A chiropractic service arrangement for musculoskeletal complaints in industry: a pilot study.
Chiropractic services are commonly used by workers with musculoskeletal problems, especially low back and neck complaints. Research into the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this approach is, however, difficult to design without prior pilot studies. This study followed 32 workers with these complaints attending one such service and used five measures of outcome over a 6-month period. These measured pain (VAS), disability (FLP), quality of life (SF-36), perceived benefit and satisfaction with care. Additionally, sickness costs to the companies were recorded over two years encompassing the study period. Treatment utilization was also monitored. Over half the population were chronic sufferers. The effect sizes were large for pain and for seven out of eight dimensions of the SF-36 questionnaire at 6-month follow-up, although not for disability (FLP). High levels of satisfaction and perceived improvement were reported and sickness costs to the companies fell. However, the sample size in this pilot study was small and did not include controls. We would, therefore, recommend a full cost-effectiveness study incorporating a randomized trial in this area. (+info)
Back care instructions in physical therapy: a trend analysis of individualized back care programs.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The treatment of people with low back pain often includes giving a variety of instructions about back care. The objective of our study was to explore the content and sequence of these instructions. SUBJECTS: Our database contained information on 1,151 therapy sessions for 132 patients who were treated by 21 therapists. METHODS: Hierarchical linear modeling was used to establish trends in instructions during the course of treatment. Instructions were measured by means of a registration form. RESULTS: Pain management instructions were given at the start of treatment and then decreased in later sessions. Instructions about taking care of the back in daily activities followed the same course. Exercise instructions were introduced after the start of treatment and were spread evenly across the visits. The number of recommendations about general fitness decreased during treatment. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The majority of back care instructions were spread evenly across therapy visits. Relatively little variation in instructions among patients was seen, which may indicate a lack of individualization of the back care programs. (+info)
A new gatekeeper for back pain.
Managed care programs have evolved in response to the escalating costs of healthcare in the United States. Expenses related to back pain represent a significant portion of these costs. Chiropractic physicians handle more back pain visits than do medical doctors and are playing an increasing role in the management of neuromusculoskeletal problems in general. Furthermore, chiropractic patients are more satisfied with their care than are patients of family physicians. A number of studies have shown chiropractic medicine to have high efficacy and cost-effectiveness. Its utilization for neuromusculoskeletal problems in the managed care setting may well offer competitive advantages. Using chiropractic physicians as gatekeepers for back pain would result in more expedient movement through the algorithmic process and facilitate treatment of the patient with acute back pain. Many medical facilities are enhancing their services by utilizing chiropractic physicians as gatekeepers for the diagnosis and treatment of neuromusculoskeletal disorders. (+info)
The assessment of appropriate indications for laminectomy.
We have developed criteria to determine the appropriate indications for lumbar laminectomy, using the standard procedure developed at the RAND corporation and the University of California at Los Angeles (RAND-UCLA). A panel of five surgeons and four physicians individually assessed 1000 hypothetical cases of sciatica, back pain only, symptoms of spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, miscellaneous indications or the need for repeat laminectomy. For the first round each member of the panel used a scale ranging from 1 (extremely inappropriate) to 9 (extremely appropriate). After discussion and condensation of the results into three categories laminectomy was considered appropriate in 11% of the 1000 theoretical scenarios, equivocal in 26% and inappropriate in 63%. There was some variation between the six categories of malalignment, but full agreement in 64% of the hypothetical cases. We applied these criteria retrospectively to the records of 196 patients who had had surgical treatment for herniated discs in one Swiss University hospital. We found that 48% of the operations were for appropriate indications, 29% for equivocal reasons and that 23% were inappropriate. The RAND-UCLA method is a feasible, useful and coherent approach to the study of the indications for laminectomy and related procedures, providing a number of important insights. Our conclusions now require validation by carefully designed prospective clinical trials, such as those which are used for new medical techniques. (+info)
Pharmacokinetics of glycosylated recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (lenograstim) in healthy male volunteers.
AIMS: The aim of this open, randomised, crossover, parallel-group study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and neutrophil responses of lenograstim when administered subcutaneously (s.c.) and intravenously (i.v.). METHODS: A total of 27 healthy male volunteers was recruited. Lenograstim doses (0.5, 2, 5, or 10 microg kg(-1)) were administered s.c. or i.v. once-daily for 5 days, and then, after a 10-day washout period, vice versa for a further 5 days. Lenograstim concentrations and absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) were measured predosing and postdosing on days 1 and 5. RESULTS: Maximum serum concentrations of lenograstim were higher following i.v. dosing (mean 5.2-185.5 vs 0.7-30.0 ng ml(-1) after s.c. dosing on day 1) and attained sooner (median 0.5-0.8 vs 4.7-8.7 h on day 1). However, apparent elimination half-lives of lenograstim were longer following s.c. dosing (mean 2.3-3.3 vs 0.8-1.2 h after i.v. dosing on days 1 and 5). ANCs increased in a dose-dependent manner with both routes of lenograstim, but more prolonged rises and higher ANC peaks were attained following s.c. doses. ANCs peaked on day 6 following 5 microg kg(-1) s.c. doses (mean peak=26.3x10(9) cells l(-1)), but on day 2 after 5 microg kg(-1) i.v. doses (mean peak = 12.4 x 10(9) cells l(-1)). Irrespective of route, the most common adverse events were headaches and back/spine pain; at doses of up to 5 microg kg(-1) these were mild and generally well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: While supporting the use of both s.c. and i.v. administered lenograstim to treat neutropenia, these results demonstrate that neutrophil responses are more sustained and prolonged with the s.c. route. (+info)
Rheumatic disease and the Australian aborigine.
OBJECTIVE: To document the frequency and disease phenotype of various rheumatic diseases in the Australian Aborigine. METHODS: A comprehensive review was performed of the archaeological, ethnohistorical, and contemporary literature relating to rheumatic diseases in these indigenous people. RESULTS: No evidence was found to suggest that rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), or gout occurred in Aborigines before or during the early stages of white settlement of Australia. Part of the explanation for the absence of these disorders in this indigenous group may relate to the scarcity of predisposing genetic elements, for example, shared rheumatoid epitope for RA, B27 antigen for AS. In contrast, osteoarthritis appeared to be common particularly involving the temporomandibular joint, right elbow and knees and, most probably, was related to excessive joint loading in their hunter gatherer lifestyle. Since white settlement, high frequency rates for rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, and pyogenic arthritis have been observed and there are now scanty reports of the emergence of RA and gout in these original Australians. CONCLUSION: The occurrence and phenotype of various rheumatic disorders in Australian Aborigines is distinctive but with recent changes in diet, lifestyle, and continuing genetic admixture may be undergoing change. An examination of rheumatic diseases in Australian Aborigines and its changing phenotype may lead to a greater understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of these disorders. (+info)
Back pain among persons working on small or family farms--eight Colorado counties, 1993-1996.
In the United States, work-related back pain often results in lost wages, reduced productivity, and increased medical costs. However, national surveillance data about these injuries, such as occupationally acquired back pain among workers on small or family farms, are limited. To characterize back pain in a farming population, researchers at Colorado State University interviewed adult farmers residing in eight northeastern Colorado counties (Larimer, Logan, Morgan, Phillips, Sedgewick, Washington, Weld, and Yuma) during 1993-1996, using the Colorado Farm Family Health and Hazard Survey (CFFHHS). This report summarizes the findings of CFFHHS, which indicate that back pain is common among farmers and most frequently attributed to repeated activities (RAs) (e.g. lifting, pushing, pulling, bending, twisting, and reaching). (+info)
Type B aortic dissection and thoracoabdominal aneurysm formation after endoluminal stent repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Endoluminal stent graft repair of abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms is being performed in increasing numbers. The long-term benefits of this technology remain to be seen. Reports have begun to appear regarding complications of stent graft application, such as renal failure, intestinal infarction, distal embolization, and rupture. Many of these complications have been associated with a fatal outcome. We describe a case of acute, retrograde, type B aortic dissection after application of an endoluminal stent graft for an asymptomatic infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. An extent I thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm subsequently developed and was successfully repaired. Aggressive evaluation of new back pain after such a procedure is warranted. Further analysis of the short-term complications and long-term outcome of this new technology is indicated before universal application can be recommended. (+info)