Specific binding of high-mobility-group I (HMGI) protein and histone H1 to the upstream AT-rich region of the murine beta interferon promoter: HMGI protein acts as a potential antirepressor of the promoter.
The high-mobility-group I (HMGI) protein is a nonhistone component of active chromatin. In this work, we demonstrate that HMGI protein specifically binds to the AT-rich region of the murine beta interferon (IFN-beta) promoter localized upstream of the murine virus-responsive element (VRE). Contrary to what has been described for the human promoter, HMGI protein did not specifically bind to the VRE of the murine IFN-beta promoter. Stably transfected promoters carrying mutations on this HMGI binding site displayed delayed virus-induced kinetics of transcription. When integrated into chromatin, the mutated promoter remained repressed and never reached normal transcriptional activity. Such a phenomenon was not observed with transiently transfected promoters upon which chromatin was only partially reconstituted. Using UV footprinting, we show that the upstream AT-rich sequences of the murine IFN-beta promoter constitute a preferential binding region for histone H1. Transfection with a plasmid carrying scaffold attachment regions as well as incubation with distamycin led to the derepression of the IFN-beta promoter stably integrated into chromatin. In vitro, HMGI protein was able to displace histone H1 from the upstream AT-rich region of the wild-type promoter but not from the promoter carrying mutations on the upstream high-affinity HMGI binding site. Our results suggest that the binding of histone H1 to the upstream AT-rich region of the promoter might be partly responsible for the constitutive repression of the promoter. The displacement by HMGI protein of histone H1 could help to convert the IFN-beta promoter from a repressed to an active state. (+info)
Alpha-bromoacryloyl derivative of distamycin A (PNU 151807): a new non-covalent minor groove DNA binder with antineoplastic activity.
PNU 151807 is a new synthetic alpha-bromoacryloyl derivative of distamycin A. In the present study we investigated the DNA interaction and the mechanism of action of this compound in parallel with the distamycin alkylating derivative, tallimustine. PNU 151807 possesses a good cytotoxic activity in in vitro growing cancer cells, even superior to that found for tallimustine. By footprinting experiments we found that PNU 151807 and tallimustine interact non-covalently with the same AT-rich DNA regions. However, differently from tallimustine, PNU 151807 failed to produce any DNA alkylation as assessed by Taq stop assay and N3 or N7-adenine alkylation assay in different DNA sequences. PNU 151807, like tallimustine, is able to induce an activation of p53, and consequently of p21 and BAX in a human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780) expressing wild-type p53. However, disruption of p53 function by HPV16-E6 does not significantly modify the cytotoxic activity of the compound. Flow cytometric analysis of cells treated with equitoxic concentrations of PNU 151807 and tallimustine showed a similar induction of accumulation of cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle but with a different time course. When tested against recombinant proteins, only the compound PNU 151807 (and not tallimustine or distamycin A) is able to abolish the in vitro kinase activity of CDK2-cyclin A, CDK2-cyclin E and cdc2-cyclin B complexes. The results obtained showed that PNU 151807 seems to have a mechanism of action completely different from that of its parent compound tallimustine, possibly involving the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases activity, and clearly indicate PNU 151807 as a new non-covalent minor groove binder with cytotoxic activity against cancer cells. (+info)
Binding of AR-1-144, a tri-imidazole DNA minor groove binder, to CCGG sequence analyzed by NMR spectroscopy.
The interactions of N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1-methyl-4-[1-methyl-4-[4-formamido-1-meth ylimidazole-2-carboxamido]imidazole-2-carboxamido]imidazole-2-c arboxa mide (AR-1-144), a tri-imidazole polyamide minor groove binder, with DNA have been investigated by NMR and CD spectroscopy. A series of DNA oligonucleotides with a C/G-containing four-bp core, i.e. CCGG, CGCG, GGCC, and GCGC, have been titrated with AR-1-144 at different ratios. AR-1-144 favors the CCGG sequence. The flanking sequence of the CCGG core also influences the binding preference, with a C or T being favored on the 3'-side of the CCGG core. The three-dimensional structure of the symmetric 2:1 side-by-side complex of AR-1-144 and GAACCGGTTC, determined by NOE-constrained NMR refinement, reveals that each AR-1-144 binds to four base pairs, i.e. at C5-G6-G7-T8, with every amide-imidazole unit forming two potential hydrogen bonds with DNA. The same DNA binding preference of AR-1-144 was also confirmed by circular dichroism spectroscopy, indicating that the DNA binding preference of AR-1-144 is independent of concentration. The cooperative binding of an AR-1-144 homodimer to the (purine)CCGG(pyrimidine) core sequence appears to be weaker than that of the distamycin A homodimer to A/T sequences, most likely due to the diminished hydrophobic interactions between AR-1-144 and DNA. Our results are consistent with previous footprinting data and explain the binding pattern found in the crystal structure of a di-imidazole drug bound to CATGGCCATG. (+info)
Distamycin A selectively inhibits Acanthamoeba RNA synthesis and differentiation.
The effects of distamycin A on Acanthamoeba transcription, growth and differentiation were determined. Distamycin A inhibits transcription both in vitro and in vivo and can displace from DNA the transcription activator TATA binding protein promoter binding factor (TPBF). Inhibition in vivo is surprisingly selective for large rRNA precursors, 5S rRNA, profilin, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, and extendin. Transcription from the TATA binding protein (TBP), TPBF, protein disulfide isomerase, tubulin and RNA polymerase II large subunit genes is only slightly inhibited. Moreover the rate of 5S rRNA transcription eventually recovers and exceeds that of untreated cells, while profilin transcription remains inhibited. Distamycin A inhibition is accompanied by a complex pattern of alterations to steady state levels of mRNAs. Actin, profilin and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase mRNAs are degraded, whereas mRNA encoding TBP is increased slightly in abundance. Transcription inhibition is accompanied by cessation of growth and severe morphological changes to Acanthamoeba, which are consistent with loss of production of mRNA encoding cytoskeletal proteins. Distamycin A also prevents starvation-induced differentiation of Acanthamoeba, in part due to complete prevention of cellulose production and cell wall formation. (+info)
DNA interactions of cisplatin tethered to the DNA minor groove binder distamycin.
Modifications of natural DNA in a cell-free medium using cisplatin tethered to the AT-specific, minor groove binder distamycin, were studied using various methods of biochemical analysis or molecular biophysics. These methods include: binding studies using differential pulse polarography and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, mapping DNA adducts using a transcription assay, use of ethidium bromide as a fluorescent probe for DNA adducts of platinum, measurement of DNA unwinding by gel electrophoresis, measurement of CD spectra, an interstrand cross-linking assay using gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions, measurement of melting curves with the aid of absorption spectrophotometry and the use of terbium ions as a fluorescent probe for distorted base pairs in DNA. The results indicate that attachment of distamycin to cisplatin changes several features of the DNA-binding mode of the parent platinum drug. Major differences comprise different conformational alterations in DNA and a considerably higher efficiency of the conjugated drug to form in DNA interstrand cross-links. Cisplatin tethered to distamycin, however, coordinates to DNA with similar base sequence preferences as the untargeted platinum drug. The results point to a unique profile of DNA binding for cisplatin-distamycin conjugates, suggesting that tethering cisplatin to minor groove oligopeptide binders may also lead to an altered biological activity profile. (+info)
The solution structure of [d(CGC)r(aaa)d(TTTGCG)](2): hybrid junctions flanked by DNA duplexes.
The solution structure and hydration of the chimeric duplex [d(CGC)r(aaa)d(TTTGCG)](2), in which the central hybrid segment is flanked by DNA duplexes at both ends, was determined using two-dimensional NMR, simulated annealing and restrained molecular dynamics. The solution structure of this chimeric duplex differs from the previously determined X-ray structure of the analogous B-DNA duplex [d(CGCAAATTTGCG)](2)as well as NMR structure of the analogous A-RNA duplex [r(cgcaaauuugcg)](2). Long-lived water molecules with correlation time tau(c)longer than 0.3 ns were found close to the RNA adenine H2 and H1' protons in the hybrid segment. A possible long-lived water molecule was also detected close to the methyl group of 7T in the RNA-DNA junction but not with the other two thymines (8T and 9T). This result correlates with the structural studies that only DNA residue 7T in the RNA-DNA junction adopts an O4'-endo sugar conformation, while the other DNA residues including 3C in the DNA-RNA junction, adopt C1'-exo or C2'-endo conformations. The exchange rates for RNA C2'-OH were found to be approximately 5-20 s(-1). This slow exchange rate may be due to the narrow minor groove width of [d(CGC)r(aaa)d(TTTGCG)](2), which may trap the water molecules and restrict the dynamic motion of hydroxyl protons. The minor groove width of [d(CGC)r(aaa)d(TTTGCG)](2)is wider than its B-DNA analog but narrower than that of the A-RNA analog. It was further confirmed by its titration with the minor groove binding drug distamycin. A possible 2:1 binding mode was found by the titration experiments, suggesting that this chimeric duplex contains a wider minor groove than its B-DNA analog but still narrow enough to hold two distamycin molecules. These distinct structural features and hydration patterns of this chimeric duplex provide a molecular basis for further understanding the structure and recognition of DNA. RNA hybrid and chimeric duplexes. (+info)
Specific binding of Hoechst 33258 to site 1 thymidylate synthase mRNA.
The translational initiator codon in thymidylate synthetase (TS) mRNA is located in a stem-loop structure with a CC bubble. TS is an important target for anticancer drugs. Aminoglycoside antibiotics have been shown to specifically bind to TS mRNA site 1 constructs and, furthermore, specific binding requires the non-duplex CC bubble region. It is shown here that DNA intercalating agents and DNA minor groove-binding drugs also bind to a TS mRNA site 1 construct. This binding is competitive with aminoglycosides, suggesting that the binding sites overlap. Hoechst 33258 binds with a dissociation constant of 60 nM, a value significantly lower than the approximately 1 microM values found for aminoglycosides. Footprinting and direct binding studies show that the CC bubble is important for binding of the Hoechst compound. However, the exact structure of the bubble is unimportant. Interestingly, mutations in regions adjacent to the bulge also affect binding. These studies point to the important role of non-duplex RNA structures in binding of the DNA minor groove binder Hoechst 33258. (+info)
Structural analysis of the complex of a distamycin analogue with the Dickerson dodecamer 13C labeled at 5'-carbons using NMR spectroscopy.
Structural analysis of the complex of a distamycin analogue (Tallimustine) with the Dickerson dodecamer d(C*G*C*G*A*A*T*T*C*G*C*G) [N*:[5'-(13)C]nucleotide] was performed by NMR spectroscopy and the results will be described in detail. (+info)