Treatment of lysosomal storage disease in MPS VII mice using a recombinant adeno-associated virus.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a genetic deficiency of beta-glucuronidase (GUS). We used a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (AAV-GUS) to deliver GUS cDNA to MPS VII mice. The route of vector administration had a dramatic effect on the extent and distribution of GUS activity. Intramuscular injection of AAV-GUS resulted in high, localized production of GUS, while intravenous administration produced low GUS activity in several tissues. This latter treatment of MPS VII mice reduced glycosaminoglycan levels in the liver to normal and reduced storage granules dramatically. We show that a single administration of AAV-GUS can provide sustained expression of GUS in a variety of cell types and is sufficient to reverse the disease phenotype at least in the liver. (+info)
The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora.
The effect on the faecal flora of adding wheat fibre to a controlled diet in four healthy volunteers for a 3-week period has been observed. No change in the concentration of the bacteria in the bacterial groups counted was found, although there was a slight increase in total output associated with increased faecal weight. The predominant organisms in all subjects were non-sporing anaerobes, but the dominant species in each subject was different and was unaffected by changing the diet. Similarly, the concentration of faecal beta-glucuronidase detected in two subjects was unaltered and the concentration of clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus found in one subject was unaltered. It is suggested that the faecal microflora is not primarily controlled by the presence of undigested food residues in the large bowel. (+info)
Anti-ulcer effects of 4'-(2-carboxyetyl) phenyl trans-4-aminomethyl cyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride (cetraxate) on various experimental gastric ulcers in rats.
Anti-ulcer effects of cetraxate, a new compound possessing anti-plasmin, anti-casein and anti-trypsin actions were investigated by using experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. Cetraxate, 300 mg/kg p.o. showed significant inhibitory effects of 65.3%, 70.0%, 30.2%, and 67.1% against aucte types of ulcers producing by aspirin, phenylbutazone, indomethacin, and pyloric ligature (Shay's ulcer), respectively. These effects were greater than those obtained by gefarnate and aluminum sucrose sulfate may be mainly attributed to the protecting action of this drug on gastric mucosa. Ctraxate further revealed remarkable inhibitory effects on chronic types of ulcers produced by acetic acid, clamping, and clamping-cortisone. In acetic acid ulcer in particular, cetraxate was found to have a dose-dependent inhibitory effect at doses over 50 mg/kg. Of test drugs including L-glutamine and methylmethionine sulfonium chloride, cetraxate showed the most remarkable inhibitory effect on beta-glucuronidase activity in ulcer tissue of these three types of ulcers. These findings suggest that cetraxate may prevent the connective tissue in the ulcer location from decomposition due to lysosomal enzymes such as beta-glucuronidase, thereby accelerating the recovery from ulcer. (+info)
Neonatal gene transfer leads to widespread correction of pathology in a murine model of lysosomal storage disease.
For many inborn errors of metabolism, early treatment is critical to prevent long-term developmental sequelae. We have used a gene-therapy approach to demonstrate this concept in a murine model of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII). Newborn MPS VII mice received a single intravenous injection with 5.4 x 10(6) infectious units of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the human beta-glucuronidase (GUSB) cDNA. Therapeutic levels of GUSB expression were achieved by 1 week of age in liver, heart, lung, spleen, kidney, brain, and retina. GUSB expression persisted in most organs for the 16-week duration of the study at levels sufficient to either reduce or prevent completely lysosomal storage. Of particular significance, neurons, microglia, and meninges of the central nervous system were virtually cleared of disease. In addition, neonatal treatment of MPS VII mice provided access to the central nervous system via an intravenous route, avoiding a more invasive procedure later in life. These data suggest that gene transfer mediated by adeno-associated virus can achieve therapeutically relevant levels of enzyme very early in life and that the rapid growth and differentiation of tissues does not limit long-term expression. (+info)
Systemic and central nervous system correction of lysosomal storage in mucopolysaccharidosis type VII mice.
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type VII patients lack functional beta-glucuronidase, leading to systemic and central nervous system dysfunction. In this study we tested whether recombinant adenovirus that encodes beta-glucuronidase (Adbetagluc), delivered intravenously and into the brain parenchyma of MPS type VII mice, could provide long-term transgene expression and correction of lysosomal distension. We also tested whether systemic treatment with the immunosuppressive anti-CD40 ligand antibody, MR-1, affected transgene expression. We found substantial plasma beta-glucuronidase activity for over 9 weeks after gene transfer in the MR-1- treated group, with subsequent decline in activity corresponding to a delayed anti-beta-glucuronidase antibody response. At 16 weeks, near wild-type amounts of beta-glucuronidase activity and striking reduction of lysosomal pathology were detected in livers from mice that had received either MR-1 cotreatment or control antibody. In the lung and kidney, beta-glucuronidase activity was markedly higher for the MR-1-treated group. beta-Glucuronidase activity in the brain persisted independently of MR-1 treatment. Activity was intense in the injected hemisphere and was also evident in the noninjected cortex and striatum, with dramatic improvements in storage deposits in areas of both hemispheres. These results indicate that prolonged enzyme expression from transgenes delivered to deficient liver and brain can mediate pervasive correction and illustrate the potential for gene therapy of MPS and other lysosomal storage diseases. (+info)
Biotransformation of curcumin through reduction and glucuronidation in mice.
Curcumin, the yellow pigment in turmeric and curry, has antioxidative and anticarcinogenic activities. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetic properties of curcumin in mice. After i.p. administration of curcumin (0.1 g/kg) to mice, about 2.25 microg/ml of curcumin appeared in the plasma in the first 15 min. One hour after administration, the levels of curcumin in the intestines, spleen, liver, and kidneys were 177.04, 26.06, 26.90, and 7.51 microg/g, respectively. Only traces (0.41 microg/g) were observed in the brain at 1 h. To clarify the nature of the metabolites of curcumin, the plasma was analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC, and two putative conjugates were observed. Treatment of the plasma with beta-glucuronidase resulted in a decrease in the concentrations of these two putative conjugates and the concomitant appearance of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) and curcumin, respectively. To investigate the nature of these glucuronide conjugates in vivo, the plasma was analyzed by electrospray. The chemical structures of these metabolites, determined by mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis, suggested that curcumin was first biotransformed to dihydrocurcumin and THC and that these compounds subsequently were converted to monoglucuronide conjugates. Because THC is one of the major metabolites of curcumin, we studied its stability at different pH values. THC was very stable in 0.1 M phosphate buffers of various pH values. Moreover, THC was more stable than curcumin in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.2 (37 degrees C). These results, together with previous findings, suggest that curcumin-glucuronoside, dihydrocurcumin-glucuronoside, THC-glucuronoside, and THC are major metabolites of curcumin in vivo. (+info)
Particle bombardment mediated transformation and GFP expression in the moss Physcomitrella patens.
There are few plants facilitated for the study of development, morphogenesis and gene expression at the cellular level. The moss Physcomitrella patens can be a very useful plant with several advantages: simple life cycle containing a major haploid gametophyte stage, easy manipulation, small genome size (6 x 10(8) bp) and high similarities with higher plants. To establish the transformation system of mosses as a model for basic plant research, a series of experiments were performed. Mosses were cultured in cellophane overlaid BCD media, transformed by particle bombardment and selected by the choice of appropriate antibiotics. Initial transformants appeared 8 d or 14 d after selection, showing different sensitivities toward the antibiotics used. Heat treatment during the preparation of particles revealed that denaturing the DNA enabled a more efficient way to deliver a transgene into the chromosome. This was proven by the increase in the number of transformants by five times in the plants with denatured DNA. In the test for the repairing capacity of mosses, 154 and 195 transformants survived from 1 d and 3 d incubations, respectively, indicating that a longer period of incubation seemed to be recommendable for better survival. The selected transformants were further analyzed at the DNA and expression level. Transformed genes were confirmed by PCR where all the transformants showed the expected size of amplification. Histochemical beta-glucuronidase (GUS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression also confirmed the integration of exogenous DNA. In a comparison of the two different forms of GFP, soluble-modified GFP (smGFP) expressed stronger signals than modified GFP (mGFP) due to its improved solubility. Confirmation of the transgene in the chloroplast transformation has improved the applicability of moss as a model system for the study of basic biological researches. (+info)
Bystander killing of tumour cells by antibody-targeted enzymatic activation of a glucuronide prodrug.
RHI-betaG-PEG, formed by linking poly(ethylene glycol)-modified beta-glucuronidase to Mab RH1, was employed to examine bystander killing of antigen-negative N1S1 rat hepatoma cells by activation of a glucuronide prodrug (BHAMG) of p-hydroxyaniline mustard (pHAM) at antigen-positive AS-30D rat hepatoma cells. Sequential treatment of cells with 10 microg ml(-1) RH1-betaG-PEG and 20 microM BHAMG was not toxic to N1S1 cells but killed 99% of AS-30D cells. Over 98% of N1S1 cells, however, were killed in mixed populations containing as few as 2% AS-30D cells after identical treatment, demonstrating an in vitro bystander effect. Subcutaneous injection of AS-30D and N1S1 cells in BALB/c nu/nu mice produced solid tumours containing both cells. Uptake of radiolabelled RH1-betaG-PEG in solid AS-30D and mixed AS-30D/N1S1 tumours was 11.6 and 9.3 times greater than a control antibody conjugate 120 h after i.v. injection. Intravenous treatment with RH1-betaG-PEG and BHAMG cured seven of seven nude mice bearing solid s.c. AS-30D tumours and significantly delayed, compared with control conjugate and prodrug treatment, the growth of mixed N1S1/AS-30D tumours with one cure, showing that targeted activation of BHAMG kills bystander tumour cells in vivo. (+info)