Purification and some chemical properties of 30 kDa Ginkgo biloba glycoprotein, which reacts with antiserum against beta 1-->2 xylose-containing N-glycans.
From the seeds of Ginkgo biloba, a glycoprotein, which is a major component that reacts with an antiserum against beta 1-->2 xylose-containing N-glycans, has been purified and characterized. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified glycoprotein was H-K-A-N-X-V-T-V-A-F-V-M-T-Q-H-L-L-F-G-Q-. The molecular mass was estimated to be 17 kDa and 16 kDa by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions, however, the molecular mass of this glycoprotein in the native state was 30,762 by MALDI-TOF MS, suggesting that this glycoprotein consists of two subunits; one is glycosylated and the other is not. The structure of N-glycan linked to this glycoprotein (designated 30 kDa GBGP) was identified as Man3Fuc1Xyl1GlcNAc2, which is the predominant N-glycan linked to the storage glycoproteins in the same seeds (Kimura, Y et al. (1998) Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 62, 253-261). From the peptic digest of the carboxymethylated glycosylated subunit, one glycopeptide was purified by RP-HPLC and the amino acid sequence was identified as H-K-A-N-N(Man3Fuc1Xyl1Glc-NAc2)-V-T-V-A-F, which corresponded to the N-terminal amino acid sequence. (+info)
Isolation of peptides from an enzymatic hydrolysate of food proteins and characterization of their taste properties.
Soybean protein, casein, bonito protein and chicken protein, each as foodstuff protein, were hydrolyzed with four proteinases; namely, pepsin, trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin and bromelain. Since the chicken protein hydrolysate with bromelain possessed the most favorable umami taste, eleven peptides were isolated from the chicken protein hydrolysate by successive chromatography on ODS, Amberlite IR-120B, Amberlite IRA-410 and AG-50W; their structures were Asp-Ala, Asp-Val, Glu-Glu, Glu-Val, Ala-Asp-Glu, Ala-Glu-Asp, Asp-Glu-Glu, Asp-Glu-Ser, Glu-Glu-Asn, Ser-Pro-Glu, and Glu-Pro-Ala-Asp. Many of them did not show any umami taste by themselves, but Glu-Glu, Glu-Val, Ala-Asp-Glu, Ala-Glu-Asp, Asp-Glu-Glu, and Ser-Pro-Glu were recognized to enhance the umami taste of 0.02% 5'-inosine monophosphate (IMP). A combination of these peptides, especially 0.5% each of Glu-Glu, Glu-Val, Asp-Glu-Glu and Glu-Glu-Asn, with 0.02% IMP produced a delicious "full" umami taste. (+info)
Guanidinated casein hydrolysate stimulation of cholecystokinin release via pancreatic enzyme- and cholinergic-independent mechanisms in rats.
We had demonstrated that a peptic hydrolysate of guanidinated casein that is made from casein by the conversion of lysine to homoarginine stimulated pancreatic exocrine secretion in rats with chronic bile-pancreatic juice (BPJ) diversion from the proximal small intestine. This modified protein also stimulated cholecystokinin (CCK) release from dispersed rat intestinal cells. In this study, we found that guanidinated casein hydrolysate stimulates CCK release in chronic BPJ-diverted rats with cholinergic control blocked by atropine. Intraduodenal guanidinated casein hydrolysate increased portal plasma CCK concentration and pancreatic secretion in atropine-treated BPJ-diverted rats. In contrast, the portal plasma CCK concentration was not increased by intact casein hydrolysate. We conclude that guanidinated casein hydrolysate directly stimulates CCK release from the intestine via some cholinergic-independent mechanism, and an increase of the pancreatic exocrine secretion is regulated by CCK released by guanidinated casein hydrolysate. A guanidyl residue is likely to be involved in this control. (+info)
Stimulative effect of a casein hydrolysate on exocrine pancreatic secretion that is independent of luminal trypsin inhibitory activity in rats.
We have previously demonstrated that proteins could stimulate pancreatic secretion independently of luminal bile-pancreatic juice (BPJ) in a BPJ-diverted rat. To determine whether luminal protease-independent pancreatic secretion occurs in normal rats with BPJ returned to the upper small intestine, we investigated the pancreatic secretory response to intraduodenal instillation of a casein hydrolysate or the synthetic trypsin inhibitor, FOY 305, at concentrations which could almost equally inhibit hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate for trypsin with the luminal content. FOY 305 at 10 micrograms/ml and casein hydrolysate solutions at both 100 and 200 mg/ml similarly inhibited approx. 80% of the tryptic activity in the luminal contents of the proximal small intestine. Intraduodenal administration of casein hydrolysate solutions (100 and 200 mg/ml) significantly increased pancreatic secretion in a dose-dependent manner. However, intraduodenal administration of FOY 305 (10 micrograms/ml) was ineffective for stimulating pancreatic secretion. These results demonstrate that dietary protein enhances pancreatic secretion independently of the masking of luminal trypsin activity in rats. (+info)
Oral administration of (14)C labeled gelatin hydrolysate leads to an accumulation of radioactivity in cartilage of mice (C57/BL).
Several investigations showed a positive influence of orally administered gelatin on degenerative diseases of the musculo-skeletal system. Both the therapeutic mechanism and the absorption dynamics, however, remain unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the time course of gelatin hydrolysate absorption and its subsequent distribution in various tissues in mice (C57/BL). Absorption of (14)C labeled gelatin hydrolysate was compared to control mice administered (14)C labeled proline following intragastric application. Plasma and tissue radioactivity was measured over 192 h. Additional "gut sac" experiments were conducted to quantify the MW distribution of the absorbed gelatin using SDS-electrophoresis and HPLC. Ninety-five percent of enterally applied gelatin hydrolysate was absorbed within the first 12 h. The distribution of the labeled gelatin in the various tissues was similar to that of labeled proline with the exception of cartilage, where a pronounced and long-lasting accumulation of gelatin hydrolysate was observed. In cartilage, measured radioactivity was more than twice as high following gelatin administration compared to the control group. The absorption of gelatin hydrolysate in its high molecular form, with peptides of 2.5-15kD, was detected following intestinal passage. These results demonstrate intestinal absorption and cartilage tissue accumulation of gelatin hydrolysate and suggest a potential mechanism for previously observed clinical benefits of orally administered gelatin. (+info)
Induction of beta-lactamase influences the course of development in Myxococcus xanthus.
Myxococcus xanthus is a gram-negative bacterium that develops in response to starvation on a solid surface. The cells assemble into multicellular aggregates in which they differentiate from rod-shaped cells into spherical, environmentally resistant spores. Previously, we have shown that the induction of beta-lactamase is associated with starvation-independent sporulation in liquid culture (K. A. O'Connor and D. R. Zusman, Mol. Microbiol. 24:839-850, 1997). In this paper, we show that the chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase of M. xanthus is autogenously induced during development. The specific activity of the enzyme begins to increase during aggregation, before spores are detectable. The addition of inducers of beta-lactamase in M. xanthus, such as ampicillin, D-cycloserine, and phosphomycin, accelerates the onset of aggregation and sporulation in developing populations of cells. In addition, the exogenous induction of beta-lactamase allows M. xanthus to fruit on media containing concentrations of nutrients that are normally too high to support development. We propose that the induction of beta-lactamase is an integral step in the development of M. xanthus and that this induction is likely to play a role in aggregation and in the restructuring of peptidoglycan which occurs during the differentiation of spores. In support of this hypothesis, we show that exogenous induction of beta-lactamase can rescue aggregation and sporulation of certain mutants. Fruiting body spores from a rescued mutant are indistinguishable from wild-type fruiting body spores when examined by transmission electron microscopy. These results show that the signal transduction pathway leading to the induction of beta-lactamase plays an important role in aggregation and sporulation in M. xanthus. (+info)
Maximizing postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis: carbohydrate supplementation and the application of amino acid or protein hydrolysate mixtures.
BACKGROUND: Postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis is an important factor in determining the time needed to recover from prolonged exercise. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether an increase in carbohydrate intake, ingestion of a mixture of protein hydrolysate and amino acids in combination with carbohydrate, or both results in higher postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis rates than does ingestion of 0.8 g*kg(-)(1)*h(-)(1) carbohydrate, provided at 30-min intervals. DESIGN: Eight trained cyclists visited the laboratory 3 times, during which a control beverage and 2 other beverages were tested. After the subjects participated in a strict glycogen-depletion protocol, muscle biopsy samples were collected. The subjects received a beverage every 30 min to ensure ingestion of 0.8 g carbohydrate*kg(-)(1)*h(-)(1) (Carb trial), 0.8 g carbohydrate*kg(-)(1)*h(-)(1) plus 0.4 g wheat protein hydrolysate plus free leucine and phenylalanine*kg(-)(1)*h(-)(1) (proven to be highly insulinotropic; Carb + Pro trial), or 1.2 g carbohydrate*kg(-)(1)*h(-)(1) (Carb + Carb trial). After 5 h, a second biopsy was taken. RESULTS: Plasma insulin responses in the Carb + Pro and Carb + Carb trials were higher than those in the Carb trial (88 +/- 17% and 46 +/- 18%; P < 0.05). Muscle glycogen synthesis was higher in both trials than in the Carb trial (35. 4 +/- 5.1 and 44.8 +/- 6.8 compared with 16.6 +/- 7.8 micromol glycosol units*g dry wt(-)(1)*h(-)(1), respectively; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Addition of a mixture of protein hydrolysate and amino acids to a carbohydrate-containing solution (at an intake of 0.8 g carbohydrate*kg(-)(1)*h(-)(1)) can stimulate glycogen synthesis. However, glycogen synthesis can also be accelerated by increasing carbohydrate intake (0.4 g*kg(-)(1)*h(-)(1)) when supplements are provided at 30-min intervals. (+info)
Ingestion of protein hydrolysate and amino acid-carbohydrate mixtures increases postexercise plasma insulin responses in men.
To optimize the postexercise insulin response and to increase plasma amino acid availability, we studied postexercise insulin levels after the ingestion of carbohydrate and wheat protein hydrolysate with and without free leucine and phenylalanine. After an overnight fast, eight male cyclists visited our laboratory on five occasions, during which a control drink and two different beverage compositions in two different doses were tested. After they performed a glycogen-depletion protocol, subjects received a beverage (3.5 mL. kg(-1)) every 30 min to ensure an intake of 1.2 g. kg(-1). h(-1) carbohydrate and 0, 0.2 or 0.4 g. kg(-1). h(-1) protein hydrolysate (and amino acid) mixture. After the insulin response was expressed as the area under the curve, only the ingestion of the beverages containing wheat protein hydrolysate, leucine and phenylalanine resulted in a marked increase in insulin response (+52 and + 107% for the 0.2 and 0.4 g. kg(-1). h(-1) mixtures, respectively; P: < 0. 05) compared with the carbohydrate-only trial). A dose-related effect existed because doubling the dose (0.2-0.4 g. kg(-1). h(-1)) led to an additional rise in insulin response (P: < 0.05). Plasma leucine, phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations showed strong correlations with the insulin response (P: < 0.0001). This study provides a practical tool to markedly elevate insulin levels and plasma amino acid availability through dietary manipulation, which may be of great value in clinical nutrition, (recovery) sports drinks and metabolic research. (+info)