Postweaning performance of calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass.
Data from 403 Polled Hereford-sired calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows were used to evaluate the effects of preweaning forage environment on postweaning performance. Calves were spring-born in 1991 to 1994 and managed on either endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or common bermudagrass (BG) during the preweaning phase. After weaning, calves were shipped to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK and stratified to one of two winter stocker treatments by breed and preweaning forage; stocker treatments were winter wheat pasture (WW) or native range plus supplemental CP (NR). Each stocker treatment was terminated in March, calves grazed cool-season grasses, and calves were then moved to a feedlot phase in June. In the feedlot phase, calves were fed to approximately 10 mm fat over the 12th rib and averaged approximately 115 d on feed. When finished, calves were weighed and shipped to Amarillo, TX for slaughter. Averaged over calf breed group, calves from E+ gained faster during the stocker phase (P<.10), had lighter starting and finished weights on feed (P< .01), lighter carcass weights (P<.01), and smaller longissimus muscle areas (P<.05) than calves from BG. Calves from E+ were similar to calves from BG in feedlot ADG, percentage kidney, heart, and pelvic fat, fat thickness over 12th rib, yield grade, marbling score, and dressing percentage. Maternal heterosis was larger in calves from E+ for starting weight on feed (P<.01), finished weight (P<.10), and carcass weight (P<.16). These data suggest that few carryover effects from tall fescue preweaning environments exist, other than lighter, but acceptable, weights through slaughter. These data further suggest that the tolerance to E+ in calves from reciprocal-cross cows, expressed in weaning weights, moderated postweaning weight differences between E+ and BG compared to similar comparisons in calves from purebred cows. (+info)
Phylogenetic classification and species identification of dermatophyte strains based on DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 regions.
The mutual phylogenetic relationships of dermatophytes of the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton were demonstrated by using internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region ribosomal DNA sequences. Trichophyton spp. and Microsporum spp. form a cluster in the phylogenetic tree with Epidermophyton floccosum as an outgroup, and within this cluster, all Trichophyton spp. except Trichophyton terrestre form a nested cluster (100% bootstrap support). Members of dermatophytes in the cluster of Trichophyton spp. were classified into three groups with ITS1 homologies, with each of them being a monophyletic cluster (100% bootstrap support). The Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii-Arthroderma simii group consists of A. vanbreuseghemii, A. simii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes isolates from humans, T. mentagrophytes var. quinckeanum, Trichophyton tonsurans, and Trichophyton schoenleinii. Arthroderma benhamiae, T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei, and Trichophyton verrucosum are members of the Arthroderma benhamiae group. Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton violaceum form the T. rubrum group. This suggests that these "species" of dermatophytes have been overclassified. The ITS1 sequences of 11 clinical isolates were also determined to identify the species, and all strains were successfully identified by comparison of their base sequences with those in the ITS1 DNA sequence database. (+info)
Cloning, expression, and substrate specificity of MeCPA, a zinc carboxypeptidase that is secreted into infected tissues by the fungal entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae.
To date zinc carboxypeptidases have only been found in animals and actinomycete bacteria. A cDNA clone (MeCPA) for a novel fungal (Metarhizium anisopliae) carboxypeptidase (MeCPA) was obtained by using reverse transcription differential display polymerase chain reaction to identify pathogenicity genes. MeCPA resembles pancreatic carboxypeptidases in being synthesized as a precursor species (418 amino acids) containing a large amino-terminal fragment (99 amino acids). The mature (secreted) form of MeCPA shows closest amino acid identity to human carboxypeptidases A1 (35%) and A2 (37%). MeCPA was expressed in an insect cell line yielding an enzyme with dual A1 + A2 specificity for branched aliphatic and aromatic COOH-terminal amino acids. However, in contrast to the very broad spectrum A + B-type bacterial enzymes, MeCPA lacks B-type activity against charged amino acids. This is predictable as key catalytic residues determining the specificity of MeCPA are conserved with those of mammalian A-type carboxypeptidases. Thus, in evolutionary terms the fungal enzyme is an intermediate between the divergence of A and B forms and the differentiation of the A form into A1 and A2 isoforms. Ultrastructural immunocytochemistry of infected host (Manduca sexta) cuticle demonstrated that MeCPA participates with the concurrently produced endoproteases in procuring nutrients; an equivalent function to digestive pancreatic enzymes. (+info)
Molecular cloning and expression of the novel fungal beta-glucosidase genes from Humicola grisea and Trichoderma reesei.
A novel fungal beta-glucosidase gene (bgl4) and its homologue (bgl2) were cloned from the cellulolytic fungi Humicola grisea and Trichoderma reesei, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of H. grisea BGL4 and T. reesei BGL2 comprise 476 and 466 amino acids, respectively, and share 73.1% identity. These beta-glucosidases show significant homology to plant beta-glucosidases belonging to the beta-glucosidase A (BGA) family. Both genes were expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, and the recombinant beta-glucosidases were purified. Recombinant H. grisea BGL4 is a thermostable enzyme compared with recombinant T. reesei BGL2. In addition to beta-glucosidase activity, recombinant H. grisea BGL4 showed a significant level of beta-galactosidase activity, while recombinant T. reesei BGL2 showed weak beta-galactosidase activity. Cellulose saccharification by Trichoderma cellulases was improved by the addition of recombinant H. grisea BGL4. (+info)
Cellulolytic enzymes in culture filtrates of Rhizoctonia lamellifera.
During growth in a liquid culture containing a single soluble or an insoluble cellulosic carbon source, Rhizoctonia lamellifera released cellulolytic enzymes into the medium. These enzymes were separated by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography into seven components, three of high and four of low molecular weight. One of the components had the character of a C1 cellulase. When the components were combined they released more reducing sugars from cellulosic substrates than when used singly. (+info)
Femur osteomyelitis due to a mixed fungal infection in a previously healthy man.
We describe a previously healthy, 22-year-old man who, after a closed fracture of the femur and subsequent operation, developed chronic osteomyelitis. Within a few days, infected bone fragments, bone, and wound drainage repeatedly yielded three different filamentous fungi: Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Chalara ellisii. Histologic examination of the bone revealed septate hyphae. After sequential necrotomies of the femur and irrigation-suction drainage with added antimycotic therapy, the infection ceased and the fracture healed. This case is unique in that it is the only known instance in which a long bone was affected in an immunocompetent individual, with no evidence of any systemic infection, by a mixed population of two different Aspergillus spp. and the rare filamentous fungus C. ellisii. Environmental factors that could potentiate the infection include blood and edema fluid resulting from the surgical procedure and the presence of the osteosynthetic plate. (+info)
Lipid mobilization and acid phosphatase activity in lytic compartments during conidium dormancy and appressorium formation of Colletotrichum graminicola.
Colletotrichum graminicola, a pathogen of sorghum and corn, was investigated prior and during germination as to certain aspects of acid phosphatase activity and lipid mobilization. Ungerminated conidia cytoplasm was filled with lipid deposits, which were mobilized during the germination process. Cytochemical ultrastructural examination showed that conidia vacuoles exhibit acid phosphatase activity, which is suggestive of lytic activity. Lipid bodies, stored in the ungerminated conidia cytoplasm, were internalized by vacuoles in a process analogous to microautophagy and were apparently digested inside them. The lipid bodies disappeared and vacuoles became enlarged in conidial cells during germination. Appressoria also showed acid phosphatase activity in multiple heterogeneous vesicles which were, in most cases, juxtaposed with lipid bodies. These results suggest that the vacuolar system plays an important role during C. graminicola germination and that the initial stages of lipid metabolization are taking place inside the vacuoles. (+info)
Scopulariopsis chartarum systemic mycosis in a dog.
Scopulariopsis chartarum was reported as the agent of a multisystemic infection in a dog. The clinical syndromes in this dog with a fulminating mycotic disease mimicked those observed in dogs infected with canine distemper virus. (+info)