Charge pairing of headgroups in phosphatidylcholine membranes: A molecular dynamics simulation study.
Molecular dynamics simulation of the hydrated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer membrane in the liquid-crystalline phase was carried out for 5 ns to study the interaction among DMPC headgroups in the membrane/water interface region. The phosphatidylcholine headgroup contains a positively charged choline group and negatively charged phosphate and carbonyl groups, although it is a neutral molecule as a whole. Our previous study (Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, M., Y. Takaoka, H. Miyagawa, K. Kitamura, and A. Kusumi. 1997. J. Phys. Chem. 101:3677-3691) showed the formation of water cross-bridges between negatively charged groups in which a water molecule is simultaneously hydrogen bonded to two DMPC molecules. Water bridges link 76% of DMPC molecules in the membrane. In the present study we show that relatively stable charge associations (charge pairs) are formed between the positively and negatively charged groups of two DMPC molecules. Charge pairs link 93% of DMPC molecules in the membrane. Water bridges and charge pairs together form an extended network of interactions among DMPC headgroups linking 98% of all membrane phospholipids. The average lifetimes of DMPC-DMPC associations via charge pairs, water bridges and both, are at least 730, 1400, and over 1500 ps, respectively. However, these associations are dynamic states and they break and re-form several times during their lifetime. (+info)
Polarization-modulated FTIR spectroscopy of lipid/gramicidin monolayers at the air/water interface.
Monolayers of gramicidin A, pure and in mixtures with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), were studied in situ at the air/H2O and air/D2O interfaces by polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). Simulations of the entire set of amide I absorption modes were also performed, using complete parameter sets for different conformations based on published normal mode calculations. The structure of gramicidin A in the DMPC monolayer could clearly be assigned to a beta6.3 helix. Quantitative analysis of the amide I bands revealed that film pressures of up to 25-30 mN/m the helix tilt angle from the vertical in the pure gramicidin A layer exceeded 60 degrees. A marked dependence of the peptide orientation on the applied surface pressure was observed for the mixed lipid-peptide monolayers. At low pressure the helix lay flat on the surface, whereas at high pressures the helix was oriented almost parallel to the surface normal. (+info)
Multiple dysfunctions of two apolipoprotein A-I variants, apoA-I(R160L)Oslo and apoA-I(P165R), that are associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia in heterozygous carriers.
ApoA-I(R160L)Oslo and apoA-I(P165R) are naturally occurring apolipoprotein (apo) A-I variants that are associated with low HDL-cholesterol in heterozygous carriers. We characterized the capacity of these variants to bind lipid, to activate lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), and to promote efflux of biosynthetic cholesterol from porcine aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) or exogenous cholesterol from lipid-loaded mouse peritoneal macrophages. During cholate dialysis, normal apoA-I and both variants associated completely with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and formed rLpA-I of identical size. However, both apoA-I(P165R) and apoA-I(R160L)Oslo showed a reduced capacity to clear a turbid emulsion of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). Compared to normal apoA-I, the LCAT-cofactor activity of apoA-I(P165R) and apoA-I(R160L)Oslo as defined by the ratio of Vmax to appKm was reduced significantly by 62% and 29%, respectively (here and throughout the text, the apparent Km is given as Michaelis-Menten kinetics do not take particle binding into account and therefore would result in errors with an interfacial enzyme such as LCAT; Vmax estimates are not affected by this error). ApoA-I/DPPC complexes induced biphasic cholesterol efflux from SMCs with a fast and a slow efflux component. Compared to rLpA-I reconstituted with wild type apoA-I, rLpA-I with apoA-I(P165R) or apoA-I(R160L)Oslo were significantly less effective in promoting cholesterol efflux from SMCs in incubations of 10 min duration but equally effective in incubations of 6 h duration. Lipid-free apoA-I did not induce efflux of biosynthetic cholesterol from SMCs but induced hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters and cholesterol efflux from acetyl-LDL-loaded mouse peritoneal macrophages. In the lipid-free form, both apoA-I variants promoted normal cholesterol efflux from murine peritoneal macrophages. We conclude that amino acid residues arginine 160 and proline 165 of apoA-I contribute to the formation of a domain that is very important for initial lipid binding and contributes to LCAT-activation and promotion of initial cholesterol efflux but not to the stabilization of preformed rLpA-I. (+info)
Simulation study of a gramicidin/lipid bilayer system in excess water and lipid. I. Structure of the molecular complex.
This paper reports on a simulation of a gramicidin channel inserted into a fluid phase DMPC bilayer with 100 lipid molecules. Two lipid molecules per leaflet were removed to insert the gramicidin, so the resulting preparation had 96 lipid molecules and 3209 water molecules. Constant surface tension boundary conditions were employed. Like previous simulations with a lower lipid/gramicidin ratio (Woolf, T. B., and B. Roux. 1996. Proteins: Struct., Funct., Genet. 24:92-114), it is found that tryptophan-water hydrogen bonds are more common than tryptophan-phospholipid hydrogen bonds. However, one of the tryptophan NH groups entered into an unusually long-lived hydrogen bonding pattern with two glycerol oxygens of one of the phospholipid molecules. Comparisons were made between the behavior of the lipids adjacent to the channel with those farther away. It was found that hydrocarbon chains of lipids adjacent to the channel had higher-order parameters than those farther away. The thickness of the lipid bilayer immediately adjacent to the channel was greater than it was farther away. In general, the lipids adjacent to the membrane had similar orientations to those seen by Woolf and Roux, while those farther away had similar orientations to those pertaining before the insertion of the gramicidin. A corollary to this observation is that the thickness of the hydrocarbon region adjacent to the gramicidin was much thicker than what other studies have identified as the "hydrophobic length" of the gramicidin channel. (+info)
Monte Carlo simulation of two-component bilayers: DMPC/DSPC mixtures.
In this paper, we describe a relatively simple lattice model of a two-component, two-state phospholipid bilayer. Application of Monte Carlo methods to this model permits simulation of the observed excess heat capacity versus temperature curves of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC)/distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) mixtures as well as the lateral distributions of the components and properties related to these distributions. The analysis of the bilayer energy distribution functions reveals that the gel-fluid transition is a continuous transition for DMPC, DSPC, and all DMPC/DSPC mixtures. A comparison of the thermodynamic properties of DMPC/DSPC mixtures with the configurational properties shows that the temperatures characteristics of the configurational properties correlate well with the maxima in the excess heat capacity curves rather than with the onset and completion temperatures of the gel-fluid transition. In the gel-fluid coexistence region, we also found excellent agreement between the threshold temperatures at different system compositions detected in fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments and the temperatures at which the percolation probability of the gel clusters is 0.36. At every composition, the calculated mole fraction of gel state molecules at the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching threshold is 0.34 and, at the percolation threshold of gel clusters, it is 0.24. The percolation threshold mole fraction of gel or fluid lipid depends on the packing geometry of the molecules and the interchain interactions. However, it is independent of temperature, system composition, and state of the percolating cluster. (+info)
The influence of vitamin K1 on the structure and phase behaviour of model membrane systems.
Vitamin K1 is a component of the Photosystem I of plants which constitutes the major dietary form of vitamin K. The major function of this vitamin is to be cofactor of the microsomal gamma-glutamylcarboxylase. Recently, novel roles for this vitamin in the membrane have been postulated. To get insight into the influence of vitamin K1 on the phospholipid component of the membrane, we have studied the interaction between vitamin K1 and model membranes composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dielaidoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DEPE). We utilized high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry and small-angle X-ray diffraction techniques. Vitamin K1 affected the thermotropic properties of the phospholipids, broadened and shifted the transitions to lower temperatures, and produced the appearance of several peaks in the thermograms. The presence of the vitamin gave rise to the formation of vitamin-rich domains which were immiscible with the bulk phospholipid in both the gel and the liquid-crystalline phases. Vitamin K1 was unable to alter the lamellar organization of DMPC, but we found that it produced an increase in the interlamellar repeat spacing of DMPC at 10 degrees C. Interestingly, vitamin K1 promoted the formation of inverted hexagonal HII structures in the DEPE system. We discuss the possible implications that these vitamin K1-phospholipid interactions might have with respect to the biological function of the vitamin. (+info)
Analysis of simulated NMR order parameters for lipid bilayer structure determination.
Influence of anions and cations on the dipole potential of phosphatidylcholine vesicles: a basis for the Hofmeister effect.
Anions and cations have long been recognized to be capable of modifying the functioning of various membrane-related physiological processes. Here, a fluorescent ratio method using the styrylpyridinium dyes, RH421 and di-8-ANEPPS, was applied to determine the effect of a range of anions and cations on the intramembrane dipole potential of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles. It was found that certain anions cause a decrease in the dipole potential. This could be explained by binding within the membrane, in support of a hypothesis originally put forward by A. L. Hodgkin and P. Horowicz [1960, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 153:404-412.] The effectiveness of the anions in reducing the dipole potential was found to be ClO4- > SCN- > I- > NO3- > Br- > Cl- > F- > SO42-. This order could be modeled by a partitioning of ions between the membrane and the aqueous phase, which is controlled predominantly by the Gibbs free energy of hydration. Cations were also found to be capable of reducing the dipole potential, although much less efficiently than can anions. The effects of the cations was found to be trivalent > divalent > monovalent. The cation effects were attributed to binding to a specific polar site on the surface of the membrane. The results presented provide a molecular basis for the interpretation of the Hofmeister effect of lyotropic anions on ion transport proteins. (+info)