Views of managed care--a survey of students, residents, faculty, and deans at medical schools in the United States.
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Views of managed care among academic physicians and medical students in the United States are not well known. In 1997, we conducted a telephone survey of a national sample of medical students (506 respondents), residents (494), faculty members (728), department chairs (186), directors of residency training in internal medicine and pediatrics (143), and deans (105) at U.S. medical schools to determine their experiences in and perspectives on managed care. The overall rate of response was 80.1 percent. RESULTS: Respondents rated their attitudes toward managed care on a 0-to-10 scale, with 0 defined as "as negative as possible" and 10 as "as positive as possible." The expressed attitudes toward managed care were negative, ranging from a low mean (+/-SD) score of 3.9+/-1.7 for residents to a high of 5.0+/-1.3 for deans. When asked about specific aspects of care, fee-for-service medicine was rated better than managed care in terms of access (by 80.2 percent of respondents), minimizing ethical conflicts (74.8 percent), and the quality of the doctor-patient relationship (70.6 percent). With respect to the continuity of care, 52.0 percent of respondents preferred fee-for-service medicine, and 29.3 percent preferred managed care. For care at the end of life, 49.1 percent preferred fee-for-service medicine, and 20.5 percent preferred managed care. With respect to care for patients with chronic illness, 41.8 percent preferred fee-for-service care, and 30.8 percent preferred managed care. Faculty members, residency-training directors, and department chairs responded that managed care had reduced the time they had available for research (63.1 percent agreed) and teaching (58.9 percent) and had reduced their income (55.8 percent). Overall, 46.6 percent of faculty members, 26.7 percent of residency-training directors, and 42.7 percent of department chairs reported that the message they delivered to students about managed care was negative. CONCLUSIONS: Negative views of managed care are widespread among medical students, residents, faculty members, and medical school deans. (+info)
The role of curriculum in influencing students to select generalist training: a 21-year longitudinal study.
To determine if specific curricula or backgrounds influence selection of generalist careers, the curricular choices of graduates of Mount Sinai School of Medicine between 1970 and 1990 were reviewed based on admission category. Students were divided into three groups: Group 1, those who started their first year of training at the School of Medicine; Group 2, those accepted with advanced standing into their third year of training from the Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, a five-year program developed to select and produce students likely to enter primary care fields; and Group 3, those accepted with advanced standing into the third year who spent the first two years at a foreign medical school. All three groups took the identical last two years of clinical training at the School of Medicine. These were no significant differences with respect to initial choice of generalist training programs among all three groups, with 46% of the total cohort selecting generalist training. Of those students who chose generalist programs, 58% in Group 1, 51% in Group 2, and 41% in Group 3 remained in these fields rather than progressing to fellowship training. This difference was significant only with respect to Group 3. However, when an analysis was performed among those students providing only primary care as compared to only specialty care, there were no significant differences. Analysis by gender revealed women to be more likely to select generalist fields and remain in these fields without taking specialty training (P < .0001). Differentiating characteristics with respect to choosing generalist fields were not related to either Part I or Part II scores on National Board Examinations or selection to AOA. However, with respect to those specific specialties considered quite competitive (general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, and ophthalmology), total test scores on Part I and Part II were significantly higher than those of all other students. The analysis indicated that, despite the diverse characteristics of students entering the third year at the School of Medicine, no one group produced a statistically greater proportion of generalists positions than any other, and academic performance while in medical school did not have a significant influence on whether a student entered a generalist field. (+info)
Bridging the gap between managed care and academic medicine: an innovative fellowship.
Numerous challenges face academic medicine in the era of managed care. This environment is stimulating the development of innovative educational programs that can adapt to changes in the healthcare system. The U.S. Quality Algorithms Managed Care Fellowship at Jefferson Medical College is one response to these challenges. Two postresidency physicians are chosen as fellows each year. The 1-year curriculum is organized into four 3-month modules covering such subjects as biostatistics and epidemiology, medical informatics, the theory and practice of managed care, managed care finance, integrated healthcare systems, quality assessment and improvement, clinical parameters and guidelines, utilization management, and risk management. The fellowship may serve as a possible prototype for future post-graduate education. (+info)
Impact factors: use and abuse in biomedical research.
Impact factors are increasingly being used as measures in the process of academic evaluation; however, the pitfalls associated with such use of impact factors are not always appreciated. Impact factors have limited use as criteria in determining the quality of scientific research. Classical anatomists may be actively discriminated against if journal impact factors are used as measures of scientific merit in comparison with colleagues in more popular or faster-moving disciplines such as molecular biology. Research evaluation based on citation rates and journal impact factors is inappropriate, unfair, and an increasing source of frustration. (+info)
Establishing radiologic image transmission via a transmission control protocol/Internet protocol network between two teaching hospitals in Houston.
The technical and management considerations necessary for the establishment of a network link between computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) networks of two geographically separated teaching hospitals are presented. The University of Texas Medical School at Houston Department of Radiology provides radiology residency training at its primary teaching hospital and at a second county-run hospital located approximately 12 miles away. A direct network link between the two hospitals was desired to permit timely consultative services to residents and professional colleagues. The network link was established by integrating the county hospital free-standing imaging network into the network infrastructure of the Medical School and the main teaching hospital. Technical issues involved in the integration were reassignment of internet protocol (IP) addresses, determination of data transmission protocol compatibilities, proof of connectivity and image transmission, transmission speeds and network loading, and management of the new network. These issues were resolved in a planned stepwise fashion and despite the fact that the system has a rate-limiting T1 segment between the county hospital and the teaching hospital the transmission speed was deemed suitable. The project has proven successful and can provide a guide for planning similar projects elsewhere. It has in fact made possible several new services for the teaching and research activities of the department's faculty and residents, which were not envisaged before the implementation of this connection. (+info)
Patterns of use and satisfaction with a university-based teleradiology system.
The Radiology Department at the University of Arizona has been operating a teleradiology program for almost 2 years. The goal of this project was to characterize the types of cases reviewed, to assess radiologists' satisfaction with the program, and to examine case turnaround times. On average, about 50 teleradiology cases are interpreted each month. Computed tomography (CT) cases are the most common type of case, constituting 65% of the total case volume. Average turnaround time (to generate a "wet read" once a case is received) is about 1.3 hours. Image quality was rated as generally good to excellent, and the user interface as generally good. Radiologists' confidence in their diagnostic decisions is about the same as reading films in the clinical environment. The most common reason for not being able to read teleradiology images is poor image quality, followed by lack of clinical history and not enough images. (+info)
Chaos reigns at medical schools over hepatitis B testing.
Health Canada guidelines require that all physicians be immunized against hepatitis B--a policy that the CMA opposes. Where does that leave medical students? (+info)
Computing for the next millennium.
Computer technology has changed our lives, even that of physicians. In a few years time, a physician can expect to have a new tool by the bedside: a hand-held computer small enough to put into a pocket and powerful enough for all everyday activities, including highly specialized and sophisticated activities such as prevention of adverse drug reactions. The Croatian Academic and Research Network (CARNet) was crucial in bringing the benefits of the information technology to the Croatian scientists. At the Split University School of Medicine, we started the Virtual Medical School project, which now also includes the Mostar University School of Medicine in neighboring Bosnia and Herzegovina. Virtual Medical School aims to promote free dissemination of medical knowledge by creating medical education network as a gateway to the Internet for health care professionals. (+info)