Reliability of a hospital utilization review method in Turkey.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP) is reliable in Turkey. METHODS: Three reviewers, two physicians and one nurse each reviewed 196 patient-days concurrently by using the AEP at three hospitals, two of which were teaching hospitals. Inter-reviewer reliability was assessed both for all cases reviewed (overall agreement), and for only those judged inappropriate by at least one reviewer (specific agreement). In addition, overall agreement between pairs of reviewers was evaluated by the Kappa statistic. RESULTS: The overall agreement between pairs of reviewers was very high: 93.4-95.9%, and it was similar between all pairs. The level of overall agreement was highly statistically significant: k=0.725-0.833, P<0.001. The specific agreement rates ranged from a low of 61.8% to a high of 75%. CONCLUSIONS: These results show, for the first time, that the AEP method is reliable in Turkey. (+info)
Changing susceptibilities of coagulase-negative staphylococci to teicoplanin in a teaching hospital.
The susceptibility of two collections of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from clinical specimens for teicoplanin and vancomycin were compared. They comprised 91 and 101 isolates, collected in 1985 and 1994 respectively, from different departments of a teaching hospital. MICs of vancomycin and teicoplanin were determined by a modified Etest method. Additionally, a disc diffusion test was performed for teicoplanin. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin (MIC < or = 4 mg/L). Two of the 91 isolates collected in 1985 were intermediate to teicoplanin (MIC between 8 and 32 mg/L), whereas in 1994 the number of intermediate isolates was 20 out of 101 (P < 0.01). The correlation between MICs, as determined by the modified Etest assay, and disc diffusion zones was poor (r = -0.35). Results show that resistance to teicoplanin in CNS has increased in the study hospital over a period of 9 years. This increase is likely to be correlated with the introduction of teicoplanin. Furthermore, a disc diffusion method does not appear to be the first method of choice for detection of strains of CNS with diminished susceptibility to teicoplanin. (+info)
Dictated versus database-generated discharge summaries: a randomized clinical trial.
BACKGROUND: Hospital discharge summaries communicate information necessary for continuing patient care. They are most commonly generated by voice dictation and are often of poor quality. The objective of this study was to compare discharge summaries created by voice dictation with those generated from a clinical database. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial was performed in which discharge summaries for patients discharged from a general internal medicine service at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Ottawa were created by voice dictation (151 patients) or from a database (142 patients). Patients had been admitted between September 1996 and June 1997. The trial was preceded by a baseline cohort study in which all summaries were created by dictation. For the database group, information on forms completed by housestaff was entered into a database and collated into a discharge summary. For the dictation group, housestaff dictated narrative letters. The proportion of patients for whom a summary was generated within 4 weeks of discharge was recorded. Physicians receiving the summary rated its quality, completeness, organization and timeliness on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Housestaff preference was also determined. RESULTS: Patients in the database group and the dictation group were similar. A summary was much more likely to be generated within 4 weeks of discharge for patients in the database group than for those in the dictation group (113 [79.6%] v. 86 [57.0%]; p < 0.001). Summary quality was similar (mean rating 72.7 [standard deviation (SD) 19.3] v. 74.9 [SD 16.6]), as were assessments of completeness (73.4 [SD 19.8] v. 78.2 [SD 14.9]), organization (77.4 [SD 16.3] v. 79.3 [SD 17.2]) and timeliness (70.3 [SD 21.9] v. 66.2 [SD 25.6]). Many information items of interest were more likely to be included in the database-generated summaries. The database system created summaries faster and was preferred by housestaff. Dictated summaries in the baseline and randomized studies were similar, which indicated that the control group was not substantially different from the baseline cohort. INTERPRETATION: The database system significantly increased the likelihood that a discharge summary was created. Housestaff preferred the database system for summary generation. Physicians thought that the quality of summaries generated by the 2 methods was similar. The use of computer databases to create hospital discharge summaries is promising and merits further study and refinement. (+info)
Safe working practices and HIV infection: knowledge, attitudes, perception of risk, and policy in hospital.
OBJECTIVES--To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of risk of occupational HIV transmission in hospital in relation to existing guidelines. DESIGN--Cross sectional anonymous questionnaire survey of all occupational groups. SETTING--One large inner city teaching hospital. SUBJECTS--All 1530 staff working in the hospital in October 1991 and 22 managers. MAIN MEASURES--Knowledge of safe working practices and hospital guidelines; attitudes towards patients with AIDS; perception of risk of occupational transmission of HIV; availability of guidelines. RESULTS--The response rate in the questionnaire survey was 63% (958/1530). Although staff across all occupational groups knew of the potential risk of infection from needlestick injury (98%, 904/922), significantly more non-clinical staff (ambulance, catering, and domestic staff) than clinical staff (doctors, nurses, and paramedics) thought HIV could be transmitted by giving blood (38%, 153/404 v 12%, 40/346; chi 2 = 66.1 p < 0.001); one in ten clinical staff believed this. Except for midwives, half of staff in most occupational groups and 19% (17/91) of doctors and 22% (28/125) of nurses thought gloves should be worn in all contacts with people with AIDS. Most staff (62%, 593/958), including 38% (36/94) of doctors and 52% (67/128) of nurses thought patients should be routinely tested on admission, 17% of doctors and 19% of nurses thought they should be isolated in hospital. One in three staff perceived themselves at risk of HIV. Midwives, nurses, and theatre technicians were most aware of guidelines for safe working compared with only half of doctors, ambulance, and paramedical staff and no incinerator staff. CONCLUSIONS--Policy guidelines for safe working practices for patients with HIV infection and AIDS need to be disseminated across all occupational groups to reduce negative staff attitudes, improve knowledge of occupational transmission, establish an appropriate perception of risk, and create a supportive and caring hospital environment for people with HIV. IMPLICATIONS--Managers need to disseminate policy guidelines and information to all staff on an ongoing basis. (+info)
Hospital pharmacists' participation in audit in the United Kingdom.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate systematically participation in audit of NHS hospital pharmacists in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Questionnaire census survey. SETTING: All NHS hospital pharmacies in the UK providing clinical pharmacy services. SUBJECTS: 462 hospital pharmacies. MAIN MEASURES: Extent and nature of participation in medical, clinical, and pharmacy audits according to hospital management and teaching status, educational level and specialisation of pharmacists, and perceived availability of resources. RESULTS: 416 questionnaires were returned (response rate 90%). Pharmacists contributed to medical audit in 50% (204/410) of hospitals, pharmacy audit in 27% (108/404), and clinical audit in only 7% (29/404). Many pharmacies (59% (235/399)) were involved in one or more types of audit but few (4%, (15/399)) in all three. Participation increased in medical and pharmacy audits with trust status (medical audit: 57% (65/115) trust hospital v 47% (132/281) non-trust hospital; pharmacy audit: 34% (39/114) v 24% (65/276)) and teaching status (medical audit: 58% (60/104) teaching hospital v 47% (130/279) non-teaching hospital; pharmacy audit 30% (31/104) v 25% (68/273)) and similarly for highly qualified pharmacists (MPhil or PhD, MSc, diplomas) (medical audit: 54% (163/302) with these qualifications v 38% (39/103) without; pharmacy audit: 32% (95/298) v 13% (13/102)) and specialists pharmacists (medical audit: 61% (112/184) specialist v 41% (90/221) non-specialist; pharmacy audit: 37% (67/182) v 19% (41/218)). Pharmacies contributing to medical audit commonly provided financial information on drug use (86% 169/197). Pharmacy audits often concentrated on audit of clinical pharmacy services. CONCLUSION: Pharmacists are beginning to participate in the critical evaluation of health care, mainly in medical audit. (+info)
Evidence for validity of a health status measure in assessing short term outcomes of cholecystectomy.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of the Nottingham health profile (NHP) as an indicator of short term outcome of cholecystectomy. DESIGN: Prospective assessment of outcome. SETTING: One teaching hospital. Patients--161 consecutive patients admitted for cholecystectomy between January 1989 and September 1990. MAIN MEASURES: Patients' reported symptoms and self assessed NHP scores before cholecystectomy and at follow up at three and 12 months (76 patients); assessment before admission (19). RESULTS: Complete data were obtained preoperatively and at three months' follow up from 154 patients; seven did not respond to the follow up questionnaire. 76/84(90%) patients in the study 12 months or more answered the 12 month follow up questionnaire; eight did not respond. Significant changes in score before and at three months after the operation were observed for four of the six dimensions: energy (35.34 v 19.53, p < 0.0001), pain (27.38 v 9.8, p < 0.0001), sleep (26.99 v 17.51, p = 0.0002), and emotional reactions (16.12 v 7.56, p = 0.001). The mean scores for 76 patients followed up at three and 12 months showed little subsequent change. Scores in readmitted patients were all significantly higher, suggesting poor health. Patients with five reported symptoms had significantly worse scores for all dimensions. Scores were similar before cholecystectomy whether the questionnaire was completed before or after admission. CONCLUSION: The NHP is an appropriate tool for monitoring changes in health after cholecystectomy. (+info)
Improving management of asthma: closing the loop or progressing along the audit spiral?
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the management of asthma has improved from three consecutive surveys. DESIGN: Retrospective case note survey of acute asthma admissions in 1983 and 1989; case notes selected from 1985-6 survey of prospectively identified patients to include only patients with a final discharge code of asthma. SETTING: A large city teaching hospital. Patients--101 patients with acute asthma as the primary diagnosis in 1983; 85 in 1985-6; and 133 in 1989, 14 of whom were subsequently transferred elsewhere. MAIN MEASURES: Conformity with a checklist of important aspects of the process of asthma management including initial assessment, treatment, supervision, and discharge and review arrangements. RESULTS: All patient groups were similar in age, smoking habit, and stay in hospital and, as an objective guide to severity of asthma, had similar initial pulse rates. Major improvements occurred in management: by 1989, 119(90%) patients were treated with oral corticosteroids (69(68%), 67(79%) in 1983, 1985-6 respectively) and 109(82%) with oxygen (62(61%), 51(60%)) (both p < 0.001). 114(86%) had regular recording of peak flow measurements (53(52%), 54(64%); p < 0.001), and 103/119(86%) were discharged taking oral corticosteroids (66(65%), 63(74%); p < 0.01). Significantly fewer patients, however, had their regular inhaled corticosteroid treatment increased on discharge (38/119(32%) v 53(52%), 39(46%); p < 0.01), but more were receiving high dose inhaled treatment on admission. CONCLUSIONS: The management of asthma improved significantly, and the normal practice of doctors has changed in an area of practice with longstanding problems. (+info)
Lack of knowledge in health professionals: a barrier to providing information to patients?
OBJECTIVE: To assess obstetricians' and midwives' knowledge of routine prenatal screening tests for fetal abnormality and factors associated with such knowledge. DESIGN: Questionnaire assessment of antenatal clinic staff. SETTING: Six hospitals within the United Kingdom (four district general hospitals in London, one district general hospital in Wales, and one teaching hospital in Wales), offering routine prenatal screening tests. SUBJECTS: 29 obstetricians and 97 midwives were invited to participate, of whom 21 and 70 respectively responded to the questionnaire. MAIN MEASURES: Knowledge of prenatal tests, according to 19 item multiple choice questionnaire, reluctance to disclose uncertainty, and clinical experience. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 72% (91/126). In all, 43% of midwives and 14% of obstetricians obtained correct responses on fewer than half the items. Reluctance to disclose uncertainty to patients was associated in obstetricians with having less knowledge about prenatal testing (r = -0.50; p < 0.025, Pearson product moment correlation) and in midwives with more clinical experience (r = 0.43; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Lack of knowledge and greater clinical experience seem to be important barriers to providing patients with information about prenatal screening tests. (+info)