Isolation of pigment-binding early light-inducible proteins from pea.
The early light-inducible proteins (ELIPs) in chloroplasts possess a high sequence homology with the chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins but differ from those proteins by their substoichiometric and transient appearance. In the present study ELIPs of pea were isolated by a two-step purification strategy: perfusion chromatography in combination with preparative isoelectric focussing. Two heterogeneous populations of ELIPs were obtained after chromatographic separation of solubilized thylakoid membranes using a weak anion exchange column. One of these populations contained ELIPs in a free form providing the first isolation of these proteins. To prove whether the isolated and pure forms of ELIP bind pigments, spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis were performed. Absorption spectra and TLC revealed the presence of chlorophyll a and lutein. Measurements of steady-state fluorescence emission spectra at 77 K exhibited a major peak at 674 nm typical for chlorophyll a bound to the protein matrix. The action spectrum of the fluorescence emission measured at 674 nm showed several peaks originating mainly from chlorophyll a. It is proposed that ELIPs are transient chlorophyll-binding proteins not involved in light-harvesting but functioning as scavengers for chlorophyll molecules during turnover of pigment-binding proteins. (+info)
Cloning and characterization of TPE4A, a thiol-protease gene induced during ovary senescence and seed germination in pea.
A cDNA clone encoding a thiol-protease (TPE4A) was isolated from senescent ovaries of pea (Pisum sativum) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The deduced amino acid sequence of TPE4A has the conserved catalytic amino acids of papain. It is very similar to VSCYSPROA, a thiol-protease induced during seed germination in common vetch. TPE4A mRNA levels increase during the senescence of unpollinated pea ovaries and are totally suppressed by treatment with gibberellic acid. In situ hybridization indicated that TPE4A mRNA distribution in senescent pea ovaries is different from that of previously reported thiol-proteases induced during senescence, suggesting the involvement of different proteases in the mobilization of proteins from senescent pea ovaries. TPE4A is also induced during the germination of pea seeds, indicating that a single protease gene can be induced during two different physiological processes, senescence and germination, both of which require protein mobilization. (+info)
Involvement of a chloroplast homologue of the signal recognition particle receptor protein, FtsY, in protein targeting to thylakoids.
We isolated an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA whose translated product shows sequence similarity to the FtsY, a bacterial homologue of SRP receptor protein. The Arabidopsis FtsY homologue contains a typical chloroplast transit peptide. The in vitro-synthesized 37 kDa FtsY homologue was imported into chloroplasts, and the processed 32 kDa polypeptide bound peripherally on the outer surface of thylakoids. Antibodies raised against the FtsY homologue also reacted with a thylakoid-bound 32 kDa protein. The antibodies inhibited the cpSRP-dependent insertion of the light-harvesting chlorophyll alb-binding protein into thylakoid membranes suggesting that the chloroplast FtsY homologue is involved in the cpSRP-dependent protein targeting to the thylakoid membranes. (+info)
Light-dependent changes in redox status of the plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and its regulatory component.
Plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase; EC 18.104.22.168), which catalyses the synthesis of malonyl-CoA and is the regulatory enzyme of fatty acid synthesis, is activated by light, presumably under redox regulation. To obtain evidence of redox regulation in vivo, the activity of ACCase was examined in pea chloroplasts isolated from plants kept in darkness (dark-ACCase) or after exposure to light for 1 h (light-ACCase) in the presence or absence of a thiol-reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT). The protein level was similar for light-ACCase and dark-ACCase, but the activity of light-ACCase in the absence of DTT was approx. 3-fold that of dark-ACCase. The light-ACCase and dark-ACCase were activated approx. 2-fold and 6-fold by DTT respectively, indicating that light-ACCase was in a much more reduced, active form than the dark-ACCase. This is the first demonstration of the light-dependent reduction of ACCase in vivo. Measurement of the activities of ACCase, carboxyltransferase and biotin carboxylase in the presence and absence of DTT, and the thiol-oxidizing agent, 5, 5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic) acid, revealed that the carboxyltransferase reaction, but not the biotin carboxylase reaction, was redox-regulated. The cysteine residue(s) responsible for redox regulation probably reside on the carboxyltransferase component. Measurement of the pH dependence of biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase activities in the ACCase suggested that both components affect the activity of ACCase in vivo at a physiological pH range. These results suggest that the activation of ACCase by light is caused partly by the pH-dependent activation of two components and by the reductive activation of carboxyltransferase. (+info)
Bacterial proteins carrying twin-R signal peptides are specifically targeted by the delta pH-dependent transport machinery of the thylakoid membrane system.
Glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR), a periplasmic protein of Zymomonas mobilis, is synthesized as a precursor polypeptide with a twin-R signal peptide for Sec-independent protein export in bacteria. In higher plant chloroplasts, twin-R signal peptides are specific targeting signals for the Sec-independent delta pH pathway of the thylakoid membrane system. In agreement with the assumed common phylogenetic origin of the two protein transport mechanisms, GFOR can be efficiently translocated by the delta pH-dependent pathway when analyzed with isolated thylakoid membranes. Transport is sensitive to the ionophore nigericin and competes with specific substrates for the delta pH-dependent transport route. In contrast, neither sodium azide nor enzymatic destruction of the nucleoside triphosphates in the assays affects thylakoid transport of GFOR indicating that the Sec apparatus is not involved in this process. Mutagenesis of the twin-R motif in the GFOR signal peptide prevents membrane translocation of the protein emphasizing the importance of these residues for the transport process. (+info)
Granule-bound starch synthase I in isolated starch granules elongates malto-oligosaccharides processively.
Isoforms of starch synthase belonging to the granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) class synthesize the amylose component of starch in plants. Other granule-bound isoforms of starch synthase, such as starch synthase II (SSII), are unable to synthesize amylose. The kinetic properties of GBSSI and SSII that are responsible for these functional differences have been investigated using starch granules from embryos of wild-type peas and rug5 and lam mutant peas, which contain, respectively, both GBSSI and SSII, GBSSI but not SSII and SSII but not GBSSI. We show that GBSSI in isolated granules elongates malto-oligosaccharides processively, adding more than one glucose molecule for each enzyme-glucan encounter. Granule-bound SSII can elongate malto-oligosaccharides, but has a lower affinity for these than GBSSI and does not elongate processively. As a result of these properties GBSSI synthesizes longer malto-oligosaccharides than SSII. The significance of these results with respect to the roles of GBSSI and SSII in vivo is discussed. (+info)
Engineering a central metabolic pathway: glycolysis with no net phosphorylation in an Escherichia coli gap mutant complemented with a plant GapN gene.
A cDNA fragment containing the Pisum sativum GapN gene, which encodes the non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, was cloned in a prokaryote expression vector. This construct enabled Escherichia coli strain W3CG, a mutant which lacks the glycolytic phosphorylating G3P dehydrogenase, to grow aerobically on sugars. The functionally complemented mutant exhibited high levels of the catalytically active plant enzyme, which renders 3-phosphoglycerate and NADPH, thus bypassing the first substrate level phosphorylation step of the glycolysis. As expected if such a glycolytic bypass would be operative in vivo, this clone failed to grow anaerobically on sugars in contrast to W3CG clones complemented with phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases. According to the irreversible catabolic character of the non-phosphorylating reaction, the GapN-complemented clone was unable to grow on gluconeogenic substrates. This metabolic engineering approach demonstrates that a pure catabolic Embden-Meyerhof pathway with no net energy yield is feasible. (+info)
Characterization of molecular mobility in seed tissues: an electron paramagnetic resonance spin probe study.
The relationship between molecular mobility (tauR) of the polar spin probe 3-carboxy-proxyl and water content and temperature was established in pea axes by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and saturation transfer EPR. At room temperature, tauR increased during drying from 10(-11) s at 2.0 g water/g dry weight to 10(-4) s in the dry state. At water contents below 0.07 g water/g dry weight, tauR remained constant upon further drying. At the glass transition temperature, tauR was constant at approximately 10(-4) s for all water contents studied. Above Tg, isomobility lines were found that were approximately parallel to the Tg curve. The temperature dependence of tauR at all water contents studied followed Arrhenius behavior, with a break at Tg. Above Tg the activation energy for rotational motion was approximately 25 kJ/mol compared to 10 kJ/mol below Tg. The temperature dependence of tauR could also be described by the WLF equation, using constants deviating considerably from the universal constants. The temperature effect on tauR above Tg was much smaller in pea axes, as found previously for sugar and polymer glasses. Thus, although glasses are present in seeds, the melting of the glass by raising the temperature will cause only a moderate increase in molecular mobility in the cytoplasm as compared to a huge increase in amorphous sugars. (+info)