of either lipid/heparin (L/H) to acutely raise plasma FFA levels (from approximately 600 to approximately 1,200 micro mol/l) or saline/glycerol to lower fatty acids (from approximately 600 to approximately 50 micro mol/l). L/H infusion inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (determined with [3-(3)H]glucose) and glycogen synthesis by 31 and 40%, respectively (P < 0.01), almost completely abolished insulin suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP) (13.6 vs. 10.0 micro mol x kg(-1) x min(-1), NS), prevented the insulin induced increase in carbohydrate oxidation (8.1 vs. 7.4 micro mol x kg(-1) x min(-1), NS), and stimulated fat oxidation (from 3.6 to 5.1 micro mol x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.01). These data showed that acute increases in plasma FFA levels inhibited the actions of insulin on glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, and EGP in women to a degree similar to that previously reported in men. We conclude that at insulin and FFA levels in the postprandial range, women and men were susceptible to FFA-induced peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. (+info)
Dose-response effect of elevated plasma free fatty acid on insulin signaling.
The dose-response relationship between elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels and impaired insulin-mediated glucose disposal and insulin signaling was examined in 21 lean, healthy, normal glucose-tolerant subjects. Following a 4-h saline or Liposyn infusion at 30 (n = 9), 60 (n = 6), and 90 (n = 6) ml/h, subjects received a 2-h euglycemic insulin (40 mU . m(-2) . min(-1)) clamp. Basal plasma FFA concentration ( approximately 440 micromol/l) was increased to 695, 1,251, and 1,688 micromol/l after 4 h of Liposyn infusion and resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (R(d)) by 22, 30, and 34%, respectively (all P < 0.05 vs. saline control). At the lowest lipid infusion rate (30 ml/h), insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity associated with IRS-1, and Akt serine phosphorylation were all significantly impaired (P < 0.05-0.01). The highest lipid infusion rate (90 ml/h) caused a further significant reduction in all insulin signaling events compared with the low-dose lipid infusion (P < 0.05-0.01) whereas the 60-ml/h lipid infusion caused an intermediate reduction in insulin signaling. However, about two-thirds of the maximal inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal already occurred at the rather modest increase in plasma FFA induced by the low-dose (30-ml/h) lipid infusion. Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal was inversely correlated with both the plasma FFA concentration after 4 h of lipid infusion (r = -0.50, P = 0.001) and the plasma FFA level during the last 30 min of the insulin clamp (r = -0.54, P < 0.001). PI 3-kinase activity associated with IRS-1 correlated with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (r = 0.45, P < 0.01) and inversely with both the plasma FFA concentration after 4 h of lipid infusion (r = -0.39, P = 0.01) and during the last 30 min of the insulin clamp (r = -0.43, P < 0.01). In summary, in skeletal muscle of lean, healthy subjects, a progressive increase in plasma FFA causes a dose-dependent inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal and insulin signaling. The inhibitory effect of plasma FFA was already significant following a rather modest increase in plasma FFA and develops at concentrations that are well within the physiological range (i.e., at plasma FFA levels observed in obesity and type 2 diabetes). (+info)
Homeostatic restitution of cell membranes. Nuclear membrane lipid biogenesis and transport of protein from cytosol to intranuclear spaces.
Our studies on homeostatic restitution of cellular and subcellular membranes showed that vesicular intracellular transport is engaged in systematic and coordinated replacement of lipids and proteins in the membranes of the secretory, non-dividing epithelial cells (Slomiany et al., J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 2004; 55: 837-860). In this report, we present evidence on the homeostatic restitution of lipids in the biomembranes that constitute nuclear envelopes. We investigated nuclear membranes lipid synthesis by employing purified intact nuclei (IN), the outer nuclear membrane (ONM), the inner nuclear membrane (INM) and the cell cytosol (CC). In contrast to Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) which in the presence of CC generates new biomembrane that forms ER vesicles transporting ER products to Golgi, the IN, ONM and INM are not producing transport vesicles. Instead, the newly synthesized lipids remain in the nuclear membranes. The membranes (INM, ONM) of IN incubated with CC become enriched with newly synthesized phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) and phosphatidic acid (PA). The incubation of separated ONM and INM with CC also enriched the membranes with IN specific lipids identified above. Moreover, the incubation of IN or its membranes with CC afforded retention of numerous CC proteins on the nuclear membrane. Here, we concentrated on 30kDa CC protein that displayed affinity to nuclear membrane PIP2. The 30kDa CC protein bound to PIP2 of IN, INM, and ONM. With IN, initially the PIP2-30kDa CC protein complex was detected on ONM, after 30-120 min of incubation, was found on INM and in nuclear contents. At the same time when the 30 kDa protein was released from INM and found in nuclear contents, the PIP2 of INM and ONM became undetectable, while the lipid extract from the membrane displaced from IN contained labeled PI only. Since ONM is an uninterrupted continuum of ER and INM, we speculate that the synthesis of the lipids in the ER, in the region adjacent to nucleus, is defining nuclear outer and inner biomembrane composition, is responsible for transport of the cytosolic protein into the nucleus and, replenishment of ER membrane used for vesicular transport. (+info)
Phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin metabolism crosstalk inside the nucleus.
It is known that phospholipids represent a minor component of chromatin. It has been highlighted recently that these lipids are metabolized directly inside the nucleus, thanks to the presence of enzymes related to their metabolism, such as neutral sphingomyelinase, sphingomyelin synthase, reverse sphingomyelin synthase and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C. The chromatin enzymatic activities change during cell proliferation, differentiation and/or apoptosis, independently from the enzyme activities present in nuclear membrane, microsomes or cell membranes. This present study aimed to investigate crosstalk in lipid metabolism in nuclear membrane and chromatin isolated from rat liver in vitro and in vivo. The effect of neutral sphingomyelinase activity on phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C and sphingomyelin synthase, which enrich the intranuclear diacylglycerol pool, and the effect of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C activity on neutral sphingomyelinase and reverse sphingomyelin synthase, which enrich the intranuclear ceramide pool, was investigated. The results show that in chromatin, there exists a phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin metabolism crosstalk which regulates the intranuclear ceramide/diacylglycerol pool. The enzyme activities were inhibited by D609, which demonstrated the specificity of this crosstalk. Chromatin lipid metabolism is activated in vivo during cell proliferation, indicating that it could play a role in cell function. The possible mechanism of crosstalk is discussed here, with consideration to recent advances in the field. (+info)
Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3-mediated phosphatidylcholine synthesis is required for assembly of very low density lipoproteins in human hepatoma Huh7 cells.
Hepatocytes play a crucial role in regulating lipid metabolism by exporting cholesterol and triglyceride into plasma through secretion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). VLDL production is also required for release of hepatitis C virus (HCV) from infected hepatocytes. Here, we show that long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3 (ACSL3) plays a crucial role in secretion of VLDL and HCV from hepatocytes. In cultured human hepatoma Huh7 cells, ACSL3 is specifically required for incorporation of fatty acids into phosphatidylcholine. In cells receiving small interfering RNA targeting ACSL3, secretion of apolipoprotein B, the major protein component of VLDL, was inhibited and the lipoprotein was rapidly degraded. This inhibition in secretion was completely eliminated when these cells were treated with phosphatidylcholine. Treatment of cells with small interfering RNA targeting ACSL3 also inhibited secretion of HCV from Huh7-derived cells. These results identify ACSL3 as a new enzymatic target to limit VLDL secretion and HCV infection. (+info)