Localization and possible role of two different alpha v beta 3 integrin conformations in resting and resorbing osteoclasts.
Integrins are membrane receptors that mediate interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix. We recently showed that the osteoclast integrin alpha(v)beta(3) exists in two different conformations, so-called 'basal' and 'activated', with each exhibiting a distinct function. In this study we demonstrate that, in non-resorbing osteoclasts, the 'activated' form of alpha(v)beta(3) accumulates in the motile areas of the plasma membrane. During bone resorption this conformation is prevalent in the ruffled membrane, whereas the 'basal' form of alpha(v)beta(3) is also present in the sealing zone. Moreover, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), two molecules involved in osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast survival, modulate alpha(v)beta(3) conformation in vitro. Preincubation with HGF or M-CSF induces a shift of conformation of alpha(v)beta(3) in primary human osteoclasts (OCs) and in the osteoclast-like cell line (GCT 23). Activated integrin promotes osteoclast migration to the alpha(v)beta(3) ligand osteopontin and enhances bone resorption. Thus, HGF and M-CSF modulate the alpha(v)beta(3) conformational states required for osteoclast polarization and resorption. The capacity of growth factors to alter the affinity of alpha(v)beta(3) toward its ligands offers a potential explanation for the diverse responses of osteoclasts to the same ligand. (+info)
Plasmin-induced migration of endothelial cells. A potential target for the anti-angiogenic action of angiostatin.
Angiostatin, a plasminogen fragment containing 3-4 N-terminal kringle domains, is a potent inhibitor of tumor-induced angiogenesis, but its mechanism of action is unclear. Angiostatin is a ligand for integrin alphavbeta(3) but does not induce stress fiber formation upon integrin binding, suggesting that angiostatin is a potential integrin antagonist. Plasmin, the parent molecule of angiostatin and a major extracellular protease, induces platelet aggregation, migration of peripheral blood monocytes, and release of arachidonate and leukotriene from several cell types. In the current study, we found that plasmin specifically bound to alphavbeta(3) through the kringle domains and induced migration of endothelial cells. In contrast, angiostatin did not induce cell migration. Notably, angiostatin, anti-alphavbeta(3) antibodies, RGD-peptide, and a serine protease inhibitor effectively blocked plasmin-induced cell migration. These results suggest that plasmin-induced migration of endothelial cells requires alphavbeta(3) and the catalytic activity of plasmin and that this process is a potential target for the inhibitory activity of angiostatin. (+info)
Vascular endothelial growth factor and Kaposi's sarcoma cells in human skin grafts.
Human cancer cells often produce tumors in animal models that incompletely reproduce the histology of the parental tumor. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cells, in particular, have not produced durable angiogenic lesions in animal models that resemble those of KS in humans. We investigated the contribution of transformed KS cells, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and human skin tissue on tumor development in a human skin graft/mouse model. High levels of serum VEGF (322 pg/ml) were seen in HIV-1-infected persons with KS compared with HIV-1-infected persons without KS (115 pg/ml). Human KS lesions expressed VEGF in the spindle cells. Transformed KS cells expressed the mitogenically active 121-amino acid and 165-amino acid isoforms of VEGF. Tumors induced by KS cells implanted in the SCID mice grew preferentially in human skin grafts rather than in ungrafted murine skin. Tumors induced in the presence of human skin grafts developed numerous lumens expressing alpha(v)beta(3) integrin. KS cells inoculated with neutralizing anti-VEGF antibody did not form tumors. This study supports an important role for VEGF in tumor development and shows how a human tissue can preferentially promote tumor growth. (+info)
alphavbeta3 integrin expression and pinopod formation in normal and out-of-phase endometria of fertile and infertile women.
BACKGROUND: There is scanty and contradictory information regarding the comparison of traditional histological dating criteria of the endometrium with the expression of the new markers of endometrial receptivity such as alphavbeta3 integrin and pinopods. Also, definite data with respect to the potential correlation existing between these different new markers in defining the putative window of implantation are lacking. METHODS: The temporal relationship between alphavbeta3 integrin expression and pinopod formation in normal and out-of-phase endometrial biopsies from normal healthy women (n = 12) and infertile patients (n = 36) was investigated. Two endometrial biopsies (postovulatory day +7 to +8 and 4 days later) were performed during a single menstrual cycle in each subject. Estradiol and progesterone serum concentrations were quantified on the same days as endometrial sampling. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference regarding alphavbeta3 integrin expression, pinopod formation, and hormone concentrations was found between fertile controls and infertile patients irrespective of endometria being in-phase or out-of-phase. Although a coordinate high level of expression of alphavbeta3 integrin and pinopod on postovulatory days 7-8 was observed, there was an evident lack of temporal co-expression of these markers over the luteal phase in the endometrial samples investigated. CONCLUSIONS: There is a clear dissociation in the temporal expression of the most cited markers postulated to frame the window of implantation. The functional significance (if any) of these new markers remains to be established. (+info)
Antiangiogenics meet nanotechnology.
A mutant Raf-1 gene loaded onto nanoparticles, delivered to tumor vasculature with an integrin binding compound, provides effective antiangiogenic gene therapy in mice. (+info)
Regulation of integrin function by CD47 ligands. Differential effects on alpha vbeta 3 and alpha 4beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion.
We examined the regulation of alpha4beta1 integrin function in melanoma cells and T cells by ligands of CD47. A CD47 antibody (B6H12) that inhibited alphavbeta3-mediated adhesion of melanoma cells induced by CD47-binding peptides from thrombospondin-1 directly stimulated alpha4beta1-mediated adhesion of the same cells to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and N-terminal regions of thrombospondin-1 or thrombospondin-2. B6H12 also stimulated alpha4beta1- as well as alpha2beta1- and alpha5beta1-mediated adhesion of CD47-expressing T cells but not of CD47-deficient T cells. alpha4beta1 and CD47 co-purified as a detergent-stable complex on a CD47 antibody affinity column. CD47-binding peptides based on C-terminal sequences of thrombospondin-1 also specifically enhanced adhesion of melanoma cells and T cells to alpha4beta1 ligands. Unexpectedly, activation of alpha4beta1 function by the thrombospondin-1 CD47-binding peptides also occurred in CD47-deficient T cells. CD47-independent activation of alpha4beta1 required the Val-Val-Met (VVM) motif of the peptides and was sensitive to inhibition by pertussis toxin. These results indicate that activation of alpha4beta1 by the CD47 antibody B6H12 and by VVM peptides occurs by different mechanisms. The antibody directly activates a CD47-alpha4beta1 complex, whereas VVM peptides may target an unidentified Gi-linked receptor that regulates alpha4beta1. (+info)
Global conformational rearrangements in integrin extracellular domains in outside-in and inside-out signaling.
How ligand binding alters integrin conformation in outside-in signaling, and how inside-out signals alter integrin affinity for ligand, have been mysterious. We address this with electron microscopy, physicochemical measurements, mutational introduction of disulfides, and ligand binding to alphaVbeta3 and alphaIIbbeta3 integrins. We show that a highly bent integrin conformation is physiological and has low affinity for biological ligands. Addition of a high affinity ligand mimetic peptide or Mn(2+) results in a switchblade-like opening to an extended structure. An outward swing of the hybrid domain at its junction with the I-like domain shows conformational change within the headpiece that is linked to ligand binding. Breakage of a C-terminal clasp between the alpha and beta subunits enhances Mn(2+)-induced unbending and ligand binding. (+info)
Prostaglandin E2 promotes integrin alpha Vbeta 3-dependent endothelial cell adhesion, rac-activation, and spreading through cAMP/PKA-dependent signaling.
We have recently reported that the inhibition of endothelial cell COX-2 by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs suppresses alpha(V)beta(3)- (but not alpha(5)beta(1)-) dependent Rac activation, endothelial cell spreading, migration, and angiogenesis (Dormond, O., Foletti, A., Paroz, C., and Ruegg, C. (2001) Nat. Med. 7, 1041-1047). Here we investigated the role of the COX-2 metabolites PGE(2) and TXA2 in regulating human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) adhesion and spreading. We report that PGE(2) accelerated alpha(V)beta(3)-mediated HUVEC adhesion and promoted Rac activation and cell spreading, whereas the TXA2 agonist retarded adhesion and inhibited spreading. We show that the cAMP level and the cAMP-regulated protein kinase A (PKA) activity are critical mediators of these PGE(2) effects. alpha(V)beta(3)-mediated adhesion induced a transient COX-2-dependent rise in cAMP levels, whereas the cell-permeable cAMP analogue 8-brcAMP accelerated adhesion, promoted Rac activation, and cell spreading in the presence of the COX-2 inhibitor NS-398. Pharmacological inhibition of PKA completely blocked alpha(V)beta(3)-mediated adhesion. A constitutively active Rac mutant (L61Rac) rescued alpha(V)beta(3)-dependent spreading in the presence of NS398 or, but did not accelerate adhesion, whereas a dominant negative Rac mutant (N17Rac) suppressed spreading without affecting adhesion. alpha(5)beta(1)-mediated HUVEC adhesion, Rac activation, and spreading were not affected by PGE(2), 8-brcAMP, or the inhibition of PKA. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that PGE(2) accelerates alpha(V)beta(3)-mediated endothelial cell adhesion through cAMP-dependent PKA activation and induces alpha(V)beta(3)-dependent spreading via cAMP- and PKA-dependent Rac activation and may contribute to the further understanding of the regulation of vascular integrins alpha(V)beta(3) by COX-2/PGE(2) during tumor angiogenesis and inflammation. (+info)