Larkinella insperata gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium of the phylum 'Bacteroidetes' isolated from water of a steam generator.
A Gram-negative bacterium, designated strain LMG 22510T, was isolated from water of a pharmaceutical company steam generator. The cells had a ring-like and horseshoe-shaped morphology and possessed gliding motility. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the strain was a member of the Flexibacter group within the phylum 'Bacteroidetes'; its nearest neighbour was Spirosoma linguale (88.8 % sequence similarity). DNA base content, fatty acid composition and biochemical characteristics were determined. Genotypic and phenotypic data indicated that strain LMG 22510T could not be assigned to any recognized genus; therefore, a novel genus and species is proposed, Larkinella insperata gen. nov., sp. nov., with LMG 22510T (= NCIMB 14103T) as the type strain. (+info
Transfer of [Flexibacter] sancti, [Flexibacter] filiformis, [Flexibacter] japonensis and [Cytophaga] arvensicola to the genus Chitinophaga and description of Chitinophaga skermanii sp. nov.
Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of species currently assigned to the genus Flexibacter has shown extensive intrageneric phylogenetic heterogeneity. It has been shown in previous studies that the species [Flexibacter] sancti, [Flexibacter] filiformis and [Flexibacter] japonensis were most closely related to Chitinophaga pinensis. In addition, [Cytophaga] arvensicola and species of the genus Terrimonas also clustered into this phylogenetic group. Although the similarities of 16S rRNA gene sequences were low (88.5-96.4 %), there is no evidence for clear phenotypic differences between these organisms that justify assignment to different genera. A proposal is made to transfer these species to the genus Chitinophaga as Chitinophaga sancti comb. nov., Chitinophaga filiformis comb. nov., Chitinophaga japonenis comb. nov. and Chitinophaga arvensicola comb. nov. on the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic data. Furthermore, a novel species is described within this genus, Chitinophaga skermanii sp. nov., with strain CC-SG1B(T) (=CCUG 52510(T)=CIP 109140(T)) as the type strain. (+info
Fulvivirga kasyanovii gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from seawater in a mussel farm.
A novel, strictly aerobic, heterotrophic, gliding, Gram-negative, oxidase-, catalase-, beta-galactosidase- and alkaline phosphatase-positive marine bacterium, designated strain KMM 6220(T), was isolated from seawater and studied by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The DNA G+C content of strain KMM 6220(T) was 59.9 mol%. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 1), iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH, iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH and C(16 : 1)omega7/iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that strain KMM 6220(T) formed a cluster with the misclassified strains [Flexibacter] aggregans NBRC 15974 and [Flexibacter] tractuosus NBRC 16035 and with the type strains of Reichenbachiella agariperforans and Roseivirga ehrenbergii with levels of similarity of 95.9, 94.4, 92.0 and 91.8 %, respectively. On the basis of its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain KMM 6220(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the phylum Bacteroidetes, for which the name Fulvivirga kasyanovii gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is KMM 6220(T) (=CCTCC AB 206119(T)=KCTC 12832(T)). (+info
Reclassification of Flexibacter aggregans (Lewin 1969) Leadbetter 1974 as a later heterotypic synonym of Flexithrix dorotheae Lewin 1970.
The taxonomic relationship between [Flexibacter] aggregans IAM 14894(T) and Flexithrix dorotheae NBRC 15987(T) was investigated by means of DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic characteristics. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that Flexibacter aggregans (Lewin 1969) Leadbetter 1974 be considered a later heterotypic synonym of Flexithrix dorotheae Lewin 1970. Emended descriptions of the species Flexithrix dorotheae and the genus Flexithrix are also given. (+info
Effect of an acute necrotic bacterial gill infection and feed deprivation on the metabolic rate of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.
In this study, experiments were conducted to examine the effect of an acute necrotic bacterial gill infection on the metabolic rate (M(O2)) of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Fed and unfed Atlantic salmon smolts were exposed to a high concentration (5 x 10(12) CFU ml(-1)) of the bacteria Tenacibaculum maritimum, their routine and maximum metabolic rates (M(O2rout) and M(O2max), respectively) were measured, and relative metabolic scope determined. A significant decrease in metabolic scope was found for both fed and unfed infected groups. Fed infected fish had a mean +/- standard error of the mean (SEM) decrease of 2.21 +/- 0.97 microM O2 g(-1) h(-1), whilst unfed fish a mean +/- SEM decrease of 3.16 +/- 1.29 microM O2 g(-1) h(-1). The decrease in metabolic scope was a result of significantly increased M(O2rout) of both fed and unfed infected salmon. Fed infected fish had a mean +/- SEM increase in M(O2rout) of 1.86 +/- 0.66 microM O2 g(-1) h(-1), whilst unfed infected fish had a mean +/- SEM increase of 2.16 +/- 0.72 microM O2 g(-1) h(-1). Interestingly, all groups maintained M(O2max) regardless of infection status. Increases in M(O2rout) corresponded to a significant increase in blood plasma osmolality. A decrease in metabolic scope has implications for how individuals allocate energy; fish with smaller metabolic scope will have less energy to allocate to functions such as growth, reproduction and immune response, which may adversely affect the efficiency of fish growth. (+info
Solitalea koreensis gen. nov., sp. nov. and the reclassification of [Flexibacter] canadensis as Solitalea canadensis comb. nov.
Reclassification of Flexibacter tractuosus (Lewin 1969) Leadbetter 1974 and 'Microscilla sericea' Lewin 1969 in the genus Marivirga gen. nov. as Marivirga tractuosa comb. nov. and Marivirga sericea nom. rev., comb. nov.
Reproductive fitness and dietary choice behavior of the genetic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans under semi-natural conditions.